Browsing by Subject "crime"

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  • Airaksinen, Timo (2019)
    Abstract: In this paper, I study conspiracy theories as two novelists handle them: Kafka and Sade. Kafka’s depiction of guilt depends on anxiety that refers to nameless accusations. His protagonists may well assume that a conspiracy targets them in a way they can never understand. I explain the logic of the law that embodies such anxiety, in his novels The Trial and The Process. My second example is the Marquis de Sade who gives many examples of conspiracies on his major novels Justine and Juliette. I study two of them, first, the group of murderous monks in Justine and the Parisian secret society called Sodality in Juliette. Both are successful organizations and Sade helps us understand why this is so. I discuss some real life examples of conspiracies. Finally, I compare Kafka, Sade, and their viewpoints: Kafka’s is that of the victim and Sade’s that of the victor.
  • Talaslahti, Tiina; Ginters, Milena; Kautiainen, Hannu; Vataja, Risto; Elonheimo, Henrik; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindberg, Nina; Koponen, Hannu (2021)
    Objective: To explore the criminality of patients with subsequent diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), or Lewy body dementias (LBD) in the four years preceding diagnosis. Design: Nationwide register study. Setting: Data on Finnish patients were collected from the discharge register and data on criminal offending from the police register. Research findings were compared with the same-aged general population. Participants: A total of 92,191 patients who had received a diagnosis of AD (N = 80,540), FTD (N = 1,060), and LBD (N = 10,591) between 1998 and 2015. Measurements: Incidences and types of crimes, the standardized criminality ratio (number of actual crimes per number of expected crimes), and the numbers of observed cases and person-years at risk counted in five-year age groups and separately for both genders and yearly. Results: At least one crime was committed by 1.6% of AD women and 12.8% of AD men, with corresponding figures of 5.3% and 23.5% in FTD, and 3.0% and 11.8% in LBD. The first crime was committed on average 2.7 (standard deviation 1.1) years before the diagnosis. The standardized criminality ratio was 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43 -2.37) in FTD women and 1.75 (95% CI 1.54-1.98) in FTD men, and in AD 1.11 (95% CI 1.04-1.17) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.20-1.27), respectively. Traffic offences and crimes against property constituted 94% of all offences. Conclusion: Criminal acts may occur several years prior to the diagnosis of dementia. If novel criminality occurs later in life, it may be associated with neurocognitive disorder.
  • Väärikkälä, Sofia; Koskela, Tarja; Hänninen, Laura; Nevas, Mari (2020)
    EU legislation requires the violations of animal welfare standards to be sanctioned. Our aim was to evaluate criminal sanctions concerning violations of cattle and pig welfare on Finnish farms. We analysed 196 court cases heard in Finnish district courts from 2011 to 2016. Almost all the cases (95%) concerned the violations of cattle welfare, of which 61% occurred on small farms. The lack of cleanliness and inadequate feeding and watering were the most common reported violations. The median time span from the known start date of the crime to the judgement was nearly two years. Of the cases, 96% resulted in conviction. The court did not perceive the violations as being highly blameworthy as a small fine and a short conditional imprisonment were the most often imposed sanctions. A ban on the keeping of animals was used as a precautionary measure in half of the cases. Veterinarians were shown to have an important role in the initiation of criminal procedures, providing evidence for the police and acting as witnesses. Therefore, it is crucial to achieve a well-functioning collaboration between veterinarians and the police and prosecutors. The expertise of these authorities on animal welfare legislation should also be emphasized to improve the efficacy of the criminal procedures.
  • Saarnio, Tuula (2003)
    This study describes youth delinquency and researches related to the subject. Criminality is generally seen as a biological, psychological or social phenomenon. The essential theories or points of view attempting to explain and/or understand the criminal acts of young people are in sociological research stigmatisation theory, subculture theory, social learning theories, anomy theory and control theory. In psychological research the most common reflection angles are behaviour of human being and different individual traits such as self-control, aggressiveness or extroversion. The aim of my study is to research experiences and conceptions of young people, who has committed crime and participated in other forbidden activities. Special attention has heen paid to their experiences and thoughts about crime, living in the gang, human relationships, values and plans for the future. The target group for the study are twelve young criminals, who were 16 to 19 years old when they were interviewed. The research method was theme interview. the rest of the research material consists among others of preliminary police hearing reports, documents including basic data of young people, observations of the researcher, documents of social office and sentences of the young people. The method of analysis has been content analysis. Most of the crines were related to cars, alcohol, drugs and cigarettes. Some of the young criminals had also committed crime such as fraud and assault. The boys had more free time than young people usually have, because they did not like the school. School was considered as a boring place. The most important persons in the youth's life were their pals. The relation to the parents were quite chilly. The boys did not condemn criminality, only severe crimes (murder) were not accepted. The future prospects were quite optimistic, although only a few of the boys had any plans for the future. The most significant matters in this research have been experience of success, no regret and no realistic future prospects.
  • Valkonen, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. A relatively small group of people are responsible for disproportionate amount of offenses which cause significant monetary and societal costs. It has been important to recognize different risk and protective factors for chronic offending in youth to develop effective treatment and preventive strategies. One subgroup of offenders who commit many offenses are individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, not all psychopathic individuals commit crimes and some seem well adjusted to society. High intelligence is considered as a protective factor from chronic offending. This study examines the relationship of psychopathic traits and intelligence on juvenile delinquency with seven-year long follow up design. Methods. The data of the study was employed from the Pathways to Desistance longitudinal study which material was collected in between 2000 - 2010. The sample included all male juvenile offenders (n=1170) from the cities of Phoenix and Philadelphia in the United States of America. The participants were 14 - 19 of age at the beginning of the study and 21 - 26 at the end. Psychopathic traits were assessed with PCL:YV and intelligence with WASI. The relationship of psychopathic traits and intelligence on delinquency was examined with binary logistic regression analysis. As well as the moderating effect of intelligence on the relationship between psychopathic traits and delinquency. Delinquency was assessed separately for violent and income related crimes based on the self-report of the participants with SRO method. Results and conclusions. High psychopathic traits were related to a higher risk for both violent and income offending in every measurement year of the seven year follow up. In addition, high psychopathic traits were related to a higher risk for faster rate of recidivism and to the continuity of criminal activity. Intelligence did not have either increasing or decreasing effect on delinquency and it did not have any moderating effect on the relationship between psychopathic traits and delinquency. However, further studies are needed to examine more closely the observed relationships, possible mediating factors and other risk and protective factors for crime. The results indicate that the risk and protective factors for delinquency in youth with high psychopathic traits needs to be intervened as early as possible to achieve effective treatment and preventive results.
  • Diatlova, Anastasia (2010)
    A large body of work exists on representation of women in popular culture, yet, notwithstanding extensive analysis of women in film noir and neo-noir, violent female criminals do not receive much scholarly attention. This study aims to rectify this by exploring the representations of violent female criminals in popular culture, the social fantasies associated with these representations and the changes they undergo over time. Five episodes of a popular murder mystery series Columbo, representing female murderers, were analyzed using semiotics and Stuart Hall’s theory of representation. The study is positioned within a larger theoretical framework of criminology and media studies. The data analysis suggests that when violent women are represented, they are demonized, pathologized and sexualized. The projection of “bad” or “mad” fantasies onto violent women allows society to expunge them from the social order and mask the fantasy of female power and its disruptive effect on gender boundaries. Though primary categories of representation of violent women have not changed, as time goes by, they are expanded and supplemented by new representations such as victimization and emancipation. The data suggests that representation of female criminals draws heavily on theories of female criminality, yet the range of the representations remains extremely limited.
  • Mikkonen, Janne; Savolainen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Background Sibling resemblance in crime may be due to genetic relatedness, shared environment, and/or the interpersonal influence of siblings on each other. This latter process can be understood as a type of 'peer effect' in that it is based on social learning between individuals occupying the same status in the social system (family). Building on prior research, we hypothesized that sibling pairs that resemble peer relationships the most, i.e., same-sex siblings close in age, exhibit the most sibling resemblance in crime. Methods Drawing on administrative microdata covering Finnish children born in 1985-97, we examined 213 911 sibling pairs, observing the recorded criminality of each sibling between ages 11 and 20. We estimated multivariate regression models controlling for individual and family characteristics, and employed fixed-effects models to analyze the temporal co-occurrence of sibling delinquency. Results Among younger siblings with a criminal older sibling, the adjusted prevalence estimates of criminal offending decreased from 32 to 25% as the age differences increased from less than 13 months to 25-28 months. The prevalence leveled off at 23% when age difference reached 37-40 months or more. These effects were statistically significant only among same-sex sibling pairs (p < 0.001), with clear evidence of contemporaneous offending among siblings with minimal age difference. Conclusions Same-sex siblings very close in age stand out as having the highest sibling resemblance in crime. This finding suggests that a meaningful share of sibling similarity in criminal offending is due to a process akin to peer influence, typically flowing from the older to the younger sibling.