Browsing by Subject "context"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Barton, David Nicholas; Kelemen, Eszter; Dick, Jan; Martín-López, Berta; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Jacobs, Sander; Hendriks, C.M.A.; Termansen, Mette; Garcia-Llorente, M.; Primmer, Eeva; Dunford, Rob; Harrison, Paula; Turkelboom, Francis; Saarikoski, Heli; van Dijk, J.; Rusch, Graciela M.; Palomo, Ignacio; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Carvalho, Laurence; Baro, Francesc; Langemeyer, Johannes; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Mederly, Peter; Priess, Joerg; Luque, Sandra; Berry, Pam; Santos, Rui; Odee, David; Martinez Pastur, Guillermo; Garcia Blanco, Gemma; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Silaghi, Diana; Pataki, György; Masi, Fabio; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima; Lapola, David (2018)
    The operational challenges of integrated ecosystem service (ES) appraisals are determined by study purpose, system complexity and uncertainty, decision-makers' requirements for reliability and accuracy of methods, and approaches to stakeholder-science interaction in different decision contexts. To explore these factors we defined an information gap hypothesis, based on a theory of cumulative uncertainty in ES appraisals. When decision context requirements for accuracy and reliability increase, and the expected uncertainty of the ES appraisal methods also increases, the likelihood of methods being used is expected to drop, creating a potential information gap in governance. In order to test this information gap hypothesis, we evaluate 26 case studies and 80 ecosystem services appraisals in a large integrated EU research project. We find some support for a decreasing likelihood of ES appraisal methods coinciding with increasing accuracy and reliability requirements of the decision-support context, and with increasing uncertainty. We do not find that information costs are the explanation for this information gap, but rather that the research project interacted mostly with stakeholders outside the most decision-relevant contexts. The paper discusses how alternative definitions of integrated valuation can lead to different interpretations of decision-support information, and different governance approaches to dealing with uncertainty. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bujalski, Michał; Hellman, Matilda; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Beccaria, Franca; Rolando, Sara (2018)
    Aims: The article presents an analysis of sources of information employed in mainstream print media reporting on addiction problems in Finland, Italy and Poland in the 1990s and 2000s. Method: A quantitative content analysis of frequency of different sources employed in articles in daily newspapers from Finland (N = 258), Italy (N = 296), and Poland (N = 212) from the years 1991, 1998 and 2011. Semantic units were coded in Atlas.ti. The societal spheres represented were identified using a common coding scheme broadly inspired by Boltanski and Thevenot's typology of polities of worth. Transformations were identified in line with van Leeuwen's framework for trends in discourse salience over time. Results: The study highlights different patterns of coverage of addictions in the three countries. Over time, increased salience is given to the individuals affected by addictions and experts who represent biomedical sciences. This process occurred with varying intensity and expressiveness in all countries under study. Conclusions: Social and political sources were employed to less extent over time. The media focus seemed to shift to the affected individuals and scientific expertise. This confirms results from previous studies on a general move towards individualisation and an increased focus on more personal and technical aspects of addiction problems in the mass media.
  • Koveshnikov, Alexei (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014)
    Economics and Society – 278
    Multinational corporations (MNC) are often presented as powerful but ‘faceless’ institutional actors that shape the world we live in. However, we have lately seen increasing interest in actual ‘faces,’ that is the key actors, behind the MNC’s functioning in relation to the cases of fraud and bankruptcy that, together with other factors, led to the severe financial crisis at the end of 2000s. The cases of Enron and Lehman Brothers easily come to mind. It raised concerns that power abuses and tricky political games developing and proliferating within MNCs can have tremendous corporate as well as societal impacts and consequences. Yet, as of now, the micro-level power and political relations between actors in MNCs and their implications, i.e. what I call in this thesis ‘micro-politics,’ are seldom examined. Moreover, neither is the role that the institutional, cultural and sociopolitical contexts play in these micro-political relations among actors within MNCs sufficiently understood. Against this background, in this thesis I attempt to give ‘a face’ to the MNC. That is, I apply a number of ideas from comparative institutional theory, social cognition and translation studies to examine micro-political aspects of the interactions between organizational actors in MNCs that determine how these corporations function both on day to day basis and in a longer run. By so doing, I strive to offer a more nuanced, contextualized, and actor-focused sociological understanding of power and political interactions among organizational actors within the MNC. It is important to study and comprehend these processes in order to better explain them and to some extent control them.
  • Marin, Hanni (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The aim of the study was to describe persuasive performance and its impressions in Communications Agency Deskis 'Oma Puheenvuoro' concept's news videos. Persuasive performance was explored in a new context from the fields of television and internet media studies. The new concept was web television. The theories and studies were chosen to fit with the context and persuasiveness. The purpose was to find out how persuasive performance is in online videos and what kinds of impressions does persuasive performance create. Persuasive performance and its implications were evaluated based on six Communications Agency Deski's news videos. The evaluation was done by an evaluation panel that consisted of communications professionals. Two evaluation measurements were created for the study. The first measurement measured persuasive performance in the online videos by thirteen statements which were divided in to four performance skill areas. The other measurement weighted the impressions of the performance by seventeen statements. Both measurements had open commentary options with the purpose of deepening the study results. The evaluation panel evaluated the performances persuasive and the impressions of the performance positive. Argumentation and content skills were seen as more persuasive than speech structure and articulacy skills. Relevance, credibility and consistency were evaluated as persuasive impressions of performance where as compelling, pleasant or interesting impressions were not seen as persuasive. Based on the results a conclusion can be made that the persuasive performance in online television can be studied by comparing the level of persuasiveness compared to the impressions of performance. The results indicate that certain features in online television context influence the persuasiveness. The results of this study contribute to enhancing the persuasive performance in online television shows.