Browsing by Subject "conflict"

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  • Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Gelfand, Michele J.; Crippa, Franca; Suttora, Chiara; Stillwell, Amelia; Asbrock, Frank; Aycan, Zeynep; Bye, Hege H.; Carlsson, Rickard; Bjorklund, Fredrik; Dagher, Munqith; Geller, Armando; Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Latif, Abdel-Hamid Abdel; Mahonen, Tuuli Anna; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Teymoori, Ali (2017)
    A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations (n = 4,344), investigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth and competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with intermediate conflict (United States) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship between ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereotype ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality-ambivalence relationship.
  • Holopainen, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This study relates to the conflict in Nepal and its peace process in particular, which is examined from the perspective of discourse theory. The conflict started in 1996 when a group calling themselves ‘Maoists’ launched their ‘people’s war’. Over the years, the conflict was marked by several negotiation rounds, intermittent ceasefires and a power-political struggle between the king, the mainstream political parties and the Maoists. The peace process can be deemed to have started upon the signing of a 12-Point Understanding between the Seven Party Alliance and the Maoists in November 2005. Despite its promising start, it is still too early to talk about the peace process in the past tense since researchers have considered the promulgation of a new constitution as a necessity for its closure. The conflict and its peace process have provided an interesting topic of inquiry for instance because Nepal’s Maoist insurgency has been considered the most successful one among other contemporary Maoist rebellions. The purpose of this study is to analyse how a ‘new Nepal’ was articulated in discourses of transformation during the peace process between 2005 and 2012 and determine potential shifts or changes in the discourses. Since the peace process is understood as a discursive process, a further objective is to evaluate the process and the prospects of sustainable peace on the basis of the discourses. Following the theory of conflict transformation, this study understood the peace process as a long-term project where sustainable peace necessitates addressing the root causes of conflict. The motive for choosing the discourse-theoretical perspective was that discourses have been suggested to have a significant role in conflict transformation. In their discourses, political actors may seek cooperation and consensus or reproduce the antagonistic relationship that existed between them during conflict. This study utilised the post-structuralist theory of discourse developed by Laclau and Mouffe as it has been considered suitable for studying political conflicts and changes. According to the fundamental premises of the theory, discourses are historically constructed and contingent systems of meaning in which signifiers receive their meaning in relation to other signifiers and which are susceptible to change. The empirical data of this study consisted of three official documents that have been said to provide a blueprint for a new Nepal as well as of newspaper articles published in The Kathmandu Post. Temporally the study was limited to a period between November 2005 and June 2012. The concept of new Nepal was understood as referring to the political, social, economic and cultural transformation of the country needed to address the root causes of the conflict, for which reason the analysis concentrated on discourses dealing with these aspects. Furthermore, the main focus was on the discourses of the political actors who were the chief adversaries during the conflict, i.e. the mainstream political parties, the Maoists and the king. The empirical analysis utilised the key concepts of Laclau and Mouffe’s theory of discourse, including articulation, floating signifier, nodal point, empty signifier, hegemonic practice, dislocation, social antagonism, political frontier, and the logics of equivalence and difference. According to the analysis, the discourses of the political actors were arranged around political transformation, which was closely linked with social, economic and cultural transformation. The discourses of transformation can be deemed to have formed a discourse on new Nepal, where the meaning of new Nepal was constructed around such salient signifiers as democracy, republic, federalism, secularism, peace, development, progress, change, social justice and inclusiveness. A chain of equivalence was articulated between these signifiers to establish a clear frontier between the past and the future. A significant finding was that the Maoists and the mainstream political parties were able to combine their particular interests into a common discourse by articulating the king as a common enemy and a threat to a new Nepal, which would appear to have made the peace process possible. However, this discursive unity seems to have dissolved after the king was removed and Nepal declared a republic. Since then the Maoists and the non-Maoist parties appear to have reproduced the previous antagonistic relationship between them and the situation has begun to resemble the circumstances before and during the conflict. Due to the discursive struggles between the actors, the Constituent Assembly failed to promulgate the new constitution that was articulated as a document which could bring peace and socio-economic transformation, and consequently it is argued that the prospects of achieving sustainable peace still seem rather bleak. The discursive struggles also pose a threat to the hegemonic discourse on new Nepal and to the new Nepal articulated therein. As regards sustainable peace, it would be important for the actors to find again the consensus that existed between them at the initial stages of the peace process.
  • Veijalainen, Jouni; Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira (2019)
    Background: A large body of earlier research has focused on studying children's self-regulation (SR) skills and frustration with different methods. However, considerably less attention has been given to hearing children's own voice. The current study sought to demonstrate children's own comprehension and highlight it as a valuable and unique tendency to fill the scientific gap in the research area. Aim: This research aimed to contribute the empirical understanding of how SR, as mental ability, supported children's coping strategies and comprehensions which they will possibly use in a hypothetical frustrated context in the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) environment. Setting: Self-regulation and strategies in a frustrating context were studied with mixed methods in a sample (n = 383) of 48-87-month-old children in Finland. Self-regulation was assessed by their own teachers with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied by interview where the children's open-ended descriptions provided the strategies told by themselves. Methods: The study's was conducted by using mixed methods. Two independent instruments to measure SR and strategies for frustration were used. Self-regulation was assessed by teacher with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied via child interview. Results: Good SR skills were related to persistent coping strategies and not giving up in a simulated situation. Weak SR skills related more with uncertain or withdrawal coping strategies, like giving up, or abandoning the situation. Conclusion: Self-regulation skills have an important role in guiding children with their use and narration of suitable coping strategies on overcoming the frustration effectively. The concrete strategies would allow teachers to work concretely with children in enhancing their SR skills and coping strategies further.
  • Kahlos, Ritva Tuulikki Maijastin (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2018)
    Routledge Studies in the Early Christian World
  • Zafaranloo, Saeed (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Peace has always been a pivotal issue in the core of humankind’s thoughts throughout centuries; prophets, great thinkers, poets and elites have expressed their concern, vision and ideas of peace. Major world religions have teachings for peace. As one of the new religious movements of the world, Baha’i Faith has placed peace in the focus of its teaching. There have also been academic and intellectual efforts to define peace and to present plans for making peace like the works of Johan Galtung, the founder of the peace and conflict studies. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the peace plan of Baha’i Faith with Johan Galtung’s peace theory and explore their possible crucial differences and similarities (commonalities). In Galtung’s book, Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization, the first chapter is peace theory which is used to explore Baha’i teachings on peace in Baha’i primary sources like writings of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of Baha’i Faith, Abdu’l-Bahá' (first successor), Shoghi Effendi (Guardian and appointed head of the Faith) and Universal House of Justice (supreme ruling body) publications. Secondary Baha’i sources are also studied which are articles, papers and books written about Baha’i Faith. The method of comparative analysis used in this study is lens comparison in which we explore A (Galtung’s Peace Theory) less than B (Baha’i Faith peace plan), we use A as a lens through which to view B. The text A is used as a framework to understand and compare with text B. Galtung’s peace theory is an umbrella under which Baha’i teachings are studied. The idea of peace and the approach toward this idea is in the center of this comparison. During this process, the differences and commonalities of A and B are listed and analyzed in three realms, i.e. in relation to peace and gender, peace and democracy and peace and inter-state systems. After every point by point comparison chapter, all common and different features of A and B are observed, listed and analyzed to verify to what degree they are similar with or differ from each other. In this way, it is possible to see the level of proximity and remoteness of two sources and to verify how much they converge or diverge. The thesis reveals in which areas of peace-building ideas, Galtung and Baha’i Faith have common approaches and in which areas they have different standpoints, i.e. this paper disclosed, on gender and peace, both approaches have high level of proximity and convergence.
  • Toivanen, Mari; Baser, Bahar (2020)
    Diasporas can play multiple roles in both the host country and the homeland, and their activities can varyingly contribute towards peace-building processes or perpetuate conflict back home. In this article, we wish to reflect upon the current discussions in this field, while considering the heterogeneity between and within diaspora communities as well as the generational dynamics of diaspora activism. We discuss intra-diaspora group relations as potential avenues of conflict and peace-building that transcend nation-states’ borders. Moreover, we consider how the dynamics of peace-building and conflict perpetuation can transform over time with subsequent generations. We also discuss the role the second generation can play in relation to peace and conflict.
  • Marizu, Obi (2007)
    It is common in nation states worldwide for the ethno-cultural relations of groups in their jurisdiction to be rife with tensions and conflict. The end of the cold war and the spread of globalisation have intensified and spread the social, political and economic changes that had already been evident for several decades. The result is that resurgence is now an even more visible and compelling theme for social scientists, particularly in the political domain. Ethnicity of itself does not cause violent conflict. For the most part, ethnic groups peacefully pursue their interests in society through political or other lawful channels. At times, however, acute social uncertainty and the fear of the future may make ethnic groups emerge as one of the major fault-lines along which societies start to disintegrate. Today ethnic pluralism, competitiveness and primordial antagonism appear to be the factors that most often cause ethnic conflicts and violence. The rate of increase of political or military interference in many parts of the world, and the escalation of ethnic and intra-ethnic strife, may be partly attributed to differences in ethnic composition. In some states like Belgium, Austria, Poland, the United States, Canada, Brazil, Cuba, China, Togo, Benin, Malawi or Tanzania this escalation may be less salient than in others such as Nigeria, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Peru, Colombia, Yugoslavia or the Mediterranean region (Cyprus-Greece-Turkey), where fragmentation of power is evident in weak and corrupt structures, some of them legacies of colonialism. This preface, however, is about the study of problems in Nigeria: protracted ethnic tension and the intermittent resurgence of disintegration. This study combines some key ideas and questions by looking at them from many perspectives, with the intention of informing or reminding readers about the ethnic problems in Nigeria. This task is complicated because there are many ways of studying, explaining and keeping up to date with this field of study. There are differences between frameworks and empirical realities that will be examined. The approach of my study is eclectic, but I have avoided presenting an ethnicity framework as a fixed or essentially primordial concept. Some of my explanations are related to the wider tradition of socio-biology, as described by van den Berghe, and to nationalism, which I presume to be inadequate to do justice to the political groupings of ethnic allegiances in Nigeria.
  • Matilainen, Anne (University of Helsinki Ruralia Institute, 2019)
    Publications 36
    This dissertation focuses on analysing the feelings of ownership that the owners and other users of forests have developed towards privately-owned forest resources. These resources play a major part in providing forest-based benefits to society, as a large proportion of the forests in Europe and the US are privately owned. Furthermore, the majority of privately-owned forests are owned by so called non-industrial private forest owners (NIPF), typically referring to individual persons or family forest owners. Therefore, the decisions the NIPF owners make regarding their forest resources have a direct impact on the availability of forest-based ecosystem services. Due to the importance of the private forest resources at global, national and local levels, it is not surprising that a vast number of regulations and land use practices have been developed, that set the regulatory framework for the use of forests. Also, users other than the owners feel that they have the right to speak about the use of forests. Due to these demands and the expectations from the wider society, the forest owners do not have sole control over their forest areas. Thus, the ownership of forests cannot be directly compared to the ownership of cars or stocks, for example. In the best case, the objectives of both private forest owners and various society’s objectives for the use of forest resources could be met at the same time by matching the forest owners’ values with the alternative needs users had for the resource. Managing the different expectations in a socially sustainable way necessitates a profound understanding of the forest owners’ own objectives, values and motivations regarding their forests. However, previous research has shown that the forest owners’ socio-demographic characteristics or the objectives of the use of forests no longer explain the values and behaviour very well. It has also been suggested that the traditional forest owner typologies capture only the most salient objectives and therefore do not properly reflect the forest owners’ behaviour. Also, other approaches are needed. This dissertation contributes to the abovementioned research by introducing a novel concept, psychological ownership, as a potential approach to understanding the possessive feelings towards privately-owned forest resources, and via that, a better understanding of the role of these feelings in the behaviour of forest owners and other forest users (in this case nature-based tourism entrepreneurs) . Psychological ownership is based on the idea that ownership should not be understood only as a legal construct, but also to include certain psychological elements i.e. to the feeling “it is mine”. Originally, psychological ownership was introduced in the field of organizational research, but it has since been applied increasingly in other sectors. In this study, it is used as the theoretical background to understand the ownership feelings about private forest resources. Psychological ownership can also bring a new approach to study the co-operation relationships related to the use of forests by multiple stakeholders, for example, when introducing new potential uses of forest resources (in this case nature-based entrepreneurs). The study is qualitative in nature and the data consist of thematic interviews with private forest owners and nature tourism entrepreneurs. The results summarise the findings from three published journal articles. They show that both the legal owners and the nature-based entrepreneurs utilizing private forest areas seem to have developed psychological ownership feelings towards these forests. However, these feelings are not necessarily dependent on the legal ownership of the resource. Furthermore, the psychological ownership experienced seems to influence the behaviour of the persons expressing these feelings, for example, related to the private forest owners’ forest management decisions. The results also illustrate that recognizing psychological ownership can help in understanding successful co-operation relationships and potential conflict situations relating to the multiple use of forest resources. In practice, it could help to foresee or even manage the potential conflicts. However, before psychological ownership can serve as a proper “management tool” in these situations, further research is warranted.
  • Tuomala, Jannimaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines the relation between the young Finnish Muslim women and conflicts abroad involving Muslims. The subject of my study arises from topical questions and events which combine conflicts and Muslims strongly. The foreign fighter phenomenon has generated concerns about young Muslims, for instance. The purpose of my study is to offer Muslims a possibility to shed light on their own perspective regarding conflicts. The research questions of this thesis are 1) What is the young Finnish Muslim women’s relation to conflicts abroad concerning Islam or Muslims, 2) what role does Islam play in this relation and what kind of articulations does it receive and 3) how does the media function in forming a relation to conflicts abroad. The theoretical background utilizes a perspective, which clarifies on two levels where a relation can exist between Finnish Muslim women and conflicts abroad. The effects of conflicts on a transnational level and the impacts in Finland are concentrated. Transnational Islam and especially solidarity explain the first level. The media, as well as the whole history of how the West has viewed Islam as the other, constitute important factors on the local level. The data in my study was generated in ten qualitative research interviews, which I implemented in Helsinki during six months from December 2017 until May 2018. I analyze the data by using a content analysis to interpret the ways the informants construct their relation to conflicts abroad. My study shows that Muslim women build a relation to conflicts abroad through two kinds of paths. On the one hand, the Muslims receive conflicts via different factors, and on the other hand, they construct the relation to conflicts by themselves. Receiving consists of several negative phenomena, which especially the media generates. Islam functions as the most crucial intermediary in approaching conflicts and mostly defines the perspective. My study reveals that the Finnish Muslims’ relation to conflicts abroad contains challenges and unbalanced elements. The scope of the effects of conflicts for them appears too extensive compared to the Muslims’ limited attempts to approach conflicts. The position of religion differs remarkably in how conflicts relate to Muslims in Finland and how they in turn relate to those conflicts. Additionally, the biased picture of Muslims as active perpetrators in conflicts differs from the reality, where the Finnish Muslim women only attempt to show solidarity for suffering fellow Muslims. The relation includes the element of inevitability, because conflicts affect Finnish Muslims without their own volition and Islam urges them to look after fellow believers. This thesis contributes to the field of the research on Finnish Muslims. The themes of conflicts and the media have been addressed in previous research, but this study approaches them from a new angle. Prospective studies can draw on the findings of this study when approaching the topic in the future.
  • Kokki, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The objective of this thesis is to utilise the frame-building perspective to study how the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat framed the case of the Chibok schoolgirls who were abducted by the terrorist group Boko Haram in April 2014 in Nigeria. The data of this study is based on 105 news articles published by Helsingin Sanomat between April 2014 and December 2018. The structure of the thesis consists of four main sections. The first section focuses on mapping the case in the Nigerian context and providing information to understand the Nigerian situation with regard to its historical background, the rise of Boko Haram, and the case of the abducted Chibok girls. The second section focuses on the theoretical frameworks. News framing theory is an appropriate tool for studying media content that deals with terrorism. While the case consists of foreign news, there are also brief references to the theory of newsworthiness and foreign news transmission processes in the Finnish media. Also, the ambiguous relation between media and terrorism is addressed: terrorists need media for conveying information about their attacks, and correspondingly, their attacks serve as material for the news media. The third section focuses on terrorism and its victims, and its relation to conflict-related gender-based violence. In the Chibok schoolgirls’ case one perspective to violence is the concept of abduction. The fourth section focuses on the implementation of the frame building perspective to examine the selected Helsingin Sanomat news data. The study reveals that in reporting the Chibok schoolgirls’ case, Helsingin Sanomat favoured material from western news agencies and the most referred to news agencies were AFP and Reuters. Local Nigerian media was referred to as a source only in five of the news. The categorization of the quote source types reveals that Nigerian authorities dominated as sources for the citations in the news. From the news data a total of 12 frame theme categories are recognized and these categories are further organized into four main frame theme groups. In the group “Understanding the circumstances” the prevailing background information is the description of Boko Haram and the dichotomy of the country, but discussion of the ethno-religious historical background of the conflict remains limited. The second group “Government inactivity and politics” reveals that the news mainly concentrate on the negotiations and the international interventions to resolve the conflict between the Nigerian government and Boko Haram. The third group “Terrorism and violence” concentrates on the case of the Chibok schoolgirls, and the other attacks are described as chains of events. The Nigerian government’s role in the atrocities is recognized but not widely discussed. In the last frame theme group “Community and compassion” the communities’ active role in conflict resolution is recognized as the voice of the victims of Boko Haram. In general, the Chibok schoolgirls are depicted as a cohesive group which is subject to terrorism and collective violence. Despite the wide media coverage, the schoolgirls’ story is told by others in the news or via the reports of human rights organizations. The conflict in the country is depicted to be that between the Nigerian government and Boko Haram, although the unstable situation in the country has developed from a complex web of socio-cultural, economic, ethno-religious, and regional elements. The Chibok girls themselves, although referred to in the news, are mainly presented as victims whose own voice is hardly heard.
  • Kallström, Agneta; Al-Abdulla, Orwa; Parkki, Jan; Häkkinen, Mikko; Juusola, Hannu; Kauhanen, Jussi (2021)
  • Kukkakorpi, Mariia Päivikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study explores immersive journalism and how virtual reality (VR) stories engage the recipient in real-life events. Immersive journalism can be characterised as a first-person experience of news, emphasising interactive qualities as well as a sense of presence, thus creating a notion of ‘being there’ in the virtual world. The study aims to shed light on the new field of immersive journalism as well as to explore the characteristics and constraints of VR stories in terms of engagement in conflict news. Particular interest is given to the notion of presence and the way in which media form and media content produce engagement as well as the ways in which VR aims to connect the recipient with the news story. Due to its interdisciplinary nature, the study combines theories from VR, audio-visual media, presence and media witnessing. The qualitative study employs close reading as the primary method. The New York Times (NYT) has been chosen as the news producer of VR stories since it is the pioneer in the field and provides the largest selection of VR stories. The data is delimited to conflict news, as tragedy can often be described as engaging audiences through distant suffering. The study results in four findings: (1) VR stories employ different narrative strategies to maintain proper distance between the phenomenon and the other and to enhance the experience; (2) the positioning of the recipient spatially in the VR narratives emphasises location, creates a sense of witnessing and focuses on the recipient’s own experience; (3) VR stories aim to construct a relationship between the recipient and the other; and (4) media form and media content aim to evoke various emotions, including empathy. This study finds that NYT VR stories aim to personally engage the recipient with conflict news and to increase emotional engagement. Media content and media form contribute to engagement, for example, in creating proximity to the other and evoking the recipient’s personal interest. Presence enlivens consumption of news and underpins the recipient’s freedom to generate his or her own understanding of events.
  • MORRIS, P. Sean (2020)
    The post war-on-terror era has witnessed several developments in international law, including the nature and function of national security. This article establishes a link between national security and human rights by looking at some practical implications from a State policy perspective and theoretical views. Any discussion on the two distinct areas of ‘national security’ and ‘human rights’ are, of course, not equal. However, the discussions in this article relate to how international law interacts with national security over human rights given that national security relates to a State’s domestic affairs but with implications for the international legal system. Thus, through theory and practice, this article demonstrates that national security and human rights are unstable. This article addresses the question of whether national security and human rights obligations are in conflict or whether international law has been over-responsive or under-responsive to either human rights or national security concerns.
  • Koivisto, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The sacrificing of Isaac, described in Genesis 22, is one of the most troubling stories in Bible. In that story, Abraham was faced with a moral dilemma and compelled to choose between two bad options: to disobey God or to kill his son. Why was Abraham willing to commit the most horrendous thing one can imagine: killing his own child? Did God really ask Abraham for such a sacrifice, and if yes, did he really expect Abraham to obey? Several attempts to explain Abraham’s behavior as well as God’s command have been made. Most often, Abraham is portrayed as a model of faith. God, on the other hand, is usually seen as ”only testing” Abraham, but not really expecting a sacrifice. Many scholars are questioning these interpretations, though. To some of them, Abraham is no more than a criminal, and God a moral monster. In this study, I am taking an analytical approach to existing literature and commentaries on the sacrificing of Isaac. I am describing, classifying and comparing different attempts to resolve the obvious conflict between divine obedience and morality. Since the command to sacrifice Isaac is often regarded as a divine test, I will also examine, what exactly might have been the focus of that test: faith, obedience, fear or something else? I am also referring to some contemporary crime cases to show that sacrificing a child in God’s name doesn’t belong only to history. Thus, contrary to some Bible commentators who claim that nothing similar could happen today, I will show that some people have used the story of Abraham and Isaac as a justification for their pernicious action. Finally, and as the title of my thesis implies, I will propose a ”kaleidoscopic” approach to the story of sacrificing Isaac. Just like an image in a kaleidoscope is prone to change with each new treatment, so is the interpretation of the story. Even more, the story in Genesis 22 is like a Rorschach test: it allows for the viewer to see what she wants to see, and to project her preconceptions of Abraham and God to the troublesome image.
  • Jauhola, Marjaana (Helsinki University Press, 2020)
    Pro et Contra
  • Hazard, Charles James (2002)
    This thesis looks at sectarianism, which is found in central Scotland. I analyse the relationship between Scotland’s two largest ethnic groups, Protestant Lowland Scots and Irish Catholics on both a historical and contemporary period. By looking at what l see as the key points of conflict between the communities, I attempt to explain why sectarianism persists within central Scotland. By looking at the historical, political and sporting aspects of central Scottish society hopefully we can begin to understand the forces which drive sectarianism in this area I put forward the idea that sectarianism in central Scotland has affected the chances for a nationalist political breakthrough in Scotland. As a political decision, I analyse the segregated education issue, which I claim is a major component in the sectarian debate. By looking at the communities involved, I show how the historical past has become a major source for the continuing conflict. I show how religious and national identity has become associated with football to such an extent that ones religious identity is based on which football club one supports. By using the concept of “Telling”, I show how both communities negotiate around the religious issue with the minimum of fuss in order to avoid conflict.
  • Rankin, D J; Lopez-Sepulcre, A; Foster, K R; Kokko, H (2007)
    Adaptation does not necessarily lead to traits which are optimal for the population. This is because selection is often the strongest at the individual or gene level. The evolution of selfishness can lead to a 'tragedy of the commons', where traits such as aggression or social cheating reduce population size and may lead to extinction. This suggests that species-level selection will result whenever species differ in the incentive to be selfish. We explore this idea in a simple model that combines individual-level selection with ecology in two interacting species. Our model is not influenced by kin or trait-group selection. We find that individual selection in combination with competitive exclusion greatly increases the likelihood that selfish species go extinct. A simple example of this would be a vertebrate species that invests heavily into squabbles over breeding sites, which is then excluded by a species that invests more into direct reproduction. A multispecies simulation shows that these extinctions result in communities containing species that are much less selfish. Our results suggest that species-level selection and community dynamics play an important role in regulating the intensity of conflicts in natural populations.
  • Airaksinen, Timo (2019)
    From the point of view of conflict theory, I argue for the following pessimistic conclusion: a silent conflict of interests exists between the entrepreneur and the customer, as the former must advertise and promote his/her innovations and merchandise. It looks innocent enough, but by doing so, the entrepreneur interferes with the needs and desires of the customer, and especially with the latter's conditional needs even when the customer does not appreciate it, or when the entrepreneur does it against the customer's will. From the customer's point of view, it is disturbing and negatively affects his/her happiness level. What are, therefore, the responsibilities of the entrepreneur? I provide a detailed analysis of the concept of need and desire, and explain how desires develop on the basis of the desirability of objects of desire. It shall allow us to see how desires can be manipulated and, perhaps, how such manipulation can be avoided. Keywords: desire, need, marketing, conflict, customer. (original abstract)
  • Valtonen, Jussi (2021)
    A large body of experimental evidence in the empirical sciences shows that writing about life experiences can be beneficial for mental and physical health. While empirical data regarding the health benefits of writing interventions have been collected in numerous studies in psychology and biomedicine, this literature has remained almost entirely disconnected from scholarship in the humanities and cognitive neuropsychology. In this paper, I review the literature from psychological and biomedical writing interventions, connect these findings to views from philosophy, cognitive neuropsychology and narratology and argue that examining established regularities in how narratives are structured can shed further light on the psychological processes engaged during writing interventions. In particular, I argue that the narratological concept of conflict can be applied to resolve patterns of seemingly conflicting empirical findings in psychological studies. More generally, I propose that an interdisciplinary perspective can provide a broader theoretical basis for understanding the psychological processes underlying the health benefits of autobiographical writing and provide directions for future research in psychology and biomedicine.