Browsing by Subject "criminology"

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  • Danielsson, Petri (2021)
    Collective efficacy theory states that neighbourhood variation in crime can be attributed to social cohesion and informal social control. Despite a substantial body of work, the theory has been subject to little testing in Europe and few studies have compared different outcomes. The current study employed a cluster sampling design to study violent crime in a sample of 70 suburban housing estates built in the 1960s and 1970s throughout Finland. Police-recorded violent crime in public and private space and survey-based measures of neighbourhood violence were studied using register data on neighbourhood characteristics and the residents’ perceptions of social cohesion and perceived capacity for informal control. The results showed that, in a sample of Finnish suburban housing estates, collective efficacy was negatively associated with violence in private space and a survey-based measure of neighbourhood violence, while the association between collective efficacy and violence in public space was not significant. Neighbourhood disadvantage was directly associated with police-recorded violence in private surroundings but not violence in the public sphere.
  • Möller, Ada (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Avhandlingen ser på ekonomisk brottslighet (white-collar crime, på svenska ofta kallat manschettbrottslighet) speciellt i formen av förskingringar, och hur de visar sig i välfärdsstater såsom Finland och Sverige. Avhandlingen ger även en översikt över kriminologisk teori, manschettbrottslighet och dess kopplingar till globalisering. I ljuset av avhandlingens källmaterial är en kort diskussion beträffande kriminaljournalistik även inkluderad. Teorimässigt ligger fokus på hur manschettbrottslighet och kriminologiska teorier har utvecklats genom åren. Avhandlingens källmaterial och fallen som analyseras samlades genom användning av internetbaserade nyhetsmedier i januari och februari 2021. Som sökmotor användes Google, där sökningen begränsats till www.yle.fi och www.svt.se. Finland och Sverige blev valda tack vare deras många likheter samt relativt lätta jämförbarhet. Det som skiljer avhandlingen från andra studier inom samma område är dess fokus på Finland och Sverige, samt dess metod för datainsamling, vilket ter sig unikt, eftersom en liknande analys mellan länderna inte gjorts tidigare. Forskningens resultat visar på en variation mellan gärningsmannens ställning och tillvägagångssätt, där brottsmetoden ofta var överraskande enkel. Dessutom kan man i analysen finna påfallande likheter mellan Finland och Sverige. Några uppenbara slutsatser på globaliseringens direkta inverkan på själva brottet förblir dock tvetydigt. Hursomhelst kan det ändå konstateras att medan globalisering i sig inte är källan till allt det onda, är det ändå ofrånkomligt att fenomenet globalisering samt allt vad det innebär nog underlättat genomförandet av en del former av ekonomisk brottslighet. Dock visar även avhandlingens slutsatser på att den stereotypiska manschettbrottslingen som en manlig medelålders chef inte stöds av källmaterialet. Poängteras bör ändå också att definitionen av manschettbrottslighet, som den används i denna avhandling, samt omfattningen av vad som räknats som förskingring, tvingar betydelsen av denna traditionella, och aningen konservativa, stereotypen att minska i värde.
  • Keipi, Teo; Näsi, Matti; Oksanen, Atte; Räsänen, Pekka (Routledge, 2017)
    Over the past few decades, various types of hate material have caused increasing concern. Today, the scope of hate is wider than ever, as easy and often-anonymous access to an enormous amount of online content has opened the Internet up to both use and abuse. By providing possibilities for inexpensive and instantaneous access without ties to geographic location or a user identification system, the Internet has permitted hate groups and individuals espousing hate to transmit their ideas to a worldwide audience. Online Hate and Harmful Content focuses on the role of potentially harmful online content, particularly among young people. This focus is explored through two approaches: firstly, the commonality of online hate through cross-national survey statistics. This includes a discussion of the various implications of online hate for young people in terms of, for example, subjective wellbeing, trust, self-image and social relationships. Secondly, the book examines theoretical frameworks from the fields of sociology, social psychology and criminology that are useful for understanding online behaviour and online victimisation. Limitations of past theory are assessed and complemented with a novel theoretical model linking past work to the online environment as it exists today. An important and timely volume in this ever-changing digital age, this book is suitable for graduates and undergraduates interested in the fields of Internet and new media studies, social psychology and criminology. The analyses and findings of the book are also particularly relevant to practitioners and policy-makers working in the areas of Internet regulation, crime prevention, child protection and social work/youth work.
  • Kivivuori, Janne; Lehti, Martti; Rautelin, Mona; Lindström, Dag; Netterstrøm, Jeppe Büchert (2020)
    An extensive body of criminological research has shown that criminal and violent behaviour manifests time patterns in terms of daily, weekly and annual cycles. This is consistent with criminological routine activities theory. Can we generalize these patterns to historical periods? In this article, we draw on a recently created unique dataset, covering the years 1608 to 1699 in three Nordic regions, to explore time cycles of offending in the early modern period. Examining daily, weekly and annual cycles, we find that lethal violence manifested strong time patterns in the early modern period. The role of public holidays was central especially in the period lasting from Christmas to Midsummer. Probing the role of key routines, we disaggregate the composition of homicide cycles by alcohol use and place of occurrence. The findings indicate that early modern homicide time cycles were associated with alcohol use and activities in private places (private homes, homesteads). We conclude by discussing the strengths and limitations of our data and by suggesting further research in the promising frontier of standardized long duration homicide research.
  • Kivivuori, Janne (2017)
    Today, the Finnish criminologist and sociologist Veli Verkko (1893-1955) is remembered and cited because of Verkko's laws', which predict cross-sectional and temporal regularities between homicide rates and patterns. This article describes Verkko's criminological thought more broadly and situates him in the historical divide between bio-criminology and the rise of sociological environmentalism. In this paradigmatic conflict, Verkko took an unlikely path: while remaining a multiple factor theorist and social environmentalist, he came to see biology as increasingly relevant in the post-war era, at a time when other social scientists were rejecting bio-perspectives. Because of this, he became involved in the controversy over the malleability of human behaviour. Following prior work on institutional influences on the development of human sciences, it is shown that policy demand for a new kind of research influenced the genesis and outcome of this debate. The post-war building of the welfare state promoted research and social engineering activities based on the premise of human malleability. The Verkko case thus suggests how historically changing institutional factors can influence not only research topics but also more fundamental changes in paradigmatic assumptions of research.
  • Suonpää, Karoliina Eeva-Maria; Savolainen, Jukka (2019)
    This research revisited the claim that victim precipitation (VP) is especially prevalent in situations where women kill their male intimate partners. Using administrative data from the Finnish Homicide Monitor (N =1,494), we created a typology of homicide incidents to examine variation in VP across three factors: the gender of the offender, the gender of the victim, and the intimacy of the victim–offender relationship. The results from regression models demonstrated strong support for the assumption that killings by women of their male intimate partners are more likely to have been victim precipitated than other types of homicide. This homicide type stood out as having the strongest association with each measure of VP included in the analysis. We did not observe statistically significant differences in VP among other homicide types. For example, we did not observe gender differences in VP in homicides that did not involve intimate partners. This pattern of results contradicts prior evidence suggesting that VP is a general feature of female-perpetrated killings, independent of the gender of the victim and the intimacy of the victim–offender relationship. As such, the present study underscores the importance of replication in studies of interpersonal violence. Theoretically, the results support the gender–partner interaction hypothesis over gender differences hypothesis of VP.