Browsing by Subject "cortisol"

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  • Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Peltola, Henna-Riikka; Putkinen, Vesa; Schafer, Katharina (2021)
    Many people enjoy sad music, and the appeal for tragedy is widespread among the consumers of film and literature. The underlying mechanisms of such aesthetic experiences are not well understood. We tested whether pleasure induced by sad, unfamiliar instrumental music is explained with a homeostatic or a reward theory, each of which is associated with opposite patterns of changes in the key hormones. Sixty-two women listened to sad music (or nothing) while serum was collected for subsequent measurement of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) and stress marker (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) concentrations. Two groups of participants were recruited on the basis of low and high trait empathy. In the high empathy group, PRL and OT levels were significantly lower with music compared with no music. And compared to the low empathy group, the high empathy individuals reported an increase of positive mood and higher ratings of being moved with music. None of the stress markers showed any changes across the conditions or the groups. These hormonal changes, inconsistent with the homeostatic theory proposed by Huron, exhibit a pattern expected of general reward. Our findings illuminate how unfamiliar and low arousal music may give rise to pleasurable experiences.
  • Sali, Virpi; Veit, Christina; Valros, Anna; Junnikkala, Sami; Heinonen, Mari; Nordgreen, Janicke (2021)
    Infectious and inflammatory conditions are common especially in growing pigs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important antigenic structure of Gram-negative bacteria and can be used to induce inflammation experimentally. As pigs are usually group-housed in commercial conditions, it is difficult to detect sick individuals, particularly at an early stage of illness. Acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin (Hp) are known indicators of an activated innate immune system whereas adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a relatively novel inflammatory biomarker in pigs. Both parameters can be measured in saliva and could be used as indicators of inflammation. Compared with blood sampling, saliva sampling is a less stressful procedure that is rapid, non-invasive and easy to perform both at group and at individual level. In this blinded randomized clinical trial, 32 female pigs at their post-weaning phase were allocated to one of four treatments comprising two injections of the following substance combinations: saline-saline (SS), ketoprofen-saline (KS), saline-LPS (SL), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). First, ketoprofen or saline was administered intramuscularly on average 1 h before either LPS or saline was given through an ear vein catheter. In all groups, saliva was collected prior to injections (baseline) and at 4, 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection for determination of ADA, Hp, and cortisol concentrations. A multivariate model was applied to describe the dynamics of each biomarker. Pairwise relationships between ADA, Hp, and cortisol responses from baseline to 4 h post-injection within the SL group were studied with Spearman correlations. A significant increase in the SL group was seen in all biomarkers 4 h post-injection compared to baseline and other time points (pairwise comparisons, p < 0.01 for all) and ketoprofen alleviated the LPS effect. We found a significant positive correlation between ADA and Hp within the SL group (r = 0.86, p < 0.05). The primary and novel findings of the present study are the response of ADA to LPS, its time course and alleviation by ketoprofen. Our results support the evidence that ADA and Hp can be used as inflammatory biomarkers in pigs. We suggest further studies to be conducted in commercial settings with larger sample sizes.
  • Kero, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective: Maternal prenatal distress increases the risk for offspring psychiatric problems. Genetic variation in FoxO1 was recently found to moderate the association between childhood stress and the risk for adulthood depression. This study is set to examine if FoxO1 modifies associations between maternal depression or anxiety during pregnancy and the risk for offspring psychiatric problems in early childhood. Methods: Participants were 460 mother-child pairs of the Finnish Prediction and prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (PREDO) -cohort. To measure maternal depression and anxiety the mothers completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Spielberger State Anxiety Scale (STAI) up to 14 times during pregnancy. DNA was extracted from cord blood samples and FoxO1 genotypes from the Illumina OmniExpress Exome array. Offspring psychiatric problems were reported by the mothers with the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) at the mean age of 3.5-years. Results: Higher CES-D and STAI scores during pregnancy predicted higher child CBCL scores, but the associations differed according to the FoxO1 rs17592371 genotypes (p-values for interaction < .05). Higher maternal STAI and CES-D scores associated with higher scores in Total problems and Externalizing problems in rs17592371 CC carriers, but not in CT/TT carriers. Conclusions: The study showed that variation in the FoxO1 SNP rs17592371 modified the association between maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy and offspring psychiatric problems in early childhood. This result is in line with an earlier study focusing on the modifying role of FoxO1 variation in the relationship between childhood stress and depression in adulthood and may thus indicate the role of FoxO1 in sensitivity to psychosocial distress.
  • Laine, Pipsa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Hevosten aivolisäkkeen toimintahäiriö, englanniksi pars pituitary intermedia dysfunction (PPID), on keski-iän ylittäneiden hevosten yksi yleisimpiä endokrinologisia sairauksia. Nykyinen laajasti hyväksytty käsitys on, että PPID on ensisijaisesti aivolisäkkeen dopaminergisten neuronien rappeumasairaus. Yksi potentiaalinen syy dopaminergiseen neurodegeneraatioon on oksidatiivinen stressi, mutta syytä tälle oksidatiiviselle stressille ei tiedetä. Taudissa aivolisäkkeen keskiosassa (pars intermedia) esiintyy solumäärän lisääntymistä, solujen suurentumista ja hyvänlaatuisia rauhaskasvaimia eli adenoomia. Tämän seurauksena aivolisäkkeen erittämät pro-opiomelaniiniperäisten peptidien, eli kortikotropiinin (ACTH), kortikotropiinityyppisen aivolisäkkeen keskiosan peptidin (CLIP), β-endorfiinin (β-END) ja α-melanosyyttejä stimuloivan hormonin (α-MSH), tuotanto lisääntyy. ACTH:n liikatuotanto lisää lisämunuaiskuoren kortisolihormonin tuotantoa, jonka liikatuotanto taas johtaa taudille ominaisiin tyypillisiin oireisiin: lisääntynyt infektioherkkyys, lihasten kuihtuminen, rasvakudoksen muutokset, huono lämmönsäätelykyky, väsyneisyys, heikentynyt rasituksensietokyky, mahdollinen kaviokuume sekä epänormaali karvanvaihto ja karvan laadun muuttuminen eli hypertrikioosi. Taudin diagnosoimiseen ei ole olemassa yhtä testausmenetelmää ylitse muiden, mutta käytännössä helpoin ja suositelluin keino on mitata plasman ACTH-pitoisuus. ACTH-pitoisuudet vaihtelevat terveilläkin hevosilla vuodenajan mukaan tasojen ollessa korkeita elokuusta lokakuuhun, mikä on otettava tuloksia tulkittaessa huomioon. Muita mahdollisia käytettävissä olevia testausmenetelmiä ovat tyreoliberiinistimulaatiotesti ja deksametasonisupressiotesti. PPID:in lääkkeellisessä hoidossa pergolidimesilaatti on ensisijainen lääke. Se estää oikealla annoksella PPID:in aiheuttamat muutokset kliiniseen kuvaan ja normalisoi veriarvojen hormonipitoisuuksia, sillä se estää aivolisäkkeen keskiosan hormonien tuotantoa ja vapautumista. Tällä hetkellä pergolidin hyväksyttävänä aloitusannoksena pidetään 2 μg/kg kerran päivässä suun kautta, jota voidaan nostaa tarvittaessa jopa 10 μg/kg annokseen. Lisäksi hoitoon kuuluvat muu hyvä vanhemman hevosen perushoito: hammashuolto, hyvät loishäätörutiinit sisältäen ulostenäytteiden tutkimisen, oikeanlainen ravinto, kavioiden huolto ja oikeanlainen liikunta. Viime aikoina on pyritty sairaiden hevosten tunnistamiseen jo sairauden alkuvaiheissa lievemmistä oireista, jolloin aloitetulla hoidolla voidaan säilyttää hevonen käyttökykyisenä pidempään. Näitä lieviä oireita ovat esimerkiksi alentunut suorituskyky, selkälinjan vajoaminen, lievät luonteenmuutokset, kavioiden tai niiden lamellien muutokset ilman jalkakipua ja lievästi hidastunut karvanvaihto ja/tai alueellinen hypertrikioosi. Kaviokuumetta on aiemmin pidetty yhtenä klassisena PPID:in oireena, mutta todellisuudessa suuri osa sairaista hevosista ei kehitä kaviokuumetta. Hyperinsulinemiaa puolestaan pidetään merkittävänä riskitekijänä kaviokuumeelle. PPID voi esiintyä yhdessä tai ilman insuliiniresistenssiä, mutta epidemiologisissa tutkimuksissa PPID:ia sairastavilla vanhemmilla hevosilla on kuitenkin suurempi todennäköisyys hyperinsulinemiaan verrattaessa sitä sairastamattomiin vanhoihin hevosiin. Insuliiniresistenssin testausta kannattaakin PPID-diagnosoiduilla hevosilla harkita.
  • Kannela, Niina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Cortisol is a vital hormone for normal bodily functions. Both physical and mental stress, as well as many diseases like the Cushing syndrome are known to increase the human cortisol levels. These levels can be measured in many biological matrixes, such as saliva. Traditionally, these measurements have been done by using immunoassays or liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods (LC-MS). However, in the last few years, ambient ionization techniques, which are quick and easy to use, have also proven suitable for quantitative analysis of compounds in biological matrixes. Thus, these techniques could offer an alternative to traditional methods in the analysis of cortisol from human saliva. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) for quantitative analysis of steroids in saliva. The investigated steroids were dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol and testosterone. Because of the low quantities of testosterone and DHEA in saliva, the study was mainly focused on cortisol analysis. In this study, the ionization mechanism for the steroids was observed to be proton transfer with every tested spray solvent (acetone, chlorobentzene and toluene). Even though the choice of spray solvent did not change the ionization mechanism, it affected the efficiency of ionization. In cortisol measurements acetone was observed to be the best solvent. The temperature of the microchip, as well as the UV-lamp used (dc- or rf-lamp), only affected the ionization slightly. In this study, measuring cortisol in non-pretreated saliva was not successful. However, solid phase extraction (SPE) method for the pretreatment of saliva was optimized with high recovery for cortisol (106 %). The detection limit for cortisol (50 nM) in water samples and the linear area of cortisol in both water and pretreated saliva samples (500 nM - 10 µM) were also determined. Poor repeatability of DAPPI-system was the main challenge in these measurements. The DAPPI-MS-method developed in this study is suitable for analyzing cortisol in pretreated saliva samples. However, without further development it is not sensitive enough to be used in quantitative analysis of cortisol in salivary levels.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari; Makkonen, Tommi; Nie, Peixin (2021)
    We compared music emotion ratings and their physiological correlates when the participants listened to music at home and in the laboratory. We hypothesized that music emotions are stronger in a familiar environment, that is, at home. Participants listened to their self-selected favorite and neutral music excerpts at home and in the laboratory for 10 min in each environment. They completed the questionnaires about their emotional states and gave saliva samples for the analyses of the stress hormone cortisol. We found that in the context of music listening, the participants’ emotion ratings differed between home and the laboratory. Furthermore, the cortisol levels were generally lower at home than in the laboratory and decreased after music listening at home and in the laboratory. However, the modulatory effects of music listening on cortisol levels did not differ between the home and the laboratory. Our exploratory multimethodological data offer novel insight about the psychological and physiological consequences of music listening. These data reveal the sensitivity of the current research methods to investigate human emotions in various contexts without excluding the use of laboratory environment in investigating them.
  • Pekkin, Anne-Marie; Hänninen, Laura; Tiira, Katriina; Koskela, Aija; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Lohi, Hannes; Valros, Anna (2016)
    Fear of loud noises is a common welfare problem in pet dogs. Commercial treatment vests have been tested on dogs to relieve noise phobia, and peripheral oxytocin has been suggested to be one of the stress-relieving mediators. The effect of vests has not, however, been tested in a controlled situation. We tested whether individually customized vests, have an effect on behaviour of severely noise phobic dogs in a double-blinded experiment, where dogs are exposed to loud noises. We also investigated the possible effect of pressure by using two types of vests; a deep pressure vest (DEEP, c. 10–12 mmHg) and a light pressure vest (LIGHT, c. 2–3 mmHg). In addition to behaviour, we studied if the pressure vest has an effect on urine oxytocin level and on saliva cortisol levels. A total of 28 dogs (2-11 years), both female (18) and male (10), were recruited via an ongoing study on the genetic background of noise sensitivity by the Finnish Canine Genetic Research Group. Each dog was tested three times either without vest (CONTROL) or with DEEP or LIGHT vests in a semi-randomized order. The dogś behaviour was video recorded for 6 minutes, including three 2 minutes intervals: pre-noise, noise (70–73 dB firework sound) and recovery. Behavioural parameters included activity, body and tail postures, vocalization, and time spent near owner. Saliva samples were collected twice before and twice after the noise test. Urine samples for oxytocin analyses were collected when the deep pressure vest was first fitted: before dressing the dog and 30 min later. The DEEP vest reduced the lying time of the dogs during the noise interval. During the noise interval total lying time with any vest correlated positively with saliva cortisol, measured after noise interval, indicating that the increased lying time was a sign of a higher stress level in the dogs. Wearing either vests increased the time the dogs spent near their owners during noise interval. Time spent near the owner when wearing the DEEP vest during the recovery interval correlated positively with the urine oxytocin. These results indicate oxytocin might be related to the doǵs tendency to seek owner support and the vests might effect this behaviour positively. We did not find a clear therapeutic effect of using pressure vests in noise phobic dogs. However, our results indicate the pressure vest might reduce the acute stress reaction and speed up the recovery after stress.
  • Wickholm, Grim (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Chronic pain is challenging to treat when the adverse effects of the analgesic agents become significant when used for a long period of time. Acupuncture has been shown to have analgesic effect without adverse effects. The modulatory effect of acupuncture on pain and what substances are involved in the modulation is, however, not completely understood. In this study 19 dogs with chronic pain caused by osteoarthritis in the hip joint was randomly divided into two groups: acupuncture group (AG) and sham group (SG). The AG got three acupuncture treatments with an interval of about one week and the SG got no treatment, they just rested on the floor in the treatment room. The owners and the researchers did not know into which group each dog was divided. Blood samples was taken from each dog in the beginning and at the end of the study to analyse the long-term effect (LT) and before and after one treatment to analyse the short-term effect (ST). From the blood samples the plasma concentration of serotonin (ST), prolactin (LT) and cortisol (ST and LT) were analysed and the concentrations between the groups and between the samples before and after were compared. The result of the study was that there was no statistically significant difference neither between the two groups nor between the before and after samples for neither serotonin, prolactin nor cortisol. There was, however, a strong trend toward significance in the increased concentration of LT cortisol between baseline and end of treatment in the AG (p=0.051), and a decrease of concentration of ST cortisol in both groups (p=0.051 for the AG and p=0.063 for the SG). More research, taking into consideration the limitations of this study, should be done.