Browsing by Subject "craft education"

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  • Veeber, Eva; Syrjäläinen, Erja; Lind, Ene (2015)
    Craft education has held a permanent place in Estonian and Finnish schools, although its value and appreciation have changed over time. The aim of the article is to discuss the necessity of craft education in today’s world and its possible impact on the development of children and adolescents. The discussion seeks a theoretical interdisciplinary explanation using three perspectives that complement each other. The first describes the challenges of modern society with respect to individual development and schooling. The second deals with Aaron Antonovsky's theory of generalized resistance resources and an individual's possibility to manage in a stressful society. The third addresses the individual as a developing neurological being, along with the effect of learning and practicing motor skills on the human brain. We conclude that craft is a multidisciplinary phenomenon, and that learning and practicing crafts promotes the comprehension of diversity and challenges in life. Additionally, educational craft enriches the learning environment, offering opportunities to develop transferable skills that human beings constantly need in society. In addition, craft provides a balanced way to come to understand the world and one’s role in it, by simultaneously promoting motor and cognitive development and making unique demands on one’s being.
  • Saarinen, Auli; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2019)
    The present researchers studied elementary school students’ use of electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) in their craft education over a three-year period. The data consisted of the textual and the visual content of the students’ (n= 38) ePortfolios. The students’ productions were analyzed and conceptualized through the qualitative analysis of content. Atlas.ti and SPSS programs were used to analyze, organize and visualize the data. The results indicate that the most emphasized areas in the textual content of students’ ePortfolios were a combination of the process and the free learning reflection. The process aspects of the work were also clearly dominant in the documented visual images in the ePortfolios. The results confirmed that if ePortfolios are used in a flexible way with appropriate, open assignments, variations on use and the end-product are self-evident. The ePortfolio method enables an individual, rich, and versatile learning reflection, which could be used as evidence of learning or as support for learning – including the required elements for each function.
  • Kokko, Sirpa; Räisänen, Riikka (2019)
    In 2013, the UNESCO convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage was ratified by Finland, and its implementation has continued since. During this process, the discussions on the role of craft tradition have concerned the specific features of Finnish craft culture. One recognised aspect is the role of craft education in Finnish basic education. This article discusses the role of craft education in sustaining and developing textile craft traditions from the perspective of craft teacher education. The student teachers' portfolios from two courses were examined to determine how students applied traditional crafts and craft techniques in individual work and in teaching practices. The findings suggest that the way the students applied crafts traditions was often related to their own motivation, experiences, and ideation. Some of the topics in these two courses guided them to apply craft traditions but often it was their own choice to consider traditional aspect. Following the guidelines of the Finnish Curriculum for Basic Education, Finnish craft teacher education does not particularly focus on craft traditions. Taking the targets of safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage seriously, more effort is required when educating future teachers about craft traditions and the ways to sustain and develop them further.
  • Lahti, Henna; Fernström, Päivi (2021)
    Our aim in this article is to introduce the idea of ‘crafticulation’ as a part of scientific method and to present a case study related to it. A novel course, Materializing in Craft Science, was offered in the first year of the craft teacher master’s degree at the University of Helsinki. The aim of the course was to pilot a method of crafticulation by materializing theoretical mind maps. Crafticulation consists of the words, ‘craft’ and ‘articulation’ and further, crafticulation is seen as a part of practice-led research in which craft plays a key role in eliciting a wide spectrum of knowledge. Our research question is how crafticulation emerged in students’ inquiry processes. The research data included twenty individual mind maps, materializations and reflections of the course. Based on theory-driven data analysis, the results indicated that many students used crafticulation for demonstration purposes. For example, they tested the connection between their craft-making process and well-being. Another approach was to convey a certain experience by way of crafticulation. In some cases, crafticulation was linked to analogies and metaphors in learning theoretical concepts. Furthermore, the students found new avenues in which to reflect research topics and to deepen their inquiry processes.
  • Lahti, Henna; Fernström, Päivi (2021)
    Our aim in this article is to introduce the idea of ‘crafticulation’ as a part of scientific method and to present a case study related to it. A novel course, Materializing in Craft Science, was offered in the first year of the craft teacher master’s degree at the University of Helsinki. The aim of the course was to pilot a method of crafticulation by materializing theoretical mind maps. Crafticulation consists of the words, ‘craft’ and ‘articulation’ and further, crafticulation is seen as a part of practice-led research in which craft plays a key role in eliciting a wide spectrum of knowledge. Our research question is how crafticulation emerged in students’ inquiry processes. The research data included twenty individual mind maps, materializations and reflections of the course. Based on theory-driven data analysis, the results indicated that many students used crafticulation for demonstration purposes. For example, they tested the connection between their craft-making process and well-being. Another approach was to convey a certain experience by way of crafticulation. In some cases, crafticulation was linked to analogies and metaphors in learning theoretical concepts. Furthermore, the students found new avenues in which to reflect research topics and to deepen their inquiry processes.
  • Priha, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to clarify which factors constitute an e-portfolio that supports and promotes learning in craft education, and how these factors appear in authentic e-portfolios made by lower secondary school pupils. The Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 emphasizes learner centrism, self-directed learning, learning-to-learn skills, goal setting skills, and problem-solving skills as objectives of education. The basis of craft education is in the examination of transversal themes in a holistic manner. In addition to learning the holistic craft process, e.g. versatile use of ICT and reflective and critical thinking are considered objectives of craft education. Assessment in craft education is based on documentation of the holistic craft process. In this study, the e-portfolio method is examined as a way of implementing the objectives and meanings of craft education in practice. A content model of e-portfolio for craft education was constructed based on previous studies, literature and the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014, summarising the central contents, aims and potential of e-portfolios in craft education. 8 e-portfolios made by lower secondary school pupils in craft education were analysed. The data was collected as a part of the Growing Mind -research project in one Helsinki-based comprehensive school. The data was analysed through qualitative content analysis to examine the ways the factors of the content model were embodied in the e-portfolios. The e-portfolios appeared as stories and diaries communicating the learning processes from the pupils’ viewpoint. The e-portfolios provided information about the authors’ thought processes, activities, and the grounds of their activities. The e-portfolios were produced in different ways and their contents and emphasis varied. All of the e-portfolios expressed the craft learning process in forms of goal setting, artefact documentation, feedback and inter-action, interdisciplinary learning, learning ICT-skills, and holistic craft process containing the generation of ideas, the design, the making process, and the assessment of the artefact and the process. The results of this study indicate that the e-portfolio is worthy of consideration as a method and tool in craft education especially when it is produced in a dynamic way as a part of a learning task.
  • Kokko, Sirpa (2021)
    The purpose of the study was to reveal the central elements of combining a critical research approach with hands-on activities in fibre art studies. The article is based on ethnographic data gathered in two fibre art courses at a US university in the autumn of 2018. Intersectionality and interconnectedness, the material context and the process, emerged as the most important concepts of the critical research approach under study. These ideas were combined with hands-on activities so that the students learned both the basic skills and the broader social, cultural and material meanings related to their activities. The students appreciated the critical research approach which broadened their perspectives on fibre art. The low status of fibre art at the academy was revealed and associated with the gendered tradition. Study findings recommend the development of pedagogies that implement a critical research approach in art and craft education.
  • Kokko, Sirpa; Kouhia, Anna; Kangas, Kaiju (2020)
    In this article, we investigated how craft curriculum enacted in 2016 was reflected in the current discussions of the stakeholders, that is, the craft teachers, the craft student teachers, the craft teacher educators, and the government employees. In the curriculum, textile craft and technical craft, previously perceived mainly as separate entities, were conjoined as an approach in which “multiple materials are used, and activities are based on craft expression, design, and technology” (FNBE, 2014). This caused confusion in the field about the goals and arrangements of craft education. The data consisted of craft teachers’ professional magazines, curriculum blog, and written statements. The discussions concerning the undertaking of the new craft curriculum were analysed by document analysis. Three emerging themes were found to be central in the debates: lesson hour distribution, multi-materiality, and technology education. The analysis revealed that there was a shared understanding about the lesson hour distribution not being enough to enable the proper fulfilment of the craft curriculum. Conflicting views were expressed about the implementation of multi-materiality and technology education. In general, many textile craft stakeholders were open to adapt a more multi-material approach, seeing it as bringing new opportunities to craft education. Many technical craft stakeholders believed that multi-materiality is an artificially-constructed concept, and they saw technology education as already being an essential part of technical craft teaching. Consequently, the curriculum reform has caused turbulence that is dividing the craft stakeholders and especially the craft teachers.
  • Hilmola, Antti; Autio, Ossi (2017)
    Jo vuoden 1970 komiteanmietinnössä todetaan, että teknisen työn ja tekstiilityön opetuksen tulisi olla yhteistä koko ikäluokalle. Tämän jälkeen opetussuunnitelmaa on uudistettu useamman kerran, mutta koulutuspoliittisesti tarkoituksenmukaista ratkaisua käsityön opetuksen järjestämiseksi ei ole löytynyt. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan oppilaiden asenteita käsityön oppiainetta kohtaan. Tutkimusaineisto on kerätty lukuvuoden 2013–2014 aikana. Tutkimusote on kvantitatiivinen ja aineisto (N = 982) on demografisesti koko maata edustava. Artikkelissa avataan käsityön opetuksen järjestämiseen liittyvää problematiikkaa ja teoreettiset lähtökohdat perustuvat aiempiin käsityön oppiaineen asenteisiin liittyvän tutkimuskirjallisuuden tarkasteluun. Varsinainen tutkimuskysymys on: Missä määrin tyttöjen ja poikien käsityön oppiaineeseen liittyvät asenteet ja käsitykset eroavat toisistaan? Tulosten perusteella teknisen työn sisältöjen painotettuun opetukseen osallistuneiden oppilaiden asenteet ovat selvästi myönteisempiä kuin saman sisältöiseen (yhtä paljon teknistä työtä ja tekstiilityötä) opetukseen osallistuneiden oppilaiden asenteet. Lisäksi painotettuun teknisen työn sisältöjen opetukseen osallistuneet oppilaat hakeutuvat muita useammin ja saman sisältöiseen opetukseen osallistuneet muita harvemmin käsityön valinnaiseen opetukseen. Edelleen tutkimuksen pohjalta voidaan esittää yksilön valinnan mahdollisuuksien kunnioittamisen näkökulmasta oikeutettu kysymys: Annetaanko kaikille oppilaille riittävä mahdollisuus painottaa kiinnostuksensa ja taipumuksensa mukaisia käsityön oppisisältöjä?
  • Saarinen, Auli; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2021)
    This paper analyses the longitudinal use of electronic portfolios (hereafter ePortfolios) in craft studies across six years (2013-18). Eight comprehensive school students participated in the study, tracing their craft process activities via photos, narratives, and tapings from the third to the ninth grade. The data involved self-assessment by the learners; peers and teachers were included in the textual content. The data also contained interviews, which were carried out in late spring 2019. The interview focused on students’ conceptions of the ePortfolio method and the central elements in constructing it and, finally, improvements of the ePortfolio method. The ePortfolio data was analysed by applying Anderson and Krathwohl’s taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing. The results revealed that students’ knowledge types transformed throughout those years, from versatile to more limited area and students’ cognitive process levels, from concrete to more abstract. The interview data supported these interpretations. The interviewees described the changes in their focus when tracing their learning processes; they considered visual and textual content, communication, and metacognitive knowledge as essential elements of ePortfolios. Suggested improvements of the ePortfolio addressed technical issues, platform demands, and practical functionalities.
  • Salonen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Nowadays design has an important role in people's everyday life. The goal of design education is to help children and young people to be more aware of and to understand different forms of design in our society, and learn how to apply design methods in practice. This is the way to promote and develop important future skills, such as knowledge creation, critical thinking and problem solving skills. In the new Finnish National Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 designing is an important part of craft education. This Master's Thesis is part of a wider design-based research which consists of work done by me and Päivi Heikkilä. Our research theme was to design and develop new design-based teaching material for secondary school craft education. The goal of the material is to inspire teachers and pupils to get familiar with the design process and to exploit it in a more holistic way in craft education. The original teaching material was designed, based on the background theory and experience, together with Päivi Heikkilä. After that we continued developing the material using the methods of user experience research. The survey for the craft teachers was part of my own Master's Thesis. The aim of the survey was to collect opinions and development ideas from the teachers working in the schools. The beta version of Muoto & käsityö teaching material was sent to 115 craft teachers around Finland and they evaluated different features of it. They were also asked to give ideas how to develop the material. The data was analyzed using statistical and qualitative research methods. According to this research, teachers are seeing the Muoto & käsityö teaching material suitable for craft education. They see the appearance and the overall structure clear, the content suitable for the secondary school pupils and the theoretical part important introduction to understand the design process. Teachers were also pleased with the usability of the project part. All of our goals for the teaching material were achieved. Teachers are seeing the Muoto & käsityö teaching material as a current and necessary addition to craft education, especially now when the new Finnish National Curriculum for Basic Education will take effect.
  • Linkosaari, Tiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The objective of this study was to find out what development targets craft teachers could identify in the comprehensive school classes 1 through 9 after the curriculum of the year 2004 had declared craft education uniform in textile and technical craft. Earlier research had shown that after this curricular reform craft education had been carried out in dissimilar ways in different municipalities and schools. This causes differences in the contents of teaching and thus in learning outcomes on national level. The most problematic situations occur on the 7th grade when the classes contain pupils with very heterogeneous skill levels. My intention is to find general themes in craft education that are significant when considering developmental objectives. The problem was explored by four research questions as follows: What kind of problems have craft teachers confronted during the application of the curriculum 2004, what are the most important objectives and contents in craft for the comprehensive school, how craft education should be arranged in the future and what prerequisites should be considered to generate high quality craft education? The study was carried out by a qualitative research approach. The informants consisted of 21 persons, out of which 15 were textile or technical teachers and six were textile or technical teacher students. The research data was collected in the form of short open narratives, based on a partially structured inquiry. Respectively content analysis was applied for analysis of the narratives. Research results revealed that craft teachers were mainly satisfied in uniform craft and hoped that both textile and technical craft could be compulsory school subjects for both genders. Textile and technical craft should be defined as separate independent school subjects, both of which should be developed with broader and high quality contents. Craft subjects should be allocated more teaching time. Teachers asked for a more logically proceeding curriculum, initiating from the beginning to the end of the compulsory school. It was suggested that this could be done by a qualified subject teacher. A uniform curriculum solution must be found for the whole country.
  • Karppinen, Seija (Routledge, 2018)
    In many countries, crafts and making can be more often found in informal environments than in schools. However, in some of the North European schools, for example, craft is still a vigorous school subject that includes designing and constructing products using digital and traditional techniques, whereas in some countries it might be blended into nearby disciplines (e.g., the visual arts, design, or technology). Craft’s new approaches, like invention pedagogy, maker culture, out-of-school learning, coding and robotics, and interdisciplinary pedagogy (STEAM-based approaches, for example) are gaining ground in schools and curricula, encouraging students to innovate, collaborate in knowledge-creating, and learn by making (Blikstein, Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, and Hakkarainen; Karppinen et al. “Interdisciplinary Integration”; Kallunki et al.). Interdisciplinary pedagogy also highlights a variety of physical learning spaces, and use of what is locally available is welcome and recommended (e.g., Finnish National Core Curriculum; Wilenius 170; Lipponen and Rönnholm 64).
  • Kokko, Sirpa (T & T Clark, 2018)
    Estonia got its second independence from under the Soviet rule in 1991. For a rather young nation, Estonia has progressed enormously being today a very modern country, for example in terms of technological development. Despite the pressures of the globalising processes, the Estonians have not wanted to lose their own cultural roots; various forms of crafts, and especially textiles, form an important aspect of the Estonian cultural heritage and identity. This is sustained both informally by hobby craft making and formally through educational efforts. The Department of Estonian Native Crafts of Viljandi Culture Academy (University of Tartu) is devoted to the mission of researching and making visible the Estonian craft traditions and to developing them further. This study focuses on the role of this special kind of higher education in sustaining the culturally significant designs, products and practices. The data was produced along participatory research which took place during several short periods between 2012 and 2015. To get an in-depth picture of the experiences of this form of education, the teachers and former students representing different spheres of the study programme were interviewed. The findings reveal the professional paths of these craft persons and their perspectives of the future of culturally significant crafts in Estonia.