Browsing by Subject "complexity"

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  • Heino, Matti T. J.; Fried, Eiko I.; LeBel, Etienne P. (2017)
  • Tanayama, Tanja (2001)
    The aim of this study was to analyse systematic differences in the processes underlying different types of innovations. Innovations were differentiated according to their technological nature, which was measured by the radicalness and the complexity of the innovations. The innovations studied were divided into radical and incremental and into complex and simple innovations. Probit models were used to analyse how the development processes underlying radical versus incremental or complex versus simple innovations differ. The theoretical framework of the study was provided by the literature on different innovation theories. The components of the innovation process in focus can be divided into innovation-specific and firm- or sector- specific factors. Innovation-specific factors were related to the origin of the innovation, collaboration during the development work and the role of public subsidies in the innovation process. Firm- and sector-specific factors in turn consisted of the knowledge base of the innovating firm, the size of the firm and the environment in which the innovation was developed. The starting point for the analysis was a unique innovation database collected by the VTT Group for Technology Studies. The database consists of basic information on some 1600 Finnish innovations commercialised in Finland mainly during the 1980s and 1990s and more detailed survey data on some 800 innovations. The analysis was based on a subgroup of this survey data, consisting of 768 innovations. Patent data and firm-level information were linked to the survey data. The results indicate the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in developing radical or complex innovations. The importance of scientific breakthroughs and new technologies as well as collaboration with universities and research centres was pronounced in the case of radical or complex innovations. On the other hand, innovations originating mainly from competitive pressure were more likely to be incremental. The role of public subsidies in research and development work was highlighted in the development of radical or complex innovations. The results also suggest that the environment in which innovations are developed has an effect on the type of innovative activity. Technological opportunities differ among sectors, which is reflected especially in the complexity of innovation. Favourable demand conditions in turn enhance the development of complex innovations, while at the same time allowing room for incremental innovations through more extensive product differentiation.
  • Jansson, Anna; Klais-Peets, Riina; Griniene, Evelina; Rubene, Gunta; Semenova, Anna; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Engstrom-Öst, Jonna (2020)
    Functional traits are becoming more common in the analysis of marine zooplankton community dynamics associated with environmental change. We used zooplankton groups with common functional properties to assess long-term trends in the zooplankton caused by certain environmental conditions in a highly eutrophicated gulf. Time series of zooplankton traits have been collected since the 1960s in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea, and were analyzed using a combination of multivariate methods (principal coordinate analysis) and generalized additive models. One of the most significant changes was the considerable increase in the amount of the zooplankton functional groups (FGR) in coastal springtime communities, and dominance shifts from more complex to simpler organism groups-cladocerans and rotifers. The results also show that functional trait organism complexity (body size) decreased considerably due to cladoceran and rotifer increase following elevated water temperature. Salinity and oxygen had negligible effects on the zooplankton community.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Nyqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Lahtinen, Sinikka (2021)
    Swedish grammatical gender is challenging for Finnish-speaking learners of Swedish due to its abstract meaning, the complex nature of Swedish NPs and the low salience of the morphology used to mark gender. Our study compares the expression of gender in texts written in Swedish by Finnish-speaking 12- and 15-year-old immersion students with that of 16-year-old non-immersion students. The results show that NPs with gender agreement, i.e. those with several morphemes marking gender, are more difficult than NPs with only one marker. In all informant groups, uter is significantly easier than neuter, but uter is also overused, as approximately 75% of all Swedish nouns are uter in modern Swedish. Comparisons between different informant groups show that non-immersion students often reach a significantly higher level of accuracy than immersion students, which indicates that formal teaching has a positive effect.
  • Kaartinen, Timo (2019)
    The article explores Islam as an element of the social and symbolic formations created in the context of long-distance trade relations in the Aru and the Kei islands of southeast Maluku. The Muslim migrants and traders who settled in the area in the early colonial period created places that served as entry points to the local, autochthonous society. Even as these sites allowed Muslims to control access to local cultural domains, they allured local people with possible access to trade wealth and mobility. By creating conceptual and tangible boundaries around the indigenous domain, early Islam anticipated the contrast between universally valid religious convictions and materially embedded cultural forms. This contrast became significant after the large-scale conversions to Christianity and Islam in the late colonial period. Islam was also transformed by its interaction with various cosmopolitan discourses, but it has remained more accommodating than Christianity towards socially embedded ritual practices and material symbols. This raises the question whether 'cultural Islam' should be defined by its neutral, apolitical attitude towards the secular state which is complicated by the fact that the culturally embedded Islam in Maluku took form in the absence of centralised state power.
  • Stoycheva, Polina Lazarova; Kauramaki, Jaakko; Newell, Fiona N.; Tiippana, Kaisa (2020)
    The left hemisphere is known to be generally predominant in verbal processing and the right hemisphere in non-verbal processing. We studied whether verbal and non-verbal lateralization is present in haptics by comparing discrimination performance between letters and nonsense shapes. We addressed stimulus complexity by introducing lower case letters, which are verbally identical with upper case letters but have a more complex shape. The participants performed a same-different haptic discrimination task for upper and lower case letters and nonsense shapes with the left and right hand separately. We used signal detection theory to determine discriminability (d '), criterion (c) and we measured reaction times. Discrimination was better for the left hand for nonsense shapes, close to significantly better for the right hand for upper case letters and with no difference between the hands for lower case letters. For lower case letters, right hand showed a strong bias to respond "different", while the left hand showed faster reaction times. Our results are in agreement with the right lateralization for non-verbal material. Complexity of the verbal shape is important in haptics as the lower case letters seem to be processed as less verbal and more as spatial shapes than the upper case letters.
  • Lehtiniemi, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Computing complex phenomena into models providing information of the causalities and future scenarios is a very topical way to present scientific information. Many claim models to be the best available tool to provide decision making with information about near-future scenarios and the action needed (Meah, 2019; Schirpke et al., 2020). This thesis studies global climate models based on objective data compared to local ecosystem services models combining ecological and societal data offer an extensive overview of modern environmental modelling. In addition to modelling, the science-policy boundary is important when analyzing the societal usefulness of models. Useful and societally-relevant modelling is analyzed with an integrative literature review (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005) on the topics of climate change, ecosystem services, modelling and science-policy boundary, n=58. Literature from various disciplines and viewpoints is included in the material. Since the aim is to create a comprehensive understanding of the multidisciplinary phenomenon of modelling, the focus is not on the technical aspects of it. Based on the literature, types of uncertainty in models and strategies to manage them are identified (e.g. van der Sluijs, 2005). Characteristics of useful models and other forms of scientific information are recognized (e.g. Saltelli et al., 2020). Usefulness can be achieved when models are fit for purpose, accessible and solution-oriented, and sufficient interaction and trust is established between the model users and developers. Climate change and ecosystem services are analyzed as case studies throughout the thesis. The relationship of science and policy is an important discussion especially important when solving the sustainability crisis. Because modelling is a boundary object (Duncan et al., 2020), the role of boundary work in managing and communicating the uncertainties and ensuring the usefulness of models is at the center of the analysis.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (Springer-Verlag, 2012)
    Arc contractions in syntactic dependency graphs can be used to decide which graphs are trees. The paper observes that these contractions can be expressed with weighted finite-state transducers (weighted FST) that operate on string-encoded trees. The observation gives rise to a finite-state parsing algorithm that computes the parse forest and extracts the best parses from it. The algorithm is customizable to functional and bilexical dependency parsing, and it can be extended to non-projective parsing via a multi-planar encoding with prior results on high recall. Our experiments support an analysis of projective parsing according to which the worst-case time complexity of the algorithm is quadratic to the sentence length, and linear to the overlapping arcs and the number of functional categories of the arcs. The results suggest several interesting directions towards efficient and highprecision dependency parsing that takes advantage of the flexibility and the demonstrated ambiguity-packing capacity of such a parser.
  • Valkonen, T. (2021)
    Regularisation theory in Banach spaces, and non-norm-squared regularisation even in finite dimensions, generally relies upon Bregman divergences to replace norm convergence. This is comparable to the extension of first-order optimisation methods to Banach spaces. Bregman divergences can, however, be somewhat suboptimal in terms of descriptiveness. Using the concept of (strong) metric subregularity, previously used to prove the fast local convergence of optimisation methods, we show norm convergence in Banach spaces and for non-norm-squared regularisation. For problems such as total variation regularised image reconstruction, the metric subregularity reduces to a geometric condition on the ground truth: flat areas in the ground truth have to compensate for the fidelity term not having second-order growth within the kernel of the forward operator. Our approach to proving such regularisation results is based on optimisation formulations of inverse problems. As a side result of the regularisation theory that we develop, we provide regularisation complexity results for optimisation methods: how many steps N-delta of the algorithm do we have to take for the approximate solutions to converge as the corruption level delta 0?
  • Hosseini, Morteza; Pratas, Diogo; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Pinho, Armando J. (2020)
    Background: The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies and, as its result, the production of huge volumes of genomic data, has accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. Study on genomic rearrangements is crucial owing to their role in chromosomal evolution, genetic disorders, and cancer. Results: We present Smash++, an alignment-free and memory-efficient tool to find and visualize small- and large-scale genomic rearrangements between 2 DNA sequences. This computational solution extracts information contents of the 2 sequences, exploiting a data compression technique to find rearrangements. We also present Smash++ visualizer, a tool that allows the visualization of the detected rearrangements along with their self- and relative complexity, by generating an SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) image. Conclusions: Tested on several synthetic and real DNA sequences from bacteria, fungi, Aves, and Mammalia, the proposed tool was able to accurately find genomic rearrangements. The detected regions were in accordance with previous studies, which took alignment-based approaches or performed FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analysis. The maximum peak memory usage among all experiments was similar to 1 GB, which makes Smash++ feasible to run on present-day standard computers.
  • Kazemi, Ali; Moradi, Amin (2019)
    The present study sought to investigate the effect of concept mapping and rehearsal on speaking accuracy and complexity of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. In addition, an attempt was made to make a comparison between the two strategies in terms of their contribution to speaking accuracy and complexity. To this end, using an experimental research design, two language institutes were randomly selected in Yasouj, Iran. A Quick Placement Test was validated and administered. Based on the results, 60 EFL intermediate learners were selected and were randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups, i.e., the concept mapping group and the rehearsal group. A speaking pre-test was initially administered. The results indicated that the groups were not significantly different in terms of the two variables in question. The experiment began, which involved instruction in concept mapping for the first experimental group, rehearsal for the second experimental group and placebo for the control group. Following the treatment, a post-test of speaking was administered to the groups. The findings were that concept mapping had a statistically significant effect on speaking accuracy and complexity of intermediate EFL learners. In addition, the analysis of the data showed rehearsal significantly improved accuracy. However, there was no indication that rehearsal can significantly improve speaking complexity. Finally, it was revealed that the concept mapping group and the rehearsal group do not show significant differences in terms of accuracy, but the concept map group outperformed the rehearsal group in terms of complexity. These findings have important implications for teaching speaking.
  • Hannula, Miika (2019)
    The computational properties of modal and propositional dependence logics have been extensively studied over the past few years, starting from a result by Sevenster showing NEXPTIME-completeness of the satisfiability problem for modal dependence logic. Thus far, however, the validity and entailment properties of these logics have remained mostly unaddressed. This paper provides a comprehensive classification of the complexity of validity and entailment in various modal and propositional dependence logics. The logics examined are obtained by extending the standard modal and propositional logics with notions of dependence, independence, and inclusion in the team semantics context. In particular, we address the question of the complexity of validity in modal dependence logic. By showing that it is NEXPTIME-complete we refute an earlier conjecture proposing a higher complexity for the problem.