Browsing by Subject "cost-benefit analysis"

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  • Nurmi, Väinö (2019)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 152
    This thesis applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to certain environmental questions and through its results contributes to both the theoretical literature on CBA in environmental economics and practical issues in the application of CBA to environmental problems. The work comprises an introduction and four articles, which address three common thematic areas: 1) distributional issues, 2) climate change adaptation, and 3) urban ecosystem services. Article I contributes to the literature through analyses that i) provide a connection between the income effect and distributional issues; ii) compare weighting schemes both theoretically and empirically; iii) show how weights could be incorporated into a CBA in practice; and iv) demonstrate that results are sensitive not only to whether weights are applied, but also to the choice of the inequality parameter and spatial resolution. Article II analyzes whether over-investment in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation is a legitimate economic concern and examines how the public reacts to major infrastructure investments. The results constitute a contribution to both the theoretical and empirical literature on the economics of climate change adaptation. Article III evaluates how potential innovations in weather services can reduce weather sensitivity and, consequently, decrease the negative effects of climate change on transport, particularly in the road transport sector. The article illustrates how innovations in the provision and use of weather and climate information can be beneficial for adapting to the changing climate and contributes to the empirical literature on the economics of climate change adaptation. Article IV presents a CBA of a relatively novel feature in the urban green portfolio: green roofs. The specific objectives of the research are i) to facilitate benefit-transfer of ecosystem services from one urban area to another by providing detailed information on valuation methods and the role of different assumptions and parameter values and ii) to include scenic values as a benefit item based on a formal and trackable analysis rather than on a guess. The article contributes to the empirical literature related to both the cost-benefit analysis of urban ecosystem services and the economics of climate change adaptation. *** Tässä tutkielmassa sovelletaan kustannushyötyanalyysiä (KHA) ympäristöön liittyviin kysymyksiin. Tulokset vievät eteenpäin sekä KHA-analyysin teoreettista kirjallisuutta että käytännön sovellettavuutta ympäristökysymyksiin. Työ koostuu neljästä artikkelista, joissa on kolme poikkileikkaavaa teemaa: 1) tulojakauma-kysymykset, 2) ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutuminen ja 3) urbaanit ekosysteemipalvelut. Artikkeli I pääkontribuutio kirjallisuuteen on i) luoda yhteys tulovaikutuksen ja tulojakauma-kysymyksen välille, ii) vertailla eri painotustapoja teoreettisesti ja empiirisesti, iii) osoittaa, miten painotukset voidaan käytännössä sisällyttää KHA:n, iv) näyttää tulosten herkkyys paitsi siihen, painotetaanko hyötyjä vai ei, myös siihen, mikä painotustapa valitaan ja mitä maantieteellistä tarkkuutta käytetään. Artikkeli II analysoi esimerkin avulla, onko liiallinen panostaminen ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumiseen ja onnettomuusriskien vähentämiseen todellinen huolenaihe. Liiallinen panostus määritellään taloudellisen tehokkuuden avulla. Tulokset myötävaikuttavat ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvän taloustieteen teoreettiseen ja käytännön kirjallisuuteen. Artikkelissa III arvioimme, miten sääpalveluihin liittyvät innovaatiot voivat vähentää yhteiskunnan sääherkkyyttä ja vähentää ilmastonmuutoksen tuomia negatiivisia vaikutuksia tieliikenteelle. Artikkelissa näytetään, miten sääpalveluiden jakeluun ja käytettävyyteen liittyvät innovaatiot ovat hyödyllisiä ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumiselle. Tulokset myötävaikuttavat ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvän taloustieteen käytännön kirjallisuuteen. Artikkeli IV käsittelee viherkattojen kustannushyötyanalyysiä. Tämän tutkimuksen päätavoitteet ovat: i) mahdollistaa tulosten siirtäminen toiselta urbaanilta alueelta toiselle antamalla mahdollisimman tarkat tiedot tutkimuksessa käytetyistä menetelmistä ja parametreista, ii) sisällyttää viherkattojen maisemahyödyt yhtenä hyötylajina mukaan. Tulokset myötävaikuttavat sekä ekosysteemipalveluihin liittyvän KHA:n käytännön kirjallisuuteen että ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvän taloustieteen käytännön kirjallisuuteen.
  • Kuitunen, Aino (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The City of Helsinki relies strongly on the use of fossil fuels as its main energy source. Coal power with high level of emissions covers one third of the city’s energy production. To mitigate the effects of climate change, the city should stop using coal and replace it with the use of renewable energy. The goal of this thesis is to find a way for Helsinki to replace coal by 2030 with energy efficiency improvements and distributed renewable energy. Thesis was an assignment from WWF Finland and it is a part of urban energy campaign called Seize your Power. First of all, the local circumstances have to be understood. This gives a basis to Geothermal Scenario that is formed to replace coal. First step of the Scenario is to reduce the demand of coal power by energy efficiency improvements in buildings. Next, a set of locally functional renewable energy sources is formed based on decreased demand. Main energy source of the Scenario is geothermal energy but also biomass,solar and wind power are utilized. The Geothermal Scenario is then evaluated with costbenefit analysis. Results of Cost-Benefit Analysis show that the net present value (NPV) is negative in short, medium, and long term. The values vary between -200 million and circa -3 billion euros. In the sensitivity analysis, the effects of the changes in prices of emission permit, coal, and bio-SNG as well as discount rate were estimated. The length of time horizon had a huge impact on the results. Non-market values were not included in the analysis.
  • Punttila, Eliisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to quantify the net benefits when 7 % of Finnish adults shift from their average diet to a low carbohydrate diet (VHH), a very low carbohydrate diet (EVHH) or a diet based on Finnish nutrition recommendations (SUOSITUS). The low carbohydrate diets were based on 84 food diaries that were collected by an online survey. The diet shifts were conducted by social cost-benefit-analysis (CBA) including environmental and health impacts in monetary values. The environmental impacts included changes in greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient emissions into Baltic sea while the health impacts included changes in myocardial infarction and stroke incidence related on consumption of fruits and vegetables, and in colorectal cancer incidence related on red and processed meat. The net benefits were quantified also in a scenario when the energy intake in VHH, EVHH and SUOSITUS were lower and the diets lead to 15 kilograms weight reduction and to normal weight. In the weight loss scenario the changes in colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes incidence related on overweight were included in addition to other impacts. In the non-weight loss scenario when 7 % of Finnish adults shift to VHH, EVHH or SUOSITUS diet, the total net benefits were respectively -3,7 million, -10,8 million and 7,3 million euros per year. The net benefits of environmental impacts dominated: in VHH, EVHH and SUOSITUS cases they were -6,5 million, -12,9 million and 3,3 million euros. The largest difference between diets resulted from consumption of meat and milk products. In weight loss scenario, the net benefits from VHH, EVHH and SUOSITUS cases were 11,2 million, 5,8 million and 20,6 million euros per year and the benefits of reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes dominated: in all cases they were 10,0 million euros. In conclusion, the sift to the diet based on Finnish nutrient recommendations resulted in the highest positive net benefit. The net benefits of sifting to the VHH and EVHH diets were positive only if when these lead to significant weight loss. However, many potential impacts and factors (e.g. saturated fat, dietary fiber) were not included in this study. Further research is needed.
  • Leino, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    There is a common understanding of the benefits of economic evaluations supporting decision making regarding health care interventions. The aim of this master’s thesis was to understand the methods of economic evaluation in mental health services to guide upcoming economic evaluations. The research objective was to investigate and describe key elements and methods that have been used in economic evaluations in mental health interventions for adults. The objective was formed by the following research questions: 1. What methods are used in economic evaluation? 2. What perspectives are considered? 3. How are outcomes measured i.e. what specific measures are used to characterise the outcomes? 4. What cost elements are included in the cost analysis? 5. What cost measures are used? 6. Is there consideration for whether the used method is appropriate to examine the matter concerned? This thesis was conducted as a systematic literature review. The PICo method was used in the formation of the research questions and the search strategy. Two databases (Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were used. In addition, Google and Google Scholar were used, and reference search from included studies was performed. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist. After data extraction and tabulation, narrative analysis was undertaken to summarise and understand the methods and elements for economic evaluation in mental health services. Overall, the quality of the 12 included studies was good. The studies represented different types of populations and interventions in mental health services. Primarily, one intervention was compared to the other, usually against existing care. Cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis and cost minimisation analysis were applied. Studies were conducted from societal, health care or health insurance perspectives, and some studies applied two perspectives. Generic and condition-specific patient-reported outcome measures and clinician-reported outcome measures were used alongside routine administrative data to capture change in health status and quality of life. A few different cost measures with routine administrative data were used to identify and measure service resource use and productivity losses. There was variation in what costs were included. Almost all authors stated some consideration about methods suitability, at some level. This master’s thesis collated outcome measures and cost measures utilised in the mental health service context. Moreover, some data sources regarding costs were presented to reveal information sources and demonstrate how chosen perspective determines what information is needed. This master’s thesis provides guidance on what details are needed and where to collect information to conduct an economic evaluation to support decision-making in mental health services.