Browsing by Subject "coronal mass ejections (CMEs)"

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  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Lynch, B. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nancay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists of a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.
  • Kilpua, E. K. J.; Good, S. W.; Dresing, N.; Vainio, R.; Davies, E. E.; Forsyth, R. J.; Gieseler, J.; Lavraud, B.; Asvestari, E.; Morosan, D. E.; Pomoell, J.; Price, D. J.; Heyner, D.; Horbury, T. S.; Angelini, Corrado; O'Brien, H.; Evans, Bradley; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Herrero, R. Gomez; Ho, G. C.; Kiel, University (2021)
    Context. Sheath regions ahead of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale heliospheric structures that form gradually with CME expansion and propagation from the Sun. Turbulent and compressed sheaths could contribute to the acceleration of charged particles in the corona and in interplanetary space, but the relation of their internal structure to the particle energization process is still a relatively little studied subject. In particular, the role of sheaths in accelerating particles when the shock Mach number is low is a significant open research problem. Aims. This work seeks to provide new insights on the internal structure of CME-driven sheaths with regard to energetic particle enhancements. A good opportunity to achieve this aim was provided by multi-point, in-situ observations of a sheath region made by radially aligned spacecraft at 0.8 and similar to 1 AU (Solar Orbiter, the L1 spacecraft Wind and ACE, and BepiColombo) on April 19-21, 2020. The sheath was preceded by a weak and slowly propagating fast-mode shock. Methods. We apply a range of analysis techniques to in situ magnetic field, plasma and particle observations. The study focuses on smaller scale sheath structures and magnetic field fluctuations that coincide with energetic ion enhancements. Results. Energetic ion enhancements were identified in the sheath, but at different locations within the sheath structure at Solar Orbiter and L1. Magnetic fluctuation amplitudes at inertial-range scales increased in the sheath relative to the solar wind upstream of the shock, as is typically observed. However, when normalised to the local mean field, fluctuation amplitudes did not increase significantly; magnetic compressibility of fluctuation also did not increase within the sheath. Various substructures were found to be embedded within the sheath at the different spacecraft, including multiple heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings and a small-scale flux rope. At L1, the ion flux enhancement was associated with the HCS crossings, while at Solar Orbiter, the ion enhancement occurred within a compressed, small-scale flux rope. Conclusions. Several internal smaller-scale substructures and clear difference in their occurrence and properties between the used spacecraft was identified within the analyzed CME-driven sheath. These substructures are favourable locations for the energization of charged particles in interplanetary space. In particular, substructures that are swept from the upstream solar wind and compressed into the sheath can act as effective acceleration sites. A possible acceleration mechanism is betatron acceleration associated with a small-scale flux rope and warped HCS compressed in the sheath, while the contribution of shock acceleration to the latter cannot be excluded.
  • Wijsen, N.; Aran, A.; Scolini, C.; Lario, D.; Afanasiev, A.; Vainio, R.; Sanahuja, B.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S. (2022)
    Aims. We model the energetic storm particle (ESP) event of 14 July 2012 using the energetic particle acceleration and transport model named 'PArticle Radiation Asset Directed at Interplanetary Space Exploration' (PARADISE), together with the solar wind and coronal mass ejection (CME) model named 'EUropean Heliospheric FORcasting Information Asset' (EUHFORIA). The simulation results illustrate both the capabilities and limitations of the utilised models. We show that the models capture some essential structural features of the ESP event; however, for some aspects the simulations and observations diverge. We describe and, to some extent, assess the sources of errors in the modelling chain of EUHFORIA and PARADISE and discuss how they may be mitigated in the future. Methods. The PARADISE model computes energetic particle distributions in the heliosphere by solving the focused transport equation in a stochastic manner. This is done using a background solar wind configuration generated by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic module of EUHFORIA. The CME generating the ESP event is simulated by using the spheromak model of EUHFORIA, which approximates the CME's flux rope as a linear force-free spheroidal magnetic field. In addition, a tool was developed to trace CME-driven shock waves in the EUHFORIA simulation domain. This tool is used in PARADISE to (i) inject 50 keV protons continuously at the CME-driven shock and (ii) include a foreshock and a sheath region, in which the energetic particle parallel mean free path, lambda(parallel to), decreases towards the shock wave. The value of lambda(parallel to) at the shock wave is estimated from in situ observations of the ESP event. Results. For energies below similar to 1 MeV, the simulation results agree well with both the upstream and downstream components of the ESP event observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer. This suggests that these low-energy protons are mainly the result of interplanetary particle acceleration. In the downstream region, the sharp drop in the energetic particle intensities is reproduced at the entry into the following magnetic cloud, illustrating the importance of a magnetised CME model.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Pomoell, J.; Vainio, R.; Palmroth, M.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Some of the most prominent sources for particle acceleration in our Solar System are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These accelerated particles can generate radio emission through various mechanisms. Aims. CMEs are often accompanied by a variety of solar radio bursts with different shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Radio bursts directly associated with CMEs often show movement in the direction of CME expansion. Here, we aim to determine the emission mechanism of multiple moving radio bursts that accompanied a flare and CME that took place on 14 June 2012. Methods. We used radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, to analyse these moving radio bursts in order to determine their emission mechanism and three-dimensional (3D) location with respect to the expanding CME. Results. In using a 3D representation of the particle acceleration locations in relation to the overlying coronal magnetic field and the CME propagation, for the first time, we provide evidence that these moving radio bursts originate near the CME flanks and that some are possible signatures of shock-accelerated electrons following the fast CME expansion in the low corona. Conclusions. The moving radio bursts, as well as other stationary bursts observed during the eruption, occur simultaneously with a type IV continuum in dynamic spectra, which is not usually associated with emission at the CME flanks. Our results show that moving radio bursts that could traditionally be classified as moving type IVs can represent shock signatures associated with CME flanks or plasma emission inside the CME behind its flanks, which are closely related to the lateral expansion of the CME in the low corona. In addition, the acceleration of electrons generating this radio emission appears to be favoured at the CME flanks, where the CME encounters coronal streamers and open field regions.
  • Zhao, L-L; Zank, G. P.; He, J. S.; Telloni, D.; Hu, Q.; Li, G.; Nakanotani, M.; Adhikari, L.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Horbury, T. S.; O'Brien, H.; Evans, Bradley; Angelini, Corrado (2021)
    Aims. An interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) event was observed by the Solar Orbiter at 0.8 AU on 2020 April 19 and by Wind at 1 AU on 2020 April 20. Futhermore, an interplanetary shock wave was driven in front of the ICME. Here, we focus on the transmission of the magnetic fluctuations across the shock and we analyze the characteristic wave modes of solar wind turbulence in the vicinity of the shock observed by both spacecraft. Methods. The observed ICME event is characterized by a magnetic helicity-based technique. The ICME-driven shock normal was determined by magnetic coplanarity method for the Solar Orbiter and using a mixed plasma and field approach for Wind. The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations were generated by applying both a fast Fourier transform and Morlet wavelet analysis. To understand the nature of waves observed near the shock, we used the normalized magnetic helicity as a diagnostic parameter. The wavelet-reconstructed magnetic field fluctuation hodograms were used to further study the polarization properties of waves. Results. We find that the ICME-driven shock observed by Solar Orbiter and Wind is a fast, forward oblique shock with a more perpendicular shock angle at the Wind position. After the shock crossing, the magnetic field fluctuation power increases. Most of the magnetic field fluctuation power resides in the transverse fluctuations. In the vicinity of the shock, both spacecraft observe right-hand polarized waves in the spacecraft frame. The upstream wave signatures fall within a relatively broad and low frequency band, which might be attributed to low frequency MHD waves excited by the streaming particles. For the downstream magnetic wave activity, we find oblique kinetic Alfven waves with frequencies near the proton cyclotron frequency in the spacecraft frame. The frequency of the downstream waves increases by a factor of similar to 7-10 due to the shock compression and the Doppler effect.