Browsing by Subject "conversation"

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  • Nelson, Marie; Henricson, Sofie; Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny (2015)
    Ett samtal är ett dynamiskt växelspel som kännetecknas av initiativ och olika former av återkoppling. Vem som gör vad i samtalet påverkas av den aktuella situationen, av samtalsdeltagarnas förhållande till varandra och av den språkliga och kulturella inramningen. I den här artikeln presenteras en studie av återkoppling i handledningssamtal där hand-ledare och studenter vid svenskspråkiga universitet och högskolor i Finland respektive Sverige interagerar med varandra.Med återkoppling menar vi hur samtalsdeltagarna reagerar på varandras kommunikativa handlingar och samtidigt visar att handlingarna åtminstone i någon mån tagits emot. Återkoppling inkluderar därmed såväl uppbackningar som responsiva turer. En uppbackning fungerar som ett stöd till men inte ett direkt svar på eller kommentar till en annan samtalsdeltagares samtalsbidrag (Green-Vänttinen 2001:57), medan en responsiv tur utgör en självständig språkhandling som bidrar till samtalsämnet (Linell & Gustavsson 1987:60). I avsnitt 2 för vi ett närmare resonemang kring fenomenet återkoppling och de avgränsningar och indelningar vi använt oss av i denna studie.Syftet med föreliggande undersökning av återkoppling i handledningssamtal är att jämföra autentiska finlandssvenska och sverigesvenska samtal för att söka likheter och skillnader i kommunikativa mönster. Studien utgör således ett bidrag till den variationspragmatiska forskningen. Variations¬pragmatiken är en relativt ny forskningsinriktning som kombinerar ett intresse för pragmatisk variation med ett intresse för geografisk och social variation (Schneider & Barron 2008:1).
  • Pyörälä, Eeva; Korsberg, Hanna; Peltonen, Liisa M (2021)
    Universities invest in teaching academies to reward outstanding teachers. Few studies have been published about the impact of teaching academies on teaching communities. The aim of this study was to see who excellent academic teachers spoke to when they discussed teaching and learning, and what kind of community a Teachers' Academy established in 2013 offered to its Fellows. We analysed the answers to two open-ended questions from two surveys. The first survey (2013) was addressed to first-round applicants to the Academy in 2013 (N = 46, 32%) and the second (2018) to its Fellows (N = 56, 65%). In both surveys, most teachers had meaningful discussions with their close colleagues. In the second survey, the conversations with pedagogical experts merged with the discussions at the Academy. The 2018 survey also examined how well the Academy's key objectives of providing teachers with an interdisciplinary community and peer support had been achieved in five years. The Academy had become an important community for teachers, in which teachers shared mutual appreciation for teaching and collaborated across disciplinary boundaries and campuses. A challenge for a teaching academy is to support its fellows in implementing the principles of scholarship of teaching and learning, that is, carrying out scholarly educational projects and sharing the results locally, nationally and internationally.
  • Hirvenkari, Lotta; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Kivioja, Maari Kanerva; Peräkylä, Anssi; Hari, Riitta (2013)
    In natural conversation, the minimal gaps and overlaps of the turns at talk indicate an accurate regulation of the timings of the turn-taking system. Here we studied how the turn-taking affects the gaze of a non-involved viewer of a two-person conversation. The subjects were presented with a video of a conversation while their eye gaze was tracked with an infrared camera. As a control, the video was presented without sound and the sound with still image of the speakers. Turns at talk directed the gaze behaviour of the viewers; their gaze followed, rather than predicted, the speakership change around the turn transition. Both visual and auditory cues presented alone also induced gaze shifts towards the speaking person, although significantly less and later than when the cues of both modalities were available. These results show that the organization of turn-taking has a strong influence on the gaze patterns of even non-involved viewers of the conversation, and that visual and auditory cues are in part redundant in guiding the viewers’ gaze.
  • Korkiakoski, Sonja (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkielma käsittelee kuuntelijan käytöstä keskustelussa: hänen kielellistä sekä eleellistä palautettaan (backchannelling). Aineistonani on kolme videoitua keskustelua Scottish Corpus of Text and Speech –korpuksesta (SCOTS), ja niistä samassa korpuksessa olevat litteraatit. Keskustelut ovat noin puolen tunnin mittaisia kahden naisopiskelijan keskusteluja, ja ne sijoittuvat huoneeseen, jossa heidän lisäkseen on kaksi nauhoittajaa. Tarkoituksena on tutkia kolmea asiaa: kulkevatko jotkin suulliset palaute-elementit käsi kädessä tiettyjen eleiden kanssa, vaikuttavatko eleet kyseisten elementtien merkitykseen, ja millaisia kuuntelijoita keskustelijat ylipäätään ovat. Käytän termiä palaute tässä tutkielmassa viittaamaan ilmiöön, jolla kuuntelija verbaalisesti viestii puhujalle, keskeyttämättä hänen puheenvuoroaan, miten keskustelu sujuu. Tällaisen palautteen tärkein tehtävä on rohkaista puhujaa jatkamaan, mutta samalla se voi ilmaista muun muassa kuuntelijan mielenkiintoa kyseiseen puheenaiheeseen. Koska työskentelen multimodaalisen materiaalin kanssa (litteraatti, ääni ja videokuva), käsittelen myös näiden eri materiaalimuotojen tarjoamia mahdollisuuksia aiheeni tutkimuksessa. Yleisin palaute-elementti aineistossani on yeah, joka suurimmaksi osaksi esiintyy samanaikaisesti nyökkäyksen kanssa. Toisiksi suosituin on nauru, jota käyttää neljä kuudesta kuuntelijasta. Naurua ei ole lähdeteoksissani mainittu, joten tämä tulos johtuu joko uudistamastani palautteen määritelmästä, tai siitä, että materiaalinani on 2000-luvulla tuotettu, luonteva nuorten opiskelijoiden puhe. Eleillä kuuntelijat voivat sekä antaa että vahvistaa suullisten palautteen merkitystä: merkitykseltään neutraali mm voi esimerkiksi tarkoittaa samaa mieltä olemista yhdistämällä nyökkäys kyseiseen suulliseen elementtiin. Tutkielma keskittyy lingvistisiin elementteihin ja niiden kanssa samaan aikaan tehtyyn eleelliseen viestintään, joten verbaalisen palautteen prosodisuus jää vähemmälle huomiolle.
  • Laakso, Minna; Salmenlinna, Inkeri; Aaltonen, Tarja; Koskela, Inka; Ruusuvuori, Johanna (2019)
    Background To manage conversational breakdowns, individuals with hearing loss (HL) often have to request their interlocutors to repeat or clarify. Aims To examine how middle-aged hearing aid (HA) users manage conversational breakdowns by using open-class repair initiations (e.g., questions such as sorry, what and huh), and whether their use of repair initiations differs from their normally hearing interlocutors. Methods & Procedures Eighteen 45-64-year-old adults with acquired mild to moderate HL participated in the study. The participants were videotaped in everyday interactions at their homes and workplaces and in clinical encounters with hearing health professionals. Interactions were transcribed and open-class repair initiations of participants with HL and their interlocutors were identified using conversation analysis. The frequencies of initiations were analyzed statistically between the groups, and the contexts and structure of repair sequences dealing with communication breakdown were analyzed. Outcomes & Results Before acquiring HA the participants with HL reported intense use of open-class repair initiation. After HAs were acquired, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of open-class repair initiations between HA users and their interlocutors. The most common means for open-class repair initiation in the data was interrogative word mita ('what'). Vocalization ha ('huh'), apologetic expression anteeksi ('sorry') and clausal initiations (e.g., 'what did you say'/'I didn't hear') occurred less often. Open-class repair initiations emerged in contexts where they typically occur in conversation, such as topical shifts, overlapping talk and action, background noise, and disagreements. When used, open-class repair initiations most often led to repetition by the interlocutor, which immediately repaired the conversational breakdown. Long clarification sequences with multiple repair initiations did not occur. Conclusions & Implications Participants with mild to moderate HL using hearing amplification initiate open-class repair similarly to their normally hearing conversational partners when the frequency, types, contexts and structure of repair are considered. The findings diminish the stigma related to HL, HAs and the use of open-class repair. The findings suggest that HA amplifies hearing successfully in everyday conversation when the level of HL is mild to moderate. However, the evidence for the benefit of HAs remains indirect.
  • Pälli, Pekka; Vaara, Eero; Sorsa, Virpi (Sage Publications, 2010)
    Despite the acknowledged importance of strategic planning in business and other organizations, there are few studies focusing on strategy texts and the related processes of their production and consumption. In this paper, we attempt to partially fill this research gap by examining the institutionalized aspects of strategy discourse: what strategy is as genre. Combining textual analysis and analysis of conversation, the article focuses on the official strategy of the City of Lahti in Finland. Our analysis shows how specific communicative purposes and lexico-grammatical features characterize the genre of strategy and how the actual negotiations over strategy text involve particular kinds of intersubjectivity and intertextuality.