Browsing by Subject "content analysis"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-19 of 19
  • Katila, Anni-Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Meat consumption in the world is increasing, which has significant negative effects on the ongoing climate change. There is a need to make people change their diets towards more plant-based. One of the problems is that there is a negative atmosphere around veganism and vegans that prevents the change. In order to get people more plant-based, that negative atmosphere around veganism and vegans should be reduced. The aim of this study is to find out what kind of arguments are used against veganism and vegans, and what rhetorical strategies are used in these arguments. Previous studies have shown that there is still a strong belief that meat is a necessary part of the diet to keep one healthy. Studies also show, that the reason people do not change their diets can be attitudinal, for example that people think they are meant to eat meat, or practical, for example that there is not enough information available. The material for this study is from the Finnish online discussion forum Suomi24 and consists of messages that are against veganism and vegans. The Suomi24 data was retrieved from the KORP interface, where it was possible to search messages related to veganism. There is no information about the people behind the messages, because they are anonymous on the forum. The material was analysed with content analysis and strengthened with rhetorical analysis. Categorization was part of the analysis and categories were coded to the material in the Atlas.ti program. As a result, there were seven main categories and 28 sub-categories under two parent categories. The most common arguments against veganism and vegans were related to health, vegans as individuals and how vegans act. The most commonly used rhetorical strategies were factual argumentation, categorization, extreme expression and taking distance from one’s own interests. As a conclusion, to be able to increase plant-based food in people’s diets, more available information is needed, and positive encouragement without incrimination to build up an attractive atmosphere around veganism and vegans.
  • Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle (2013)
    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA framework: (1) knowledge of science (content knowledge), (2) knowledge about science, (3) competences, and (4) contexts. The analysis revealed that the Thai curriculum was more similar to the PISA framework than was the Finnish curriculum. The Thai curriculum emphasizes the scientific process and the Finnish curriculum the concepts and contexts in which these concepts meet, rather than the process.
  • Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Kijung; Lappeman, James; Salo, Jari (2021)
    Recreational cyclists are pertinent but rarely studied leisure and tourism segment. Recreational cycling has traditionally been considered as a ‘masculine stereotyped’ sport. The purpose of the research is to better understand a gendered consumer view of recreational cycling and to possibly promote recreational cycling to women and men in countries like South Africa with keen interests of recreational cycling in the form of sport tourism. This research employs a content analysis of social media posts on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter as a research method. Specifically, the gendered nature of recreational cycling is focused upon. In total, 2,504 posts from 1,598 unique authors from South Africa are analysed. As a result, this research shows that in the South African context male cyclists tend to like to attend the specialised event and race for their health and fitness while female cyclists seem to find more enjoyable and family-friendly (children focused) cycling. The results also confirm the paradox that women are generally presented in more family oriented roles, while men are typically shown as more independent in the media. Managerial implications and future research are also presented.
  • Nygrén, Nina; Lyytimäki, Jari; Tapio, Petri (Elsevier, 2012)
    Transport Policy 24 (2012), pages 159-167
    Societies are increasingly characterised by increasing mobility of people and materials. Consequently, harmful environmental impacts of transport are likely to increase unless specific policies aimed at mitigating these impacts can be successfully implemented. Based on EU-level requirements for carbon dioxide emission reductions, a car tax reform was enacted in Finland in 2008. By using the environmental protection process (EPP) framework as a conceptual tool, we perform a quantitative content analysis of media discussion of the car tax reform. The EPP framework is an integrative tool, aimed at an overall view of the characteristics of environmental problems and mitigation measures. The results show that societal factors, emissions, measures and the potential side-effects of the reform dominated the media discussion. Short-term impacts were emphasised over longer-term perspectives in the discussion’s future-orientation. Overall, it seems that in spite of a relatively wide-ranging discussion, the media debate contributed only marginally to public understanding of the prerequisites for environmentally sustainable transport.
  • Särkijärvi, Anu (Helsingfors universitet, 1999)
    The purpose of the research was to study how Finnish lower-stage schools participating in the international network of UNESCO schools, also called the Associated Schools Project (ASP), prepare their students for the future at the level of their school-based curriculums. In the research, the future trends were discussed, and the importance of their consideration in educational practice was explained from a global viewpoint: Based on the examination of today's problematic world state, and development trends characterized by globalization, the challenges and demands set for schooling and education in the future were discussed. Understanding the significance of an individual's action and responsibility was considered to be the central resource for building a more just and sustainable future. The study was grounded on a theoretical model developed by the researcher, which combined the models of Dalin & Rust (1996) and UNESCO (Delors et al. 1996) about future-oriented learning. The model consists of four basic elements of curriculum; "Nature", "Culture", "Myself", and "Others", and four dimension of learning; "Learning to know", "Learning to do", "Learning to live together" and "Learning to be". The model represents the holistic aspect of educational theory, and its aim is to maintain a balance between its different components. The research material composed of ten lower-stage UNESCO schools' school-based curriculums. They were analyzed using the theoretical model by the methology of content analysis. The research results were notably consistent between the different schools. They showed cultural learning and learning concerned with "myself" to be clearly more emphasized than learning referring to nature and other people. In addition, they reflected the central position of subjects, knowledge and skills, thus leaving the development of the pupils' personalities, and particularly learning concerned with living with other people, in a marginal role. The question about whether the schools prepare for the future interms of their curriculums, was discussed in the light of the results. The research offered a way and a model to approach the relationship between education and the future, and to evaluate schools' future-orientation. Based on the results, the schools are suggested to lay more stress on learning concerned with nature and other people, and focus more on developing the mental capasities of their pupils and competencies they need for living with other people. Above all, what the present societies require of schools is education which produces balanced and broadly aware human beings who have the mental strength to face the challenges of the future and abilities to direct it along the lines they desire.
  • Räsänen, Sari (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Maternity and child health clinics have a central role in preventing childhood obesity and providing the entire family with lifestyle counselling. The Pilot Intervention Study on Diet of Toddlers in Finland aims at evaluating the feasibility of a nutrition intervention in child health clinics. The Resourceful Family counselling method developed by the Finnish Heart Association is a family-centred and empowerment-based method employed in child health clinics that are part of the nutrition intervention group in the Pilot Intervention Study on Diet of Toddlers in Finland. The aim of this thesis was to describe the discussions about lifestyle issues in child health clinic. Another aim was to evaluate the translation of the principles and objectives of the Resourceful Family method into practice. Ten child’s one-year visits to child health clinic recorded in the Pilot Intervention Study on Diet of Toddlers in Finland were analyzed in this study. The check-up visits had been recorded in three child health clinics where the nutrition intervention was carried out. The research method was content analysis. The most frequent themes in discussions about lifestyle during the child’s one-year visit to child health clinic were: adjusting of the child to the family diet, milk or milk products in the child’s diet and vitamin D supplementation of the child (discussed during 8/10 child health clinic appointments). Salt in food preparation was also a common theme (6/10). In nearly all of the appointments (9/10) one or more theme related to the lifestyle of parents and/or the entire family was discussed. The nurse mostly controlled the counselling situation by bringing up new topics. The nurses invited families to participate in the discussions in more than half of the appointments in accordance with a specific guidance practice part of the Resourceful Family counselling method. The nurses linked the invitation to the Resourceful Family card. They provided families with information in a neutral manner. Some of the information provided was client-centred. Discussions related to changing habits were evident in more than half of the appointments. These discussions did not lead to setting specific goals or creating plans due to the lack of guidance practices aimed at helping the family proceed in the change process. Family-centred and resource-based lifestyle counselling should be developed especially regarding motivating the family and supporting the family members in the change process. Thus the importance of these two areas of counselling should be emphasized in the education of nurses.
  • Kalli, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Aim of this master's thesis paper for consumer economics, is to research gambling advertisements in Finland over a period of 35 years, from 1970 to 2006. Veikkaus Oy (later Veikkaus), was founded in 1940, as one of the three licensed gambling organizations in Finland. Material for the current research comprised 1494 advertisements published by Veikkaus in newspapers and magazines at that time. Veikkaus has the exclusive licence to organize lotto games, sport games, instant games and other draw games in Finland. The other two operators, The Finnish Slot Machine Association RAY and Fintoto (on-track horse betting), were not included in the current analysis. This study has been completed according to research contract and grand by the Finnish Foundation for Gaming Research (Pelitoiminnan tutkimussäätiö). In general, advertisements reflect surrounding culture and time, and their message is built on stratified meanings, symbols and codes. Advertising draws the viewer's attention, introduces the advertised subject, and finally, affects the individual's consumption habits. However, advertisements not only work on individual level, but also influence public perception of the advertised product. Firstly, in order to assess gambling as a phenomenon, this paper discusses gambling as consumer behaviour, and also reviews history of gambling in Finland. Winning is a major feature of gambling, and dreaming about positive change of life is a centre of most gambling ads. However, perceived excitement through risk of losing can also be featured in gambling ads. Secondly, this study utilizes Veikkaus’ large advertising archives, were advertising data is analyzed by content analysis and the semiotic analysis. Two methods have been employed to support analyzing outcome in a synergistic way. Content analysis helps to achieve accuracy and comprehensiveness. Semiotic analysis allows deeper and more sensitive analysis to emerged findings and occurrences. It is important to understand the advertised product, as advertising is bound to the culture and time. Hence, to analyze advertising, it is important to understand the environment where the ads appear. Content analysis of Veikkaus data discovered the main gambling and principal advertisement style for each.period. Interestingly, nearly half of Veikkaus’ advertisements promoted topic other than “just winning the bet”. Games of change, like Lotto, typically advertised indirectly represented dreams about winning. In the category of skill gambling, features were represented as investment, and the excitement of sporting expertise was emphasized. In addition, there were a number of gambling ads that emphasize social responsibility of Veikkaus as a government guided organization. Semiotic methods were employed to further elaborate on findings of content analysis. Dreaming in the advertisements was represented by the product of symbols, (e.g. cars and homes) that were found to have significance connection with each other. Thus, advertising represents change of life obtained by the winning. Interestingly, gambling ads promoting jackpots were often representing religious symbolisms. Ads promoting social responsibility were found to be the most common during economical depression of the 90’s. Deeper analysis showed that at that time, advertisements frequently represented depression-related meanings, such as unemployment and bank loans. Skill gaming ads were often represented by sports expertise – late 90’s, their number started sky rocketing, and continued increasing until 2006 (when this study ended). One may conclude that sport betting draws its meanings from the relevant consumer culture, and from the rules and features of the betted sport.
  • Jäntti, Heli-Noora (Helsingfors universitet, 2019)
    Farmasian ammattilaiset ovat lääkealan asiantuntijoita, joilta vaaditaan uudenlaista osaamista muun muassa teknologiakehityksen myötä. Nykypäivän asiantuntijuus edellyttää alakohtaisen eli sisällöllisen osaamisen lisäksi geneerisiä eli yleisiä taitoja ja ammatti-identiteetin muodostumista. Geneerisillä taidoilla tarkoitetaan yleishyödyllisiä taitoja, kuten ongelmanratkaisu- ja kommunikointitaitoja. Ammatti-identiteetillä tarkoitetaan käsitystä omasta työminästä, jonka avulla omaa roolia ja työnkuvaa järkeistetään. Näiden elementtien muodostamaa osaamisen kokonaisuutta kutsutaan kompetenssiksi. Asiantuntijoilta vaadittavan osaamisen muutos on ohjannut yliopistoja vastaamaan paremmin työelämän tarpeisiin. Helsingin yliopistossa toteutettiin Iso Pyörä -koulutusuudistus, jossa koulutusohjelmia uudistettiin komeptenssilähtöisesti. Kaikkiin koulutusohjelmiin ja opintojaksoihin lisättiin osaamistavoitteet, jotka opiskelijoiden tulisi saavuttaa valmistumiseensa mennessä. Osaamistavoitteiden täyttymistä edistää esimerkiksi portfoliotyöskentely, minkä avulla opiskelijat pääsevät hyödyntämään ja kehittämään reflektiotaitojaan. Opiskelijat voivat tuoda opetuksen kehittämiseen aivan uudenlaista näkökulmaa avatessaan käsityksiään esimerkiksi hyvistä opetusmenetelmistä, mitkä ovat auttaneet heitä saavuttamaan laaditut osaamistavoitteet. Toisaalta opiskelijoiden näkökulmasta saadaan tietoa, mikä osaaminen voidaan kokea puutteelliseksi, jolloin opetuksen kehittäminen on mahdollista. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää opiskelijoiden käsityksiä omasta osaamisestaan ja ammatti-identiteetistään sekä millä tasoilla opiskelijat reflektoivat osaamistaan. Tutkimuksessa analysoitiin vuoden 2017 kolmannen vuosikurssin kandiportfolion loppureflektioesseet käyttäen aineistolähtöistä sisällönanalyysimenetelmää. Esseissä opiskelijat reflektoivat osaamistaan suhteessa farmaseutin tutkinnolle asetettuihin osaamistavoitteisiin ja pohtivat omaa ammatti-identiteettiään. Tulosten mukaan opiskelijat saavuttivat monipuolista osaamista lääkkeiden ja lääkehoitojen näkökulmasta sekä kehittivät geneerisiä taitojaan. Puutteellisesti hallittiin useimmiten kielitaito sekä yrityksen ja yhteiskunnan taloudelliset periaatteet. Opiskelijoiden mukaan farmaseutin ammatti-identiteettiä määrittelevät erityisesti lääkeosaaminen ja terveydenhuolto sekä ammatin arvostaminen. Opiskelijoiden pohtimat valmiudet mukailivat osaamistavoitteita. Opiskelijat osasivat arvioida omaa osaamistaan ja nostaa esille vahvuuksiaan ja heikkouksiaan. Opetussuunnitelmaan on onnistuttu sisällyttämään geneeristen taitojen opetus, sillä opiskelijat kokivat saavuttaneensa näitä taitoja pääasiassa hyvin. Opetusta tulisi kehittää kielitaidon ja liiketalouden kohdalla, sillä nämä koettiin usein puutteellisesti hallituksi. Ammatti-identiteettikäsitykset mukailivat kirjallisuutta, sillä muissa tutkimuksissa on saatu samankaltaisia tuloksia.
  • Lyu, Bingying (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Modern China has entered an era of risk society. The emerging public crises are challenging the government's reactions including the openness and speed of information, the reconstruction of credibility and reputation. On the other hand, the media environment has changed enormously. Despite the tight censorship of China's traditional media, social media provide both opportunities and challenges for government crisis communication in terms of its fast speed of transmitting and instantaneous sharing of information, reliance on user-generated content, and openness of public opinions and easiness to access. Since social media are empowered to reshape the public opinion field, media manipulation from the government changes accordingly. Therefore, this study focuses on the way social media was used actively in the crisis communication in the 2013 Ya'an earthquake by the Chinese government and respond from the public. Mixed research methods are used in the study, including content analysis as quantitative method, and frame analysis as qualitative method. This research first identifies how did the state-owned media presented the crisis. Subsequently, it explores what crisis communication strategies the state-owned media applies on social media during the earthquake, and how effective those strategies are based on attitudes of the public. As an authoritarian country, the Chinese government used to cover crisis and suppress discussions to maintain stability of the society, which caused distrust among the public. However, different from the stereotype, the Chinese government tends to guide public opinion to the positive direction rather than hiding the truth nowadays. Based on the analysis, the conclusion can be drawn clearly how the Chinese government managed and responded to the crisis through the state-owned media.
  • Salo, Kirsi Hannele (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The rise of Special education numbers in Finland has caused a situation where Finland's ten largest LEA's so called kymppikunnat (ten communes) have expressed their growing concern of organizing the special education in the current institutional settings. The LEA's started the conversation of redefining special education system in 2004. Their aim was to target the governments attention to the problematics of special education. By the request of the Ministry of Education the LEA's prepared a final report concerning the central questions in the Finnish special education system. On the basis of the LEA's survey it became even clearer that the legislation, funding system and curriculum are tightly linked together. The following LEA's took part into the writing process Espoo, Helsinki, Jyväskylä, Kuopio, Lahti, Lappeenranta, Tampere, Turku and Vantaa. The report was hand over to the Ministry of Education at 18.8.2006. After the delivery the Ministry organized special education development group meetings 17 times in the year 2007. The result of the LEA's report and the development meetings was a new Special Education Strategy 2007. I am observing the dialogue between administrational levels in governmental institutions change process. The research is a content analysis where I compare the "Erityistä tukea tarvitsevan oppilaan opetuksen järjestämisen uudistaminen osana yhtenäistä perusopetusta- kohti laatua ja joustavuutta" (The renewal of the organization of teaching for student with special educational needs as part of unified education for all - towards quality and flexibility) document to "Erityisopetuksen strategia" (Special education strategy) document. My aim was to find out how much of their own interests have the LEA's been able to integrate into the official governmental documentation. The data has been organized and analyzed quantitatively with Macros created as additional parts in Microsoft Excel software. The document material has also been arranged manually on sentence based categorization into an Excel matrix. The results have been theoretically viewed from the special education reform dialogue perspective, and from the angle of the change process of a bureaucratic institution. My target has been to provide a new viewpoint to the change of special education system as a bureaucratic institution. The education system has traditionally been understood as a machine bureaucracy. By the review provided in my pro gradu analysis it seems however that the administrational system in special education is more of a postmodern network bureaucracy than machine bureaucracy. The system appears to be constructed by overlapping, crossing and complex networks where things are been decided. These kinds of networks are called "governance networks . It seems that the governmental administrational - and politic levels, the third sector actors and other society's operators are mixed in decision making.
  • Kasurinen, Jaana (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of the culture of the veil among Somali women in Finland. The research deals with ethnicity, identity, easing the immigrant's readjustment with the help of one's own culture, and the connection between the religion of Islam and the veil. The veil will be studied from both the historical and religious point of view. The research will also familiarize the reader with the dress code for women in the Koran. The empirical part of the research is carried out as a qualitative study with the help of content analysis, with emphasis in phenomenology. The aim of the phenomenological research method is to reach a person's experience world, and to search for common contents from individual experiences. The material for this study has been collected by interviewing ten Somali women. Some of the women wear veils, some do not. It can be said, on the ground of this research, that the decision about taking on the veil is made by the women themselves. The main cause for wearing the veil is to indicate religiousness. As other motives we can see a search for security, enhancing of solidarity, individual interpretation of the instructions of the religion, covering the ethnic dress while outside, protecting men from the beauty of women, and wearing the veil in the mosque or while praying. As a latent motive we can point out the resisting of Western culture. Not wearing the veil can be justified by the women's need for independence, the veil being unpractical, the want of modernity, the alternation of different ways of dressing, the adaptation of the new culture, abandoning one's own culture, and abandoning the external emphasizing of the religion. Also the veil is not part of the Somali culture; it is a habit adapted from elsewhere.
  • Jolkkonen, Tytti (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of the study was to look at who was involved in the Helsingin Sanomat's debate on the segregation process in Finnish comprehensive schools and what kind of institutional positions they were talking from. In addition, this study explores the main themes and views of the debate. Previously, there has been limited research in this area, which should be considered as an important topic for Finnish education and needs to be understood. The theoretical basis of this study contains the examination of the development of Finnish school policy and how the Finnish school system has formed during the past decades. The existing research data related to the school segregation has also been taken into account. The data consisted of 52 articles from Helsingin Sanomat newspaper. The articles were published during the period 2005-2014 and all of them were dealing with the School segregation process. The research method was qualitative content analysis, which was supported by calculating essential factors from the research data. The research showed that the debate on the segregation process in Finnish comprehensive schools was divided into eight different themes: reasons for the segregation process of schools, free school choice, where school segregation is reflected, proponents of neighbourhood school principle, perspective of educational equality, what has already been done to prevent the segregation process, what should be done to prevent the segregation process and where schools inequality leads to if nothing is done. The most common theme was what should be done to prevent the school segregation process and it was mainly the researchers and the officials of the school administration that participated in the discussion. Politicians, headmasters and teachers were also involved in the debate, however, ordinary citizens and parents were conspicuous by their absence. Helsingin Sanomat appeared to take a fairly active part in the debate but the primary aim of the newspaper seemed to have been to offer a discussion forum to third parties.
  • Parman, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Based on previous studies, neoliberal features have been observed in Finnish education policy. The government has made education-related reforms in recent years. My research examines the recent public debate surrounding education reforms in a neoliberal framework. I examine what themes, goals, rationales, and attitudes toward education reform are given in the public debate. I will try to find out how neoliberalism manifests itself in these debates. The aim of my dissertation is to bring out the public debate around education reforms and education policy. The study of the debate is intended to bring out different perspectives and voices, from education policy experts, academics, students, and individual citizens. I examine the manifestations of neoliberal education policy in the light of these debates. My research is a qualitative study. I search answers to two research questions. My data consists of articles. As a research method, I used content analysis. The data of my research consists of 51 articles by Helsingin Sanomat published in 2015–2019. Articles were analyzed by content analysis. Through content analysis, I found four different themes. I looked at the results in a neoliberal framework. The education reform debate revolved around student selection, industry changers, education cuts, and education policy. The debate around education reforms was controversial. On the one hand, education reforms were justified as profitable and good ideas, but on the other hand, they were criticized and questioned. Educational reforms raised concerns and appeared to pose threats to education and the scientific community, as well as to society. Based on the discussion, neoliberal features emerge in education reforms.
  • Virtanen, Hennariikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    The aim of this work was to study what kind of working grips people use to knit in Finland and decide if one grip is superior to others. I investigated how knitters have adopted their grips and how they experience their knitting. I also explored whether it is possible to change one's grip. To provide a theoretical basis for the research I observed knitting in terms of culture, skill and ergonomics. The first part of the study material comprised video recordings of the grips of 95 knitters together with background information collected via a questionnaire during the education of craft teachers at the University of Helsinki in spring 2004, 2005 and 2006. Using the data obtained I focused on three knitters, whose grip of the knitting needles clearly differed from the ergonomically good grip. In addition to them I interviewed one student, who had changed over to more ergonomic way of knitting after participating in the first part of this study. In this respect my study is a several events' case study. In order to analyse my data I used both qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to complement each other. Most of my research participants had learned to knit in first years of elementary school or comprehensive school. Almost everyone had adopted the basics of knitting by imitating, and many of them had corrected "incorrect" positions from verbal instructions. Through practice the imitated position had gradually become the style unique to each knitter. The findings showed that students' background in knitting is quite varied due to the diverse level of craft teaching. This is reflected in their knitting grips and their interest in knitting. Students do not think that there is one right working grip. The most important thing is that working seems as fluent and relaxed as possible, at which point knitting is easy and flows freely. They often consider their own style so pleasing and well-functioning that they do not think there could be any room for improvement. This study pointed out that, while it is possible to change a knitter's working grip, there is a bigger challenge in acknowledging weaknesses in one's know how. According to the results of my research, the most common working grip among Finnish knitters' corresponds with the grip that has been described as ergonomically good. Over one third of all participants knitted this way. Hands keep the knitting firmly but without tension. The forefinger that guides the yarn from the ball rests gently against the knitting needle, and the yarn goes in front of the first joint of the forefinger. The position of the hands and loops is the same as in the ergonomically good grip, i.e. the fingertips of both hands and the loops are near the tips of the knitting needles, so that the fingers only have to move small distances. When knitters purl and plain, they commonly pick up the yarn from the back of the knitting needle in the same way as when knitting. While researching the common features of working grips I have learned what abnormal grips are like. Although I recognized many different ways to knit, all the peculiar grips were modifications of the continental way of knitting. The results of this study give a clear picture of those points knitters should focus their attention on in order to gain a good hold of the needles.
  • Sothayapetch , Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle (2013)
    Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and General Pedagogical Knowledge (GPK) are fundamental types of knowledge for a teacher that he or she must use in order to plan, teach in the classroom, and assess students’ learning outcomes. This paper investigates experienced primary school teachers’ PCK and GPK while teaching science in Finland and in Thailand. Teachers’ interview data were analysed by using deductive and inductive content analysis. The analysis units were analysed according to the categories and sub-categories of PCK and GPK. In addition, the frequencies of all PCK and GPK sub-categories were counted and presented by country. The analysis revealed that the Finnish teachers had flexibility in their teaching: they did not have specific techniques with which to handle students; the techniques used depend on the situations occurring at the moment. There were no strict rules for student discipline in the class. They emphasised the teaching of concepts through textbook and computer materials. In Thailand, the teachers emphasised the teaching and learning of procedural knowledge and consequently used experimentation, along with authentic materials in the lab. There were student discipline problems in the classroom; therefore, rules were set up to cope with those problems.
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.
  • Rautiainen, Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of evaluation of learning and feedback among teachers and students of mechanical engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology. The differences and similarities between the perceptions of these two groups were also studied. Course feedback was examined, and a target was set to rationalize the collation and exploitation of the feedback data. The theoretical background for the evaluation of learning was based primarily on the theories of Brown (1997), Karjalainen (2001) and Rowntree (1977, 1988). The Biggs (2003) model on aligned teaching was used as an example of quality university education. Feedback practices were examined through the theory of Ramsden (1992) and many recent research articles. Methods. The qualitative study was executed by examining the evaluation of learning and feedback practices of the courses in mechanical engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology. The data was gathered by interviewing the teachers responsible of basic and postgraduate studies, as well as students taking their basic studies. Four group interviews were arranged for both teachers and students, each with three participants. The data from these themed interviews were analyzed by means of content analysis. Result and conclusions. This study showed that teachers and students have similar perceptions of evaluation of learning and feedback excluding a few significant differences. The most essential difference in evaluation of learning was that students perceived the evaluation of the examinations to be inaccurate. Teachers on the other hand thought that the existing practice for the exam evaluation is working fine. Students also felt that they are not giving enough information on the opportunities to get feedback. Teachers instead expected students to actively ask for feedback. Students perceived the need for exploiting the course feedback for course development purposes more than before. Teachers saw foremost the challenges and problems in the exploitation of the feedback. In the future, more effort must be put on the research of the evaluation of learning and feedback, as the quality assurance and continuous improvement of the teaching calls for new data.
  • Neuvonen, Eerika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Corporations’ desire to act in a responsible way as well as the amount of sustainability guidelines has increased during the past decades. Responsible Care (RC) program is an international sustainable development guideline practiced in chemical industry. The program focuses on sustainable use of natural resources, safety and sustainability of production and products, well-being of work community and reduction of waste and emissions. This study seeks to examine the correspondence of contents between national Responsible Care (RC) program in Finland and sustainability framework guidelines known worldwide. The aim of the study is to examine how corporations in chemical industry who follow the national RC program can meet the goals of sustainability framework guidelines, what are the main differences between the national RC program and other sustainability guidelines, and how the national RC program should be improved. The research methods include the content analysis and in-depth interview for corporations. In this research, the sustainability framework is built and the involved guidelines are specified. The national RC program is reflected on the sustainability framework guidelines through content analysis. A model for comparative content analysis is developed to compare the contents of sustainability guidelines by the means of qualitative data visualization through radar charts. The corporate in-depth interviews are applied with a view to obtain complete and comprehensive responses. This study demonstrates that the national RC program highly corresponds to sustainability framework guidelines in terms of environmental responsibility and safety, while the RC program less highlights the dimensions of social and economic responsibility. Based on the main differences, the possible targets for improvement in the national RC program are suggested to enhance consideration of economic and social aspects in the program. From the in-depth interviews, corporations recognize the national RC program to be a useful tool to implement and develop corporation’s sustainability work, yet there is a need to better correspondence with sustainability framework guidelines and to be more user-friendly in practice.