Browsing by Subject "consumer behavior"

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  • Lommi, Henri; Turkkila, Miikka; Juuti, Kalle (Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura, 2019)
    Suomen ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja, Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia
  • Puhakka, Riikka; Ollila, Sari; Valve, Raisa; Sinkkonen, Aki Tapio (2019)
    A health effect is a credence quality feature which is difficult for consumers to detect, and they need to be convinced of its trustworthiness. This study explores the role of trust-related arguments in Finnish, German, and British consumers' willingness to try a novel health-enhancing, non-edible product. Scientific evidence in particular would convince consumers, particularly Finnish ones, to try a product. Receiving recommendations from other users was more important for younger than for older respondents when it came to trying this type of product. Different marketing strategies may be needed to convince potential users of the benefits of a novel product.
  • Holttinen, Heli (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2013)
    Economics and Society – 263
    This thesis investigates consumer value creation as an everyday sociocultural and situational phenomenon. The first objective was to understand and conceptualize how cultural ideals and practices inform consumer everyday value creation. I examined empirically how consumers enact cultural ideals in mundane consumption in the empirical context of a weekday dinner practice among Finnish households. The second objective was to contextualize a value proposition concept in customers’ practices. The approach consisted of a theoretical investigation of how consumers experience and evaluate value propositions in their practices in order to draw theoretical implications. Integrating complementing knowledge from S-D logic, Consumer Culture Theory, and Practice Theory provided me insightful theoretical lenses for the examinations. The findings highlight the primacy of cultural ideals and practices in consumer everyday value creation and value co-creation. They inform the consumers regarding which value propositions are desirable and thereby guide resource integration and thus purchasing decisions. This thesis portrays consumers as pragmatic, flexible and fragmented value-creating agents. It demonstrates how the consumers enact and compromise cultural ideals and identity projects in relation to practices. They compromise identity projects and cultural ideals in some practice(s) but not across practices. As the practices serve different ends for the consumers at different times, the meaning of the practices is constantly re-created by consumers. As resource integrators the consumers accept and use value propositions in the practices in their own ways irrespective of firms’ intentions, in order to enact cultural ideals. Value becomes co-created only when the consumers (as customers) can enact cultural ideals by integrating firms’ offerings with their other resources - and as a result experience value. While this thesis illuminates the interplay among cultural ideals, practices, value propositions, and consumer action, it offers a cultural and practice-theoretical conceptualization of how consumers, material objects and a sociocultural environment interact and co-create each other at a certain time in history and in the consumers’ lives. The findings represent the value of an offering as a dynamic, context-dependent, intersubjective and subjective notion that is constantly co-created and re-created by customers. This thesis introduces firms a sociocultural and practice-theoretical approach for the new offering development process. It means perceiving and investigating customers’ lives and value-creating activities as a mosaic of practices in which the customers try to enact cultural ideals by integrating value propositions with their other resources. By contextualizing the value propositions in the customers’ practices, the thesis helps firms to improve the effectiveness of the new offering development process. Effectiveness here refers to the ability of the firms to create offerings that are both culturally and practically desirable for the customers. By addressing the cultural ideals and the practical realities of everyday life, effective offerings make it possible for the customers to enact the cultural ideals in their everyday lives.
  • Bergholm, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Food chains have lengthened on account of globalization during the last decades which has led to multiple sustainability concerns related to transport emissions, food security, externalization of environmental costs, consumers’ alienation from agriculture and the origin of food and the economic situation of farmers. Organic and local food, farmers’ markets and community supported agriculture are seen as some ways to enhance the sustainability of the food system. Globally, there is in abundance research about farmers’ markets and their customers. However, there is still relatively little research from Finland about farmers’ markets. In this master’s thesis, the socio-economic and demographic markers of rural event visitors were analyzed to determine their relation to purchasing and event visiting habits. The empirical data were collected through use of a survey administered at a recurrent market event. The results showed that 75.4% of the respondents were female, and that the average age among respondents was 51.8 years. In addition, 63% were living in Hyvinkää, where the event was organized. Domestic origin, price, and healthiness were the most commonly mentioned factors that affected the buying decisions. It was discovered that age had an influence on buying organic, for example, respondents in the age groups 20–29 and 30–39 were buying more organic food compared to other groups, and respondents in age group 70+ less compared to other groups (p=0.003). Income, education, or individual family composition did not affect the tendency to buy organic.
  • Virtanen, Tia-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Earth’s overshoot day marks the date when humanity’s ecological footprint exceeds Earth’s biocapacity for the year. As the day fell on earlier every year it shows that our current consumption pattern is unsustainable. One of the main human sources of greenhouse gas emissions is related to household consumption and thus companies play an important role in developing consumption practices more sustainable for consumers as they are the main providers of products and services. This research examines the ways three Finnish companies guide consumers towards environmentally sustainable choices as well as drivers and barriers related to consumer guidance. The objective is to enlighten companies’ consumer guiding methods as part of corporate responsibility and understand which factors encourage and hinder companies to guide consumers. The research was conducted as a qualitative multiple-case study. The case companies were Valio, S Group’s grocery stores and Fazer. The research data was collected via companies’ sustainability reports and focused semi-structured interviews by interviewing the case companies’ employees working with corporate responsibility, environmental management and communication. The data was analyzed by data-driven content analysis. The findings show that the case companies use guiding methods to steer consumers to environmentally sustainable choices: information provision, choice editing, nudging and financial incentives. The current trends related to sustainability and responsibility as well as a potential competitive advantage, the protection of brand image, the benefits of a forerunner, and a corporate strategy in which sustainability is an integral part encourage companies to guide consumers. Whereas, the principle of consumers’ freedom of choice, the responsibility of a big operator as well as risks related to the development of innovations and being a forerunner cause tensions in consumer guidance. The results confirm that various tensions are related to guiding consumers towards sustainability. Especially, the concept of consumers’ freedom of choice is firmly embedded in the mindset of business. Therefore, future research could examine the ways to bring these tensions and underlying contradictions more strongly into the public discussion to find solutions to promote sustainable consumption for consumers among companies.
  • Pakarinen, Tytti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    On a global scale the amount of meals consumed outside home setting continues to increase, which means that food service sector has a significant role in reaching global sustainability goals. Finland has a long tradition of public food services and a significant part of Finnish people enjoy a government-subsidized daily lunch. As a student restaurant UniCafe participates in Kela-funded meal scheme, thus UniCafe’s meals follow Finnish Nutrition Recommendations’ nutritional criteria for meals. This research examines the ways UniCafe guides its customers to making environmentally sustainable choices in their restaurants. This thesis also reviews UniCafe’s environmental sustainability measures, most significant of which are offering sustainable meal options, sourcing responsible ingredients and products, proper waste sorting and reducing food waste. This research also dwells in to the reasons behind these environmental measures and examines UniCafe as a forerunner company in the food service sector. The level of acceptability of different customer guidance ways are also evaluated on a general level and within UniCafe clientele. This research was conducted via qualitative case study research approach. The data for this research was col-lected via semi-structured theme interviews by interviewing UniCafe and Ylva restaurant and support services staff. Additionally, primary research data also comprised of Ylva’s online publications on responsibility and business operations. The data was analyzed by qualitative theory-guiding content analysis. According to the results, UniCafe is a forerunner company due to its unique customer and ownership base. UniCafe is expected to take environmental sustainability into account in their daily operations and selections. Five different customer guidance ways used by UniCafe were identified in this research: forced choice re-striction, choice editing, nudging, financial incentives and informational strategies. Most UniCafe customers accept the use of these different customer guidance methods but UniCafe perceives forced choice restriction as problematic, particularly on campuses that do not have many UniCafe restaurants. The results show that UniCafe guides its customers in many ways to promote environmental sustainability of their operations and their customers. In addition, the results confirm that methods such as informational strat-egies are perceived as more acceptable but simultaneously less effective than methods that restrict freedom of choice. In general, UniCafe customers approve environmental sustainability measures and customer guidance. On the other hand, UniCafe’s unique position in the student lunch market in Helsinki metropole area means that the results of this research cannot be generalized to apply to other food service sector operators.
  • Heikkilä, Jaakko; Pouta, Eija; Forsman-Hugg, Sari; Mäkelä, Johanna (2013)
  • Orava, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Ready meal market is a mature business sector in Finland where competitive advantage is hard to achieve. When trying to get a foothold of the ready meal category, is it worthwhile to make a packaging redesign? Consumers buying behavior is considered to be rational and utility driven, but the interpretation has been challenged. The thesis uses eye tracking methodologies in studying consumer behavior. With eye tracking, it is possible to quantify consumer’s implicit visual search behavior into measurable and analyzable form, without the interference of conscious interpretation of perceived stimulus. Thus eye tracking data can assist companies in understanding their customer’s behavior and in creating effective and relevant packaging and marketing decisions. This thesis will provide insight on consumer behavior, eye tracking, and packaging and seizes the conducted research data; is it adequate to proceed with brand owners old design or should they consider moving to a new and unconventional, market-disrupting package design?
  • Kuittinen, Vesa (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The thesis focuses on football from the perspective of experience consumption. Experience consumption is used in this context to describe events and moments when one experiences unusual and memorable emotions. As a counterweight to everyday rationality, consumption of experiences has become ever more popular. The subject is dealt with experience society, sense of community and consumer tribe concepts. Special attention is given to cultural events, spectator sports as a social phenomenon as well as various football-related consumption patterns. The study is a phenomenological-ethnographic descriptive research. The methods used were participant observation and interviews. In the research tradition, understanding and describing of phenomenon as well as writing are essential. Observational data was collected in three different events by monitoring the behavior of spectators and the factors creating the atmosphere. The interviewees have been selected discretionary. Interviews were open by nature. Fascination of sports as a pastime is based on creating strong emotions; therefore spectator sports is experience consumption at its purest form. Sports is an excellent experience product because of its large number of patterns of consumption and because sports events build up an endless continuum. Also my own data indicates that a common history creates a bond with community, and future events help to keep up the enthusiasm. Even the moments of disappointment are essential, because every experience enhances the feelings for the “own” sport and community. In the sports events the experience itself is always subjective, but the existence of the community is necessary. Spectators have ambiguous desire to belong to a group and at the same time to be an outsider. They can choose to observe the game quietly themselves in the middle of the crowd or cheer with other spectators. Evidence suggests that a football fan's enthusiasm can gush from two sources: from the sense of community and from the interest in the game. Sense of community arises from the feeling of belonging to the global football community, to your own team and to a circle of friends. The interest in the game includes football as a sport, regular events watched actively and supporting your own team. Neo-tribe theories are not very relevant in this context, because football supporters are very loyal to the game and to their own club. It is more important to create tight bonds with a small collective, with whom they share a common history and they can share experiences through discussions and by memorizing.