Browsing by Subject "critical care"

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  • Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI); the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group; Skrifvars, MB; Bailey, M; Moore, E; Martensson, J; French, C; Presneill, J; Nichol, A; Little, L; Duranteau, J; Huet, O; Haddad, S; Arabi, YM; McArthur, C; Cooper, DJ; Bendel, S; Bellomo, R (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING: Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS: A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1- 4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
  • Saviluoto, Anssi; Jäntti, Helena; Kirves, Hetti Anna; Setälä, Piritta; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Background: Pre-hospital anaesthesia is a core competency of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). Whether physician pre-hospital anaesthesia case volume affects outcomes is unknown in this setting. We aimed to investigate whether physician case volume was associated with differences in mortality or medical management. Methods: We conducted a registry-based cohort study of patients undergoing drug-facilitated intubation by HEMS physician from January 1, 2013 to August 31, 2019. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality, analysed using multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient-dependent variables. Case volume for each patient was determined by the number of pre-hospital anaesthetics the attending physician had managed in the previous 12 months. The explanatory variable was physician case volume grouped by low (0-12), intermediate (13-36), and high (>= 37) case volume. Secondary outcomes were characteristics of medical management, including the incidence of hypoxaemia and hypotension. Results: In 4818 patients, the physician case volume was 511, 2033, and 2274 patients in low-, intermediate-, and high-case-volume groups, respectively. Higher physician case volume was associated with lower 30-day mortality (odds ratio 0.79 per logarithmic number of cases [95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.98]). High-volume physician providers had shorter on-scene times (median 28 [25th-75th percentile: 22-38], compared with intermediate 32 [23-42] and lowest 32 [23-43] case-volume groups; P Conclusions: Mortality appears to be lower after pre-hospital anaesthesia when delivered by physician providers with higher case volumes.
  • Fallenius, Marika (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Liberal use of oxygen after brain insults remains controversial. We studied whether high arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) is associated with decreased long-term survival in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Adult patients treated for ICH in Finnish ICUs in 2003-2012 were included in the study. Patients were divided into high (>150mmHg), intermediate (97.5-150mmHg), and low (<97.5mmHg) PaO2 groups according to the lowest measured PaO2/FiO2-ratio during the first 24 hours after ICU admission. In univariate analysis, patients in the high PaO2 group had a significantly increased risk of six-month death compared with the low group (OR 1.82; 95%CI,1.36–2.42;p<0.001), but this statistically significant relation was lost after controlling for case mix in multivariate analysis (OR 1.10; 95%CI,0.76–1.60;p=0.598). No significant relation between PaO2 levels and long-term mortality was found. The clinical role of hyperoxemia in ICU-treated ICH patients remains controversial and warrants further studies.
  • Sverrisson, Kristinn O.; Chew, Michelle S.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Rehn, Marius; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Moller, Morten Hylander (2021)
    The Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Clinical practice Committee endorses the BMJ Rapid Recommendation Gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis for critically ill patients-a clinical practice guideline. The guideline serves as a useful decision aid for clinicians caring for critically ill patients, and can be used together with clinical experience to decide whether a specific critically ill patient may benefit from gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis.
  • Chew, Michelle S.; Rehn, Marius; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Sverrisson, Kristinn Orn; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Moller, Morten Hylander (2019)
    The Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Clinical Practice Committee endorses the recent DASAIM/DSIT guideline for prevention of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. However, we emphasize the low quality of evidence with only weak recommendations for all interventions, highlighting that further research is very likely to have an important impact on the confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimates.
  • CONNECT Study Consortium COS Dev G; Hermelijn, Sergei; Kersten, Casper; Mullassery, Dhanya; Suominen, Janne (2021)
    Introduction A worldwide lack of consensus exists on the optimal management of asymptomatic congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) even though the incidence is increasing. Either a surgical resection is performed or a wait-and-see policy is employed, depending on the treating physician. Management is largely based on expert opinion and scientific evidence is scarce. Wide variations in outcome measures are seen between studies making comparison difficult thus highlighting the lack of universal consensus in outcome measures as well. We aim to define a core outcome set which will include the most important core outcome parameters for paediatric patients with an asymptomatic CPAM. Methods and analysis This study will include a critical appraisal of the current literature followed by a three-stage Delphi process with two stakeholder groups. One surgical group including paediatric as well as thoracic surgeons, and a non-surgeon group including paediatric pulmonologists, intensive care and neonatal specialists. All participants will score outcome parameters according to their level of importance and the most important parameters will be determined by consensus. Ethics and dissemination Electronic informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Ethical approval is not required. After the core outcome set has been defined, we intend to design an international randomised controlled trial: the COllaborative Neonatal NEtwork for the first CPAM Trial, which will be aimed at determining the optimal management of patients with asymptomatic CPAM.
  • Rehn, Marius; Chew, Michelle S.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Sverrison, Kristinn Orn; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Moller, Morten Hylander (2019)
    Clinical practice guidelines from other organizations or societies with assumed clinical and contextualized relevance for Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) members, may trigger a formal evaluation by The Clinical Practice Committee (CPC) for possible SSAI endorsement. This avoids unnecessary duplicate processes and minimizes resource-waste. Identified guidelines are assessed for endorsement using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. The SSAI CPC utilizes the AGREE II online coordinated group appraisal platform to assess the methodological rigor and transparency in which the guideline was developed. The results of the assessment, including the decision to endorse or not, are presented to the SSAI Board for sanctioning. This document briefly outlines the process for evaluation of non-SSAI guidelines by the CPC for possible SSAI endorsement.
  • EPO-TBI Investigators Anzics Clin; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly understood and it is unknown if it can be attenuated using erythropoietin (EPO). Methods Pre-planned analysis of patients included in the EPO-TBI (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) trial who were randomized to weekly EPO (40 000 units) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) subcutaneously up to three doses or until intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Creatinine levels and urinary output (up to 7 days) were categorized according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) classification. Severity of TBI was categorized with the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI. Results Of 3348 screened patients, 606 were randomized and 603 were analyzed. Of these, 82 (14%) patients developed AKI according to KDIGO (60 [10%] with KDIGO 1, 11 [2%] patients with KDIGO 2, and 11 [2%] patients with KDIGO 3). Male gender (hazard ratio [HR] 4.0 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-11.2, P = 0.008) and severity of TBI (HR 1.3 95% CI 1.1-1.4, P <0.001 for each 10% increase in risk of poor 6 month outcome) predicted time to AKI. KDIGO stage 1 (HR 8.8 95% CI 4.5-17, P <0.001), KDIGO stage 2 (HR 13.2 95% CI 3.9-45.2, P <0.001) and KDIGO stage 3 (HR 11.7 95% CI 3.5-39.7, P <0.005) predicted time to mortality. EPO did not influence time to AKI (HR 1.08 95% CI 0.7-1.67, P = 0.73) or creatinine levels during ICU stay (P = 0.09). Conclusions Acute kidney injury is more common in male patients and those with severe compared to moderate TBI and appears associated with worse outcome. EPO does not prevent AKI after TBI.
  • Holmström, Ester; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    BackgroundCardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outcome, mortality and healthcare-associated costs for patients aged over 75 years treated for CA in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital.MethodsThis single-centre retrospective study included adult CA patients treated in a Finnish tertiary hospital's ICU between 2005 and 2013. We stratified the study population into two age groups: 75 years. We compared interventions defined by the median daily therapeutic scoring system (TISS-76) between the age groups to find differences in treatment intensity. We calculated cost-effectiveness by dividing the total one-year healthcare-associated costs of all patients by the number of survivors with a favourable neurological outcome. Favourable outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1-2 at 12 months after cardiac arrest. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent associations between age group, mortality and neurological outcome.ResultsThis study included a total of 1,285 patients, of which 212 (16%) were >= 75 years of age. Treatment intensity was lower for the elderly compared to the younger group, with median TISS scores of 116 and 147, respectively (p
  • Holmström, Ester; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Pekkarinen, Pirkka; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outcome, mortality and healthcare-associated costs for patients aged over 75 years treated for CA in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital. Methods: This single-centre retrospective study included adult CA patients treated in a Finnish tertiary hospital’s ICU between 2005 and 2013. We stratified the study population into two age groups: <75 and ≥75 years. We compared interventions defined by the median daily therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS-76) between the age groups to find differences in treatment intensity. We calculated cost-effectiveness by dividing the total one-year healthcare-associated costs of all patients by the number of survivors with a favourable neurological outcome. Favourable outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1–2 at 12 months after cardiac arrest. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent association between age group, mortality and neurological outcome. Results: This study included a total of 1,285 patients, of which 212 (16%) were ≥75 years of age. Treatment intensity was lower for the elderly compared to the younger group, with median TISS scores of 116 and 147, respectively (p < 0.001). The effective cost in euros for patients with a good one-year neurological outcome was €168,000 for the elderly and €120,000 for the younger group. At 12 months after CA 24% of the patients in the elderly group and 47% of the patients in the younger group had a CPC of 1-2 (p < 0.001). Age was an independent predictor of mortality (multivariate OR = 3.36, 95% CI:2.21-5.11, p < 0.001) and neurological outcome (multivariate OR = 3.27, 95% CI:2.12-5.03, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The elderly ICU-treated CA patients in this study had worse neurological outcomes, higher mortality and lower cost-effectiveness than younger patients. Further efforts are needed to recognize the tools for assessing which elderly patients benefit from a more aggressive treatment approach in order to improve the cost-effectiveness of post-CA management.
  • HEALICS Consortium; Keuning, Britt E.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Wiersema, Renske; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2020)
    Background Mortality prediction models are applied in the intensive care unit (ICU) to stratify patients into different risk categories and to facilitate benchmarking. To ensure that the correct prediction models are applied for these purposes, the best performing models must be identified. As a first step, we aimed to establish a systematic review of mortality prediction models in critically ill patients. Methods Mortality prediction models were searched in four databases using the following criteria: developed for use in adult ICU patients in high-income countries, with mortality as primary or secondary outcome. Characteristics and performance measures of the models were summarized. Performance was presented in terms of discrimination, calibration and overall performance measures presented in the original publication. Results In total, 43 mortality prediction models were included in the final analysis. In all, 15 models were only internally validated (35%), 13 externally (30%) and 10 (23%) were both internally and externally validated by the original researchers. Discrimination was assessed in 42 models (98%). Commonly used calibration measures were the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (60%) and the calibration plot (28%). Calibration was not assessed in 11 models (26%). Overall performance was assessed in the Brier score (19%) and the Nagelkerke's R-2 (4.7%). Conclusions Mortality prediction models have varying methodology, and validation and performance of individual models differ. External validation by the original researchers is often lacking and head-to-head comparisons are urgently needed to identify the best performing mortality prediction models for guiding clinical care and research in different settings and populations.
  • Kortelainen, Simon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background and purpose: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, but studies on the cost-effectiveness of intensive care are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the one-year costs and outcomes of patients with AIS treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to an academic ICU with AIS between 2003 and 2013. True healthcare expenditure was obtained up to one year after admission. Patient outcome was 12-month functional outcome and mortality. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of favorable outcomes and linear regression analysis to assess factors associated with costs. We calculated the effective cost per survivor (ECPS) and effective cost per favorable outcome (ECPFO). Results: The study population comprised 154 patients. ICU admission was mostly due to decreased consciousness level (47%) and need for respiratory support (40%). There were 68 (44%) one year survivors, of which 27 (18%) had a favorable outcome. High age (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91–0.98) and high hospital admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.97) were independent predictors of poor outcomes. Increased age had a cost ratio of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99) per added year. The ECPS and ECPFO were 115,628€ and 291,210€ respectively. Conclusions: Treatment of AIS in the ICU appears costly, and the outcome is often poor. Further research is required to improve the cost-effectiveness of ICU care for AIS patients.
  • Saku, S. A.; Linko, R.; Madanat, R. (2020)
    Background and Aims: Emergency Response Teams have been employed by hospitals to evaluate and manage patients whose condition is rapidly deteriorating. In this study, we aimed to assess the outcomes of triggering the Emergency Response Teams at a high-volume arthroplasty center, determine which factors trigger the Emergency Response Teams, and investigate the main reasons for an unplanned intensive care unit admission following Emergency Response Team intervention. Material and Methods: We gathered data by evaluating all Emergency Response Team forms filled out during a 4-year period (2014-2017), and by assessing the medical records. The collected data included age, gender, time of and reason for the Emergency Response Teams call, and interventions performed during the Emergency Response Teams intervention. The results are reported as percentages, mean +/- standard deviation, or median (interquartile range), where appropriate. All patients were monitored for 30 days to identify possible intensive care unit admissions, surgeries, and death. Results: The mean patient age was 72 (46-92) years and 40 patients (62%) were female. The Emergency Response Teams was triggered a total of 65 times (61 patients). The most common Emergency Response Team call criteria were low oxygen saturation, loss or reduction of consciousness, and hypotension. Following the Emergency Response Team call, 36 patients (55%) could be treated in the ward, and 29 patients (45%) were transferred to the intensive care unit. The emergency that triggered the Emergency Response Teams was most commonly caused by drug-related side effects (12%), pneumonia (8%), pulmonary embolism (8%), and sepsis (6%). Seven patients (11%) died during the first 30 days after the Emergency Response Teams call. Conclusion: Although all 65 patients met the Emergency Response Teams call criteria, potentially having severe emergencies, half of the patients could be treated in the arthroplasty ward. Emergency Response Team intervention appears useful in addressing concerns that can potentially lead to unplanned intensive care unit admission, and the Emergency Response Teams trigger threshold seems appropriate as only 3% of the Emergency Response Teams calls required no intervention.
  • RIPTRANS Study Grp Collaborators; Uutela, Aki; Helanterä, Ilkka; Lemström, Karl; Passov, Arie; Syrjälä, Simo; Åberg, Fredrik; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Lempinen, Marko; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Introduction Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) using a non-invasive pneumatic tourniquet is a potential method for reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury. RIPC has been extensively studied in animal models and cardiac surgery, but scarcely in solid organ transplantation. RIPC could be an inexpensive and simple method to improve function of transplanted organs. Accordingly, we aim to study whether RIPC performed in brain-dead organ donors improves function and longevity of transplanted organs. Methods and analyses RIPTRANS is a multicentre, sham-controlled, parallel group, randomised superiority trial comparing RIPC intervention versus sham-intervention in brain-dead organ donors scheduled to donate at least one kidney. Recipients of the organs (kidney, liver, pancreas, heart, lungs) from a randomised donor will be included provided that they give written informed consent. The RIPC intervention is performed by inflating a thigh tourniquet to 300 mm Hg 4 times for 5 min. The intervention is done two times: first right after the declaration of brain death and second immediately before transferring the donor to the operating theatre. The sham group receives the tourniquet, but it is not inflated. The primary endpoint is delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney allografts. Secondary endpoints include short-term functional outcomes of transplanted organs, rejections and graft survival in various time points up to 20 years. We aim to show that RIPC reduces the incidence of DGF from 25% to 15%. According to this, the sample size is set to 500 kidney transplant recipients. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by Helsinki University Hospital Ethics Committee and Helsinki University Hospital's Institutional Review Board. The study protocol was be presented at the European Society of Organ Transplantation congress in Copenhagen 14-15 September 2019. The study results will be submitted to an international peer-reviewed scientific journal for publication.
  • Hemila, Harri; de Man, Angelique M. E. (2021)
    In numerous animal studies, vitamin C has prevented and alleviated viral and bacterial infections. In a few dozen placebo-controlled trials with humans, vitamin C has shortened infections caused by respiratory viruses, which indicates that the vitamin can also influence viral infections in humans. In critically ill patients, plasma vitamin C levels are commonly very low. Gram doses of vitamin C are needed to increase the plasma vitamin C levels of critically ill patients to the levels of ordinary healthy people. A meta-analysis of 12 trials with 1,766 patients calculated that vitamin C reduced the length of ICU stay on average by 8%. Another meta-analysis found that vitamin C shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation in ICU patients. Two randomized placebo-controlled trials found statistically significant reduction in the mortality of sepsis patients. The effects of vitamin C on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) frequently complicating COVID-19 pneumonia should be considered. Vitamin C is a safe and inexpensive essential nutrient.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (2019)
    A number of controlled trials have previously found that in some contexts, vitamin C can have beneficial effects on blood pressure, infections, bronchoconstriction, atrial fibrillation, and acute kidney injury. However, the practical significance of these effects is not clear. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether vitamin C has an effect on the practical outcomes: length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and duration of mechanical ventilation. We identified 18 relevant controlled trials with a total of 2004 patients, 13 of which investigated patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. We carried out the meta-analysis using the inverse variance, fixed effect options, using the ratio of means scale. In 12 trials with 1766 patients, vitamin C reduced the length of ICU stay on average by 7.8% (95% CI: 4.2% to 11.2%; p = 0.00003). In six trials, orally administered vitamin C in doses of 1-3 g/day (weighted mean 2.0 g/day) reduced the length of ICU stay by 8.6% (p = 0.003). In three trials in which patients needed mechanical ventilation for over 24 hours, vitamin C shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation by 18.2% (95% CI 7.7% to 27%; p = 0.001). Given the insignificant cost of vitamin C, even an 8% reduction in ICU stay is worth exploring. The effects of vitamin C on ICU patients should be investigated in more detail.