Browsing by Subject "conflicts"

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  • Hiltunen, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    I got interested in conflict situations between educators and children when I noticed in my own work, how certain manners always seemed to lead in to conflicts. By changing those manners and the environment we are working in, we can create a much more pleasing place to work and learn for adults and children. Inspired by these notions I started to research what kind of situations and environments may increase or decrease conflicts between educators and children. I also wanted to find out if there are some same factors between those children who often get in to conflicts with educators. This is a quantitative research. The data is originally from Jyrki Reunamo ́s research project and has been collected from 45 daycare centers. Children have been observed and interviewed, and educators have evaluated children and the learning environment. I took the exploratory approach to my data. After having some results, I decided to take social development, educational interaction and educational culture as my theoretical frame. All these aspects can be found from Urie Bronfenbrenner`s ecological theory which I used as keystone of my research. The results showed that there were more conflicts in day care centers if they were strictly controlled by the educators. Most conflicts happened during basic care situations, eating time and instructed activity inside. Children didn’t have a possibility to affect these situations and at the same time their need to move was limited. Especially 5-6 years old boys found these situations complicated and got caught up in troubles. This research shows that children ́s need to move and participate are not taken into account enough in day care centers.
  • Tidström, Annika (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    Economics and Society
    Most of the existing research within the business network approach is based on companies that are operating on different levels within the same value chain, as a buyer and a supplier. Intercompetitor cooperation, i.e. cooperation between companies occupying the same level within different value chains, has not been studied to the same extent. Moreover scholars within the business network approach have usually described industrial relationships as long term, consisting of mutual commitment and trust. Industrial relationships are not static, but dynamic, and they contain situations of both harmony and conflict. There is consequently a need for more research both concerning intercompetitor cooperation and conflicts. The purpose of this study is to develop our theoretical and empirical understanding of the nature of conflicts in intercompetitor cooperation from a business network perspective. The focus of the study lies on issue and intensity of conflict. The issue of a conflict can be divided into cause and topic, while the intensity comprises the importance and outcome of a conflict. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of groups of cooperating competitors from two different industries. The applied research method is interviews. According to the findings of this study causes of conflicts in intercompetitor cooperation can be divided into three groups: focus, awareness and capacity. Topics of conflict can be related to domain, delivery, advertising or cooperation. Moreover the findings show that conflict situations may be grouped into not important, important or very important. Some conflicts may also be of varying importance, meaning that the importance varies from one point of time to another. Based on the findings of the study the outcome or status of a conflict can be analyzed both on a concrete and general level. The findings also indicate that several conflicts are partly hidden, which means that only one or some of the involved actors perceive the conflict. Furthermore several conflict situations can be related to external network actors.
  • Kervinen, Silja (2008)
    This paper explores the role of the press in shaping US foreign policy towards an international conflict. Its theoretical basis draws from the fields of Peace and Conflict Research and Communication Studies. It combines these two research traditions to construct a framework that defines the relations between the media, the political leadership and the public, and describes the role of each in the formation of US political response to an international conflict. The paper examines US press coverage of the Darfur conflict through the New York Times and the Washington Post reporting on the issue. It explores the kind of understanding provided by the press on the conflict, the US role as an international actor and the nature and extent of US responsibility to respond to the conflict and the related humanitarian crisis. It also describes the role the press had in advocating policy options to the administration and in increasing public pressure on the administration to implement them. The findings reveal that the US press presented the conflict with a focus on its victims. It appealed emotionally to the common responsibility of humanity to protect the victims against the villains and called for the Bush administration to lead the world’s response. Because the administration failed to meet this demand, the press portrayed its Darfur policy from an overwhelmingly negative perspective. The accusation levelled against the administration by the press was that the only unifying motivation behind its policy on Darfur was to pass on responsibility to others, among them its Sudanese counterpart, which Washington was far too willing to treat as a cooperative partner. Washington argued that it was working gradually towards a solution from the inside, between Khartoum and the Darfur rebels. Meanwhile the press demanded for a solution to be immediately imposed on the parties from the outside and considered it immoral to negotiate on the terms of Khartoum, which it portrayed as the villain. In its continuous criticism of the Bush administration, the press potentially contributed to the gradual increase of pressure to scale up the administration’s response to Darfur. That response eventually took the form of intensified diplomatic negotiations with Khartoum, economic sanctions on individuals responsible for violence in Darfur and humanitarian relief to victims. The response fell short of the more urgent and coercive measures demanded by the press. It is possible that the administration’s response was mainly directed at demonstrating to the impatient press, the lobby groups and the public that it was working on the crisis, while avoiding politically and financially costlier commitments.
  • Ruoho, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    It is widely seen that fragile states and prolonged crises cause poverty, violence and also migration as a strategy for survival. However, international interventions by development cooperation and by crisis management missions have been ineffective to provide security and possibilities for sustainable development. The comprehensive crisis management, too, has remained ineffective to respond such challenges. The purpose of this Master's thesis is to contribute for the discussion of developing comprehensive crisis management to make it more efficient in creating sustainable development and peace in crisis areas. For this reason, this qualitative study wanted to clarify the perceptions of Finnish foreign and security policy expert politicians on crisis management in its entirety. In particular, aspects of civilian crisis management and development cooperation were examined as part of comprehensive crisis management and security framework. Empirical research was conducted in the Finnish Parliament and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs between August 2017 and January 2018. 22 MPs were interviewed for the study. The theme analysis was used to identify critical ideas in the interview material. Besides, the study utilized hermeneutic phenomenology. The method of observation was the long-term experience of the investigator in civilian crisis management operations, as well as the membership of the foreign affairs committee in 2015 - 2017. According to the nuanced results, security thinking has become pervasive. Finnish crisis management is based on the experience and expertise of the long history of Finnish peacekeeping and core competencies. Civilian crisis management requires a more prominent role in a comprehensive crisis management approach, which should also be taken into account in financing decisions. The results also showed that the promotion of human security is an essential element of development cooperation and civilian crisis management. An important policy is to focus on the most vulnerable people. Education, access to health services and gender equality were highlighted as ways to achieve sustainable development in crisis areas. Regionally the focus should be in Africa. The synergies between the various instruments of comprehensive crisis management should be better exploited. The results can be useful for those responsible for the Finnish crisis management in the development of a comprehensive crisis management.
  • Rämö, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis looks at the National Unity and Brotherhood Process (2009–2015) that’s one aim was to solve the decades long conflict between the Turkish state and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). The failure of the process created more violence in the country; hence, it is essential to look back and try to reflect what the process was about. The thesis aims to understand the governmental party’s (AKP) (self-)perceptions of the process and link them to the history of the Turkish Republic. When the Turkish Republic was established, the founding ideology was Kemalism that emphasized exclusive Turkish national identity, secularism and statism. It left little or no space for expressions Kurdish identities. For decades, Kurds were not directly mentioned in public and were spoken of trough frames of terrorism and underdevelopment. The conflict itself started at the turn of the 1980s when Kurdish bationalism found more leverage. Especially in the 1990s the violence in Kurdish regions escalated. Even though the situation had been more peaceful in the 2000s, the AKP wanted to solve the conflict once and for all. In this thesis the perceptions from the time of the process are researched from a governmental publication and from pieces of news by the state-run Anadolu Agency. In the qualitative analysis that was inspired by framing theory, it was notable that the voice of the state became more rigid throughout the process and enemy-images were reproduced more frequently towards the end. The analysis shows that in the process the Turkish state and party leading the state did not challenge pre-existing conceptions of the Kurdish population. Kurdish political movements were presented trough frames of terrorism, which has been a political strategy at least for a century. In addition, the state’s externally and internally created ontological insecurity was not addressed in the process, which highlighted the state’s ambivalent relationship to the minority. This thesis notes that the AKP had a wish to include the Kurdish minority into the political ideology of the party. However, it had little tolerance to Kurdish political movements that challenged the political power of the AKP. The wish and the lack of tolerance show that the state replicated patterns from the its history.
  • Heikkilä, Hanna (2002)
    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine a role of a manager and role conflicts in his work. The study is conducted in a high-technology company, and one aim of it is also to find concrete development solutions in order to improve the communication between Human Resources department and line management. The theory of role conflicts forms the theoretical framework for the study. A role conflict is a situation where incompatible expectations are held towards a person's behavior, and six different type of role conflicts can be distinguished: an inter-role conflict, two types of intrarole conflicts, a personality-role conflict, role overload and finally, role ambiguity. The data was collected by thematic interviews and the results indicate that line managers in the target organization encounter nearly all kind of role conflicts in their work. Due to their position, they automatically have two roles: a role of an expert and a role of a superior. This leads to an inter-role conflict, which was strongly perceived especially by the female informants. Also intrarole conflicts emerged to some extent. Any personality-role conflicts did not occur, but role overload and role ambiguity came strongly across in the data. The managers are not able to perform all the duties they have, and the expectations of different interest groups are not communicated clearly enough. All conflicts cannot be completely solved, but communication is one way to improve the situation. Human Resources department, like other stakeholders should express the expectations they hold for a manager as explicitly as possible, and different roles should be clearly defined. Also induction and training can prevent role conflicts. The central references were Brown (1965): Social Psychology. Kahn et al. (1964): Organizational stress - Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Katz & Kahn (1978): The social psychology of organizations.
  • Walin, Laura (University of Helsinki, 1996)