Browsing by Subject "comparison"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Kurunmäki, Jussi Antero; Marjanen, Jani (2021)
    The creation of Finland as a grand duchy within the Russian Empire in 1809 opened up the question of what Finland was, in fact. Comparing Finland synchronously with other countries and diachronically with itself before and after its elevation into a grand duchy gained temporal features in which its level of development was assessed. Such temporal comparisons during the first half of the 19th century were used to shape Finland as a political unit, as they facilitated assessment of which parts of society needed to improve in order to make the country comparable with imagined or real others. Given that the Diet (the Estate Assembly) was not convened between 1809 and 1863, these comparative notions largely dealt with questions of political constitution and state institutions. The comparative mindset of the Finnish actors also developed in the process of conducting temporal comparisons. These comparisons can be analyzed through the analytical categories of descriptive synchronization, comparative synchronization, and participative synchronization, the last mentioned being possible only when Finnish actors began to think that Finland, indeed, had developed to a level of maturity.
  • Lähteenmäki-Uutela, A.; Marimuthu, S.B.; Meijer, N. (Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 2021 7:5, 849-856
    Insects, as a food and or feed source, represent an emerging protein source relevant to farmers, feed companies, food companies and food marketers globally. The growth of this industry is somewhat restricted due to outdated food and feed regulations covering insect use. The regulations also do not allow the use of all potential insects as food and feed. Governments aim to ensure food and feed safety, and each country has its own substantive and procedural rules for this purpose. However, the regulatory demands and differences between countries complicate the international marketing strategies for insect products. Food and feed regulation are separate; feed regulation may allow insect usage even when they are not allowed as food. Some countries have specific rules for novel foods, while others do not. This paper compares insect food and feed regulation of the primary production and marketing areas: the European Union, the United States, Canada, and Australia. In addition, the situation in selected countries in Central and South America, Asia and Africa is also discussed.
  • Heinonen, Reija; Mattila, Tuomas J. (American Society of Agronomy, 2021)
    Agronomy Journal. 2021; 001−5
    Smartphone-based visual assessment of vegetation cover is a promising, fast, and repeatable approach that allows land managers to compare measurements on their farm with other farms. This study determined the influence of the smartphone device on green cover measurements on several crops. The hypothesis was that different smartphones would provide similar green cover (reflectance) for management purposes (i.e., <10% difference). Forty fields in Finland were sampled between 10 and 28 July 2020 with Motorola Moto G7 and Samsung Galaxy A6 smartphones. The results were compared also with Sentinel-2 remote sensing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and biomass quadrants. The two smartphones had different green reflectance values that were correlated to each other. Both green reflectance measurements correlated with the NDVI that was measured with the Sentinel 2 satellite sensor and biomass. These findings suggest that smartphone-based monitoring can be used at least to classify vegetation to low, medium, and high density but that results from different cameras should not be compared.
  • Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Segersson, David; López-Aparicio, Susana; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Vo, Dam Thanh; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A.C.; Brandt, Jørgen; Geels, Camilla (Elsevier, 2021)
    Atmospheric Environment, 264 (2021), 118712
    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major source of air pollutants in the Nordic and many other countries. The emissions of the pollutants have been estimated with inventories on several scopes, e.g. local and national. An important aspect of the inventories is the spatial distribution of the emissions, as it has an effect on health impact assessments. In this study, we present a novel residential wood combustion emission inventory for the Nordic countries based on national inventories and new gridding of the emissions. We compare the emissions of the Nordic inventory, and especially their spatial distribution, to local assessments and European level TNO-newRWC-inventory to assess the spatial proxies used. Common proxies used in the national inventories in the Nordic countries were building data on locations and primary heating methods and questionnaire-based wood use estimates for appliances or primary heating methods. Chimney sweeper register data was identified as good proxy data, but such data may not be available in an applicable format. Comparisons of national inventories to local assessments showed the possibility to achieve similar spatial distributions through nation-wide methods as local ones. However, this won't guarantee that the emissions are similar. Comparison to the TNO-newRWC-inventory revealed the importance of how differences between urban and rural residential wood combustion are handled. The comparison also highlighted the importance of local characteristics of residential wood combustion in the spatial distribution of emissions.
  • Gedeon, Charlotte; Sandell, Mikael; Birkemose, Inge; Kakko, Johan; Runarsdottir, Valgerdur; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Clausen, Thomas; Nyberg, Fred; Littlewood, Richard; Alho, Hannu (2019)
    Aims: Outcomes in opioid use disorder (OUD) in Nordic countries have improved with integrated treatment and harm-reduction programmes. Approaches and the standard of care are different across the region. Evidence of treatment needs and current approaches are defined from evidence to inform development of a common standard. Method: Evidence of population sizes and treatment approach collected. Common standards for care (harm reduction, pharmacotherapy, psychology/social therapy) defined for each country. Results: Evidence defines number in treatment; potential population needing treatment not defined for all countries. Populations sizes, treatment access (ratio in treatment programme compared to total country population) defined: Sweden 4,000 in OUD care (access ratio 40); Finland 3,000 (55); Norway 8,000 (154); Denmark 7,500 (132). Approach to treatment similar: integrated treatment programmes standard. Care provided by specialists in outpatient clinics/primary care; secondary care/inpatient services are available. Harm reduction is limited in Sweden but available and more accessible elsewhere. Treatment entry criteria: access relatively unlimited in Norway and Denmark, more limited in Finland and Sweden. Standards of care defined: easy access to high-quality services, individual planning, care not limited by time, management of relapse, education for patients, continuous engagement, holistic approach including management of comorbidities, needle equipment programmes without limit, treatment in prisons as community. Conclusion: There are opportunities to improve OUD care in the Nordics. Policy makers and clinicians can advance OUD care and share common success factors. Collaborative work across the Nordic countries is valuable. Further research in clinical practice development can yield important results for the benefit of patients with OUD.
  • Tiitu, Maija; Naess, Petter; Ristimäki, Mika (Taylor & Francis, 2021)
    European Planning Studies, 29:6, 1092-1112
    Situated in northern Europe, the capital regions of Helsinki, and Oslo have many similar premises concerning urban development. However, the structure of the two regions differs by many measures. We explore the differences in urban density and its development in the both regions and the policy instruments that have affected them. Differences are identified by comparing the population densities of urban settlements and the mean distances from residents and workplaces to the city centres of Oslo and Helsinki using GIS methodology and existing literature. In the Oslo region, the population density shifted from a decreasing trend to an increasing one in the late 1980s. In contrast, the Helsinki region only started to densify in the 2010s. Also, the mean distance of residents and workplaces from the city centre is farther in Helsinki. The long period of low-density housing development and the creation of jobs outside centres in Helsinki is related to weaker political steering towards a compact urban form. In Oslo, regulations such as a greenbelt policy but also physical factors, led to densification relatively early. Lagging in densification policies, Helsinki could learn from the experiences of steering land use and mobility in Oslo, which would need additional research.
  • Lundberg, Frida E.; Andersson, Therese M. -L.; Lambe, Mats; Engholm, Gerda; Morch, Lina Steinrud; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Virtanen, Anni; Pettersson, David; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J.; Birgisson, Helgi; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Lambert, Paul C. (2020)
    Background Differences in cancer survival between the Nordic countries have previously been reported. The aim of this study was to examine whether these differences in outcome remain, based on updated information from five national cancer registers. Materials and methods The data used for the analysis was from the NORDCAN database focusing on nine common cancers diagnosed 1990-2016 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden with maximum follow-up through 2017. Relative survival (RS) was estimated at 1 and 5 years using flexible parametric RS models, and percentage point differences between the earliest and latest years available were calculated. Results A consistent improvement in both 1- and 5-year RS was found for most studied sites across all countries. Previously observed differences between the countries have been attenuated. The improvements were particularly pronounced in Denmark that now has cancer survival similar to the other Nordic countries. Conclusion The reasons for the observed improvements in cancer survival are likely multifactorial, including earlier diagnosis, improved treatment options, implementation of national cancer plans, uniform national cancer care guidelines and standardized patient pathways. The previous survival disadvantage in Denmark is no longer present for most sites. Continuous monitoring of cancer survival is of importance to assess the impact of changes in policies and the effectiveness of health care systems.