Browsing by Subject "critical discourse analysis"

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  • Liehunen, Lumi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan ympäristödiskursseja maatalouspoliittisessa massakampanjassa, joka toteutettiin Mao Zedongin aikaisessa Kiinassa 1960- ja 1970-luvuilla. Kyseisen kampanjan tarkoituksena oli saada koko Kiina ottamaan mallia Dazhai-nimisestä kylästä, jonka Kiinan kommunistinen puolue katsoi edustavan esimerkillistä maanviljelyskulttuuria kaikilla mittareilla mitattuna. Ympäristödiskurssien lisäksi tässä tutkielmassa haetaan vastausta siihen, miten ihmisen ja luonnon välinen suhde esitettiin Dazhai-kampanjan yhteydessä. Näin tarkoituksena on tuottaa lisäymmärrystä Kiinan ympäristötuhoihin Maon hallinnon aikana. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkastelun kohteena olevat asiat sijoittuvat Kiinan kulttuurivallankumouksen aikakauteen. Tutkielman teoreettinen ja metodinen puoli nojautuu kriittiseen diskurssianalyysiin. Analyysin teossa on lisäksi käytetty apukeinona Norman Fairclough’n kolmijakoista analyysimallia. Aineisto koostuu yhteensä 21:sta lehtiartikkelista, jotka on julkaistu vuosien 1965 ja 1976 välillä lehdessä nimeltä China Pictorial. Tutkimusaineisto on kokonaisuudessaan kiinankielinen. Aineiston perusteella on havaittavissa neljä erilaista ympäristöön liittyvää diskurssia, joiden kautta Dazhai-kampanjasta kirjoitetaan. Diskurssit on nimetty ”luonto vallankumouksen jatkumona”–, ”luonnon muuttaminen kamppailun kautta”–, ”luonto välinearvona”– ja ”luonto sotilaallisena kohteena”–diskursseiksi. Näistä diskursseista ensimmäisessä näkyy ajatus siitä, että muiden yhteiskunnan osa-alueiden lisäksi myös luonto tulee mullistaa ja saattaa Kiinan kommunistisen puolueen hallintaan. Toisessa diskurssissa luonto nähdään asiana, jota on mahdollista muuttaa äärimmäisyyteen asti tahdonvoiman ja fyysisen kamppailun tuloksena. Kolmas diskurssi näkee luonnon sen tuoman hyödyn näkökulmasta, sekä heikentää perinteisiä kiinalaisia luontokäsityksiä. Neljännessä diskurssissa luonto on kohde, joka on voitettava, jota kohden pitää hyökätä ja jota vastaan pitää aloittaa sota. Näiden neljän diskurssin kautta havaittava ihmisen ja luonnon välinen suhde on vahvasti antroposentrinen sekä tiukasti poliittiseen ideologiaan kietoutuva.
  • Ruohio, Ilona (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani aiheena on ’toiseuden’ ilmenemismuodot (‘othering’) englantilaisen The Economist -viikkolehden nekrologeissa. Tarkastelen ’normiin’ ja ’toiseuteen’ liittyvää henkilökuvausta kriittisen diskurssianalyysin viitekehyksessä. Valitsin lehden tutkimus-kohteekseni, koska sillä on suuri vaikutusvalta maailmanlaajuiseen lukijakuntaan ja sen arvoihin ja asenteisiin. Vuosina 2010 – 2014 The Economist -lehdessä julkaistiin 255 nekrologia. Näiden joukosta valitsin henkilökuvauksen yleisvaikutelman perusteella 10 nekrologia tarkemman kielellisen analyysin kohteiksi. Viisi tekstiä vaikutti kunnioittavaan sävyyn kirjoitetuilta ja toiset viisi negatiivisesti värittyneiltä. Analyysimenetelmänä käytän Fowlerin luokittelua, joka pohjautuu Hallidayn systeemis-funktionaaliseen kielioppiin ja keskittyy transitiivisuuden tarkasteluun. Analysoin verbi-, adjektiivi- ja substantiivirakenteita, verbien konnotaatioita sekä semanttisia rooleja. Nämä rakennevalinnat liittyvät laajaan sosiokulttuuriseen kontekstiin, kielen interpersonaaliseen ja ideationaaliseen funktioon ja saavat merkityksensä niiden kautta. Tekemäni analyysi osoittaa, että ’normia’ edustavat henkilöt ovat aineistossa enemmistönä ja saavat osakseen positiivisia ja arvostavia verbejä, adjektiiveja ja substantiiveja, kun taas ’toiseksi’ luokiteltavia henkilöitä on merkittävästi vähemmän ja heitä kuvataan negatiivisin verbein, adjektiivein ja substantiivein. Lisäksi ’normin’ edustajat kuvataan ’toisia’ useammin toimijan (Agent) semanttisessa roolissa ja ’toiset’ saavat ’normin’ edustajia enemmän kokijan (Experiencer) ja kohteen (Affected) rooleja. Tutkimukseni tulos vastaa van Dijkin representaatiostrategiaa ‘ideological square’, jonka mukaan ’normi’ esitetään positiivisessa ja ’toiset’ negatiivisessa valossa. Tarkasteltavassa aineistossa ’normia’ (Us) edustavat valkoihoiset heteromiehet, ja ’toiseutta’ (Them) taas naiset ja värilliset.
  • Posvarova, Jaroslava (2007)
    The thesis's main focus is discourse analysis (both textual and in the field of policy) of the securitization process in the Netherlands for the period 2004-2006, and the implications of it for multiculturalism. The emphasis on culture that multiculturalism entails is the issue at stake. In the Netherlands, especially immigrants are being addressed in relation with their national culture which creates separate communities centred on different ethnicities and cultures. I explore how cultural essentialism and cultural fundamentalism are perceived in regard to the national identity and culture of Dutch people. The assessment of the nature and extend of political discourse reveals to us whether securitization is among one of the causes of the new guises for cultural essentialism. The methodology of this thesis is embedded in a multidisciplinary theoretical framework pertaining to combination of critical discourse analysis (CD A) of Norman Fairclough (his three dimensional model for analysis of the relationship between discursive practice, linguistic analysis of text and social practices) and refined version of the Copenhagen school's securitization theory. Furthermore, the conceptual notion of multiculturalism and the problem of culture are central to this framework for the findings' analysis. The empirical data analyzed are composed by around 50 politicians' speeches, their opinion pieces and written statements on immigration. The social practice is analyzed on legislative acts, adopted policies, government's proposals and press releases of ministries. I claim that speech acts and policy practices are integral components for studying the securitization discourse. In line with Jef Huysmans, Didier Bigo, and Christina Boswell, I argue that securitization is not wholly dependent on the explicit naming of something in terms of security but also on positioning of an issue within a specific policy domain. Furthermore, I widen the assumptions concerning processes of infiltration of security professionals into previously immigration domains.
  • Gong, Heng (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    With the construction of the largest water dam in the world, China’s Three Gorges Dam, many severe environmental problems have emerged along the Yangtze River. Its constructor, the China Three Gorges Corporation (CTGC), publishes an annual environmental report (AER) to address the ecological problems. This study aims to investigate these reports from the perspective of ecolinguistics under the Story Theory put forward by Arran Stibbe (2015). This study addresses three questions: 1) Are there any beneficial, ambivalent, or destructive discourses in China Three Gorges Corporation's annual environmental reports? 2) If so, how is each story being constructed? 3) What suggestions and implications can we obtain from the analyses of these stories? To answer these questions, 10 English AERs published from 2008 to 2017 by CTGC were collected to compile a corpus with a size of 114,770 tokens. Six story types, including frame, metaphor, evaluation, identity, erasure, and salience, were then chosen for analysis with the combination method of ecolinguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. The results show that, within the frame story, the sustainable development frame and the green development frame were ambivalent discourses. Within the metaphor story, RIVER AS A TOOL FOR MAKING MONEY, NATURE IS A MACHINE, ECOLOGICAL DAMAGE IS AN ACCIDENT, and COMPANY IS A HUMAN were destructive discourses; NATURE IS A COMPETITION and CLIMATE CHANGE IS A WAR were ambivalent discourses. Within the evaluation story, using three purr-words (clean, new, and renewable) to describe energy formed a destructive discourse. Within the identity story, the use of the pronouns we and our distanced more-than-human participants from human participants, which formed a destructive discourse. Within the erasure story, the nominalization of the word pollute formed a destructive discourse. Within the salience story, describing endangered fish species with abstract words and describing fish as a type of resource formed two destructive discourses, and using the basic level word fish formed a beneficial discourse. Based on these judgments, this study concludes that the beneficial discourse should be promoted, the destructive discourses should be resisted, and the positive parts of the ambivalent discourses should be highlighted while their negative parts should be rejected. These findings can contribute to our understanding of the ecological discourse of the water dam.
  • Heinonen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Advertising has been an area of interest in linguistic research for the past decades due to its pervasiveness and role in shaping our notions and values in society. This study sets out to examine the socio-cultural practices in a specific field of advertising discourse, influencer marketing on social media. Influencer marketing is a recent branch of marketing, brought forth by the popularity of social media. In Influencer marketing, the products are marketed by individual influencers instead of corporations or companies. Brands turn to social media influencers in order to reach a wider audience and to utilize the influencers’ social media presence and their ability to influence their audience to promote their products and to turn this social power into capital. The hypothesis is that this key difference between traditional marketing and influencer marketing. The aim of this study is to present a critical discourse analysis to examine the social context and relationship between the influencer and the reader. The methodologic approach applied to the analysis of the data is critical discourse analysis, more specifically Norman Fairclough’s three-dimensional model. Critical discourse analysis and Fairclough’s model allow focus on the linguistic properties in addition to the production and reception processes of discourse and the socio-cultural practices within discourse. The data and its analysis deemed that influencer marketing reveals consumerist ideologies that promote purchasing of goods as a means to reach happiness and well-being, as presented by the social media influencers.
  • Tulokas, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This Master’s thesis is concerned about the political and normative consequences that rise from viewing migration and refugees as a security threat. The issues of migration and asylum cross thresholds of state sovereignty and human rights. It has been found that liberal democratic states offer moral justifications for controlling entry of aliens, however this is ethically problematic. The unit of analysis is the European Union because the current refugee crisis has challenged the role of the EU as a promoter of human rights and questioned the whole European integration project as well as the meaning of the EU as a community of values. This thesis attempts to answer the following research question: how the European Union has securitized its migration and refugee policy in the Common European Asylum System. Copenhagen School’s securitization theory serves as theoretical framework of this thesis because the deepened and widened understandings of security have allowed other issues than military to be included in security: political, societal, economical, environmental. Construction of security issues has three steps: 1) an issue is described as an existential threat, 2) that require emergency measures and 3) justifying actions outside the normal bounds of political procedure. In order to complement the securitization theory this thesis will utilize Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis in order to deeply study the meanings of discourses that produce the social reality. After the analysis it is concluded that despite ideal assumptions of the EU as a place of refugee and exile, the practices in place show a different picture. It is evident that the focus is on how to protect the EU from refugees, not how to offer protection for refugees. The EU is the referent object that needs protection through exceptional measures and has the legitimacy to justify these actions outside normal policy procedures. This questions the normative role of the EU. Refugees are portrayed as a danger to the society, and they lack active role, which is highlighted in the right to freedom of movement. The EU has securitized migration and refugee policies by hard policy implementation: focus on border control, increase in surveillance and building fences. Thus, it has become evident that state sovereignty triumphs over the respect of human rights.
  • Leppäharju, Saara (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This study is about competence development in an expertise organization. Also, gender as a cultural and discursive construction was examined. The foucauldian critical discourse analysis and the theory of critical management and organization studies formed the theoretical and methodological framework. As the research phenomenon was understood as discursively produced, power is defined through the idea of government and as a knowledge constituting concept. It was examined what kind of reality, discursive subject positions, and finally, what kind of gender is produced in the discourse covered in this study. The context of the study was an expertise company that provides comprehensive infrastructure services. Managing and leading experts were therefore one of the main themes of the study. The qualitative research data was collected in a research project which concentrated on the possibilities, barriers and preconditions of the competence and career development in three different organizations. The gender viewpoint was included in the research project. The data was collected with a semi-structured interview. In this study nine individual interviews from one of the organizations were used, of which three were managers' interviews and six were the interviews of employees . The data was analyzed with the critical discourse-analytical reading approach when the data was interpreted as the discourse of competence development. The findings identify the examined discourse as a governmental method of discipline which entwines to the business strategy of the company, producing reality about the importance of continuous competence development. It demands employees to define themselves as self-developmental and active subjects. The employees adopted the discourse by constructing themselves as experts who are willing to develop, but who at the same time are challenging hierarchical power relationships. Expertise enables position to challenge manager-subordinate relationships by constructing them as cooperational and equal. Manager-position was constructed as a legitimized developer imposed by the organization as well as a mentor who facilitates the self-direction of the employees. Generally gender was produced as a concept independent of sex. However, at the same time gender was constructed through the differences between the sexes, being either advantage or a barrier for an individual. As a conclusion, it can be interpreted that being a subordinate and a manager seems to be changing and situational in contemporary organizations. The study reveals the changing forms of control in organizations and the requirement of more subjective work.
  • Munoz Gonzalez, Rodrigo Antonio (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This investigation analyzes the ideological representations of superhero films produced during recent years based on a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) approach. The figure of the ‘caped crusader’ has a long history of media production; the narratives of these characters have expanded from comic books to a variety of media outlets (Coogan, 2006; Reynolds, 1994), including recently streaming services such as Netflix. Thus, it becomes essential to understand the meanings contained in these stories, and how they are depicted. The purpose of this study is to understand the operation of political ideologies at a textual level in media products that are often targeted to global audiences. With this, it is intended to discuss the discursive concordance, negotiations, or critiques that these products might realize upon a certain political hegemony. Moreover, it reflects on the mode in which certain contemporary events are translated in popular narratives and how they affect them. Hence, this research is founded upon a qualitative basis. Regarding the empiric materials, a sample of films is selected to undertake the general aim of this research. The sample consists in two trilogies of recent films that tell the story of Batman and Captain America respectively. The first superhero forms part of a rich media production tradition; from live-action and animated TV series, to proper films, Batman unfolds a vast narrative universe that have gained audience attention and loyalty. The second ‘masked hero’ implies a path to perceive how an American hegemony is depicted in a group of films. The hero was created as a propagandistic effort of the United States during the Second World War (Dittmer, 2005, 2013). In this sense, it is important to identify whether or not the ideological charge of the character has prevailed in recent treatments. Superhero films comprise many social meanings. This research considers the character of the superhero as part of a contemporary mythology that thrives in mainstream popular culture. It analyzes the relationship between ideology, considered as a semiotic matrix that enables the production, reproduction, and consumption of certain meanings in a given society, with cinema. This effort broadens the comprehension of political ideologies in films by developing a systematic approach to the study of ideology in media based on a CDA perspective. It unravels a deep and detailed account of the discursive operations that moor an ideology in a text.
  • Glebova, Ksenia (2008)
    This thesis critically examines securitisation of migration from Bangladesh to the Northeast Indian state of Assam in the regional English-medium press. The study aims to establish how Bangladeshi migrants are constructed as a security threat to the Assamese identity and how the linkages between migration, security and identity are expressed. The thesis also seeks to identify frames and linguistic devices by means of which securitisation is enacted in the press and assess the possibility of desecuritising the migration discourse. The empirical data consists of 264 articles dealing with Bangladeshi migration published in the ten selected newspapers from the Northeast India between 2005 and 2007. The linkages between migration and security are explored through the lens of the Copenhagen School of security studies and its concept of securitisation. Wodak’s discourse-historical approach to critical discourse analysis integrates historical background of Bangladeshi migration and Assamese identity, which is necessary to critically assess the narrow and static identity construction that characterises the discourse. Bangladeshi migration to Assam is constructed as a security threat by means of identified discursive strategies of positive self and negative Other representation. The discriminatory utterances are expressed in explicit terms and intensified through various linguistic devices. The securitisation is successful as the grammar of security is deeply ingrained in the migration discourse that shifts the issue from the domain of 'normal' politics to legitimise extraordinary measures such as discrimination and exclusion. The implications of securitisation are tangible and severe, especially for the Bangladeshi migrants and the Assamese Muslim minority. Securitisation acts to reduce the complexity of Bangladeshi migration to a simplified security frame and in doing so it greatly limits potential solutions. Once examined from a historical perspective, Assamese identity is a lot more complex than its construction in the process of securitisation. Desecuritisation is not feasible within the current securitisation framework that excludes other conceptualisations of Bangladeshi migration such as migrant labour and humanitarian crisis frames. The thesis devises practical guidelines for desecuritising the migration discourse in the media.
  • Hills, John (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study is an analysis of British media coverage of the 2015 migration crisis. I analyse press reporting in the UK during the two week period surrounding the death of Alan Kurdi in September 2015, as this is when media interest in the migration crisis was at its highest. I study reporting in three different media outlets — The Guardian, The Times, and The BBC. Taken together these three cover the political spectrum of mainstream British media. I use critical discourse analysis to do a qualitative study of reporting of three key news events during this two week period, to understand how each of these three different media outlets report on each event, the discursive devices they use, and what effect this has. This is of interest not only with regards to the 2015 migration crisis, but also the wider political context in the UK at the time. There was considerable political and social upheaval, which culminated in the UK’s decision to leave the EU the following year. Immigration was one of the most salient discussion points in this Brexit referendum, which gives the narratives around it even greater importance. My results show that, overall, the way each media outlet reports on the migration crisis and migrants is in keeping with their political ideology — be it right wing, left wing or neutral. My analysis shows that a mixture of explicit and implicit devices are used. In particular, by highlighting the tacit techniques, I am able to show the power the UK media has, not only to inform, but also to influence people, their decisions and their world views.
  • Breit, Eric (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    Economics and Society - 227
    While extant studies have greatly advanced our understanding of corruption, we still know little of the processes through which specific practices or events come to be labeled as corruption. In a time when public attention devoted to corruption and other forms of corporate misbehavior has exploded, this thesis raises – and seeks to answer – crucial questions related to how the phenomenon is socially and discursively constructed. What kinds of struggles are manifested in public disputes about corruption? How do constructions of corruption relate with broader conceptions of (il)legitimacy in and around organizations? What are the discursive dynamics involved in the emergence and evolution of corruption scandals? The thesis consists of four essays that each employ different research designs and tackle these questions in slightly different theoretical and methodological ways. The empirical focus is on the media coverage of a number of significant and widely discussed scandals in Norway in the period 2003-2008. By illuminating crucial processes through which conceptions of corruption were constructed, reproduced, and transformed in these scandals, the thesis seeks to paint a more nuanced picture of corruption than what is currently offered in the literature. In particular, the thesis challenges traditional conceptions of corruption as a dysfunctional feature of organizations in and of itself by emphasizing the ambiguous, temporal, context-specific, and at times even contradictory features of corruption in public discussions.
  • Vaara, Eero; Sorsa, Virpi; Palli, Pekka (2010)
    Despite increasing interest in the discursive aspects of strategy, few studies have examined strategy texts and their power effects. We draw from Critical Discourse Analysis to better understand the power of strategic plans as a directive genre. In our empirical analysis, we examined the creation of the official strategic plan of the City of Lahti in Finland. As a result of our inductive analysis, we identified five central discursive features of this plan: self-authorization, special terminology, discursive innovation, forced consensus and deonticity. We argue that these features can, with due caution, be generalized and conceived as distinctive features of the strategy genre. We maintain that these discursive features are not trivial characteristics; they have important implications for the textual agency of strategic plans, their performative effects, impact on power relations and ideological implications.
  • Tokmazishvili, Mariam (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Abstract The aim of this study is to critically analyse and unfold common discourse on emigration in Georgian talk radio show “Migration Routes”. It is largely focused on non-elite talk on emigration from Georgia with the purpose to find different metaphors that were involved in the talk. The study aims to answer the following questions: 1. how is emigration and emigrants linguistically constructed in talk radio show? 2. Is there evidence that can be found in the speakers’ use of language that promotes dramatization of female emigrants from Georgia? 3. What functions do such discourses have in the society? I have chosen Critical Discourse Analysis as a methodological approach to better analyse naturally occurring spoken material. For the analyses of material, the following scheme has been implemented: 1) identification of thematic content areas of the material; 2) analysis of the dominant rhetorical devices in the talk (e.g. the use of metaphor, referential vagueness, extreme case formulations, etc.); 3) argumentative strategies that lie behind emigration discourse, which at the first glance seems to be very positive. In total, eleven talk radio shows have been listened and analysed. Three discursive strategies have been used by the actors of talk radio show to convey ideologies, attitudes and common sense knowledge: victimization of migrants, avoidance of concrete discussion on the empowerment of migrants and use of positive rhetoric with contradictory implications. It has been revealed that speakers of this radio programme enjoyed drama talk on emigrants which in turn reinforced myths, idealized discussions and perpetuated portrayal of emigrants as “victims”, “lost generation”. Discourse around representation of female emigrants from Georgia was contrasting in essence. Most commonly, it was linked to negatively connoted metaphors such as “virtual parent”, “guest”, “other”, “sacrifice”, “battle”, “and “fear”. However, the other side of female emigration was understood as positive in terms of their success stories and professional as well as personal achievements. Behind the good intention to cover emigration topic and bring their voices into the public, the way it has been achieved resulted in symbolic understanding of emigration which was on the surface.
  • Vamio, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The cultural and sacred heritage of indigenous peoples is in a vulnerable position, because of the general threats cultural and religious heritage are facing around the world and because indigenous peoples are often not in a position where their wishes and needs are listened to. In addition to this, indigenous heritage may require a special approach and the following of certain rules, which may clash with existing heritage practices. This thesis researches how the sacred heritage of indigenous peoples is discussed through analyzing documents pertaining to the subject of indigenous sacred heritage and discusses how this may affect the way this heritage is approached in practice. It focuses on the following question: who has the power to manage and care for the indigenous sacred heritage? Additionally, it analyzes how these documents accommodate the rights of indigenous peoples, if they do so at all. It attempts to reveal this by critically examining the discourses found within the texts. The core of the thesis discusses the visible and implicit power relations present in the heritage practices and the wider sector involving the indigenous sacred heritage. The primary source material consists of the Sacred Natural Sites – Guidelines for Protected Area Managers compiled by IUCN, the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance, its practice note The Burra Charter and Indigenous Cultural Heritage Management and the Statement on Indigenous Cultural Heritage, produced by Australia ICOMOS. Critical Discourse Analysis is used as an analysis method and approach. The theoretical framework is based on the ideas presented in the Critical Heritage Studies, more specifically the Politics of Scale, concerning the issue of scale in the heritage field, and how heritage has commonly been understood and managed through the Authorized Heritage Discourse. The thesis shows that the existing power relations clearly preference the national scale of heritage, as well as the heritage practitioners in the management and overall control of indigenous sacred heritage. While the involvement of indigenous peoples is at times encouraged and even demanded, and some discourses present in the text give full control to indigenous peoples, these people ultimately have very little authority in the matters related to their heritage. The rights of indigenous peoples are only somewhat accommodated in the analyzed texts, partially due to the strong influence of the national scale, because the acknowledgment of the rights of indigenous peoples varies by country.
  • Pälli, Pekka; Vaara, Eero; Sorsa, Virpi (Sage Publications, 2010)
    Despite the acknowledged importance of strategic planning in business and other organizations, there are few studies focusing on strategy texts and the related processes of their production and consumption. In this paper, we attempt to partially fill this research gap by examining the institutionalized aspects of strategy discourse: what strategy is as genre. Combining textual analysis and analysis of conversation, the article focuses on the official strategy of the City of Lahti in Finland. Our analysis shows how specific communicative purposes and lexico-grammatical features characterize the genre of strategy and how the actual negotiations over strategy text involve particular kinds of intersubjectivity and intertextuality.
  • Nukarinen, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The unity of the Realm is the political construction comprising of Denmark, Faroe Islands and Greenland. In 2013 the Danish Parliament decided to establish an annual debate dedicated entirely to the discussion of matters concerning the Danish Realm – a unique opportunity for politicians to gather and discuss the Realm in its entirety, not just Greenlandic or Faroese matters respectively. The analysed material consists of five parliamentary debates, one from each year from 2014 to 2018 since the establishment of the annual debate. This study looks at what topics were discussed during these debates and how the Danish Realm was understood and contested in different ways. The first part of the study covers the debates and the most occurring topics that arose from the material. Using critical discourse analysis, the second part analyses how the main concepts and terminology was used, how the politicians used language in different ways and how different aspects of the Danish Realm were framed. The findings show that similar topics occurred throughout the debates, and that there was no significant difference in what the parties deemed as important topics. The Danish Realm was discussed and framed in very different ways and it was evident that the concept of the Realm means very different things to all of its three members. These varying ideas of what the Realm is, and should be, were contested in the discussions. The proportionately large focus on the independence question and the Arctic, as well as the findings from the discourse analysis demonstrate that Denmark wishes to maintain the Realm as it is to be able to continue its role as an arctic actor, to which especially Greenlandic independence could possibly be a hindrance. The Faroese and Greenlandic politicians displayed discontent with the way the Realm is constructed today and pointed out the need for structural changes.
  • Untamala, Sinituuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines one of the most visible demonstrations of social exclusion: homelessness. The aim is to critically investigate the role of newspapers in constructing the discourse of homelessness. The focus of the research is on the United Kingdom, particularly England, where 4 677 (2019) people are estimated to sleep rough. The number has increased significantly during the 2010s, and the situation is likely to get worse. This paradox of a society with the world’s fifth largest economy as well as thousands of people without access to housing is an intriguing starting point for a critical analysis. Therefore, this master’s thesis analyses the role of British newspaper media in creating power, inequality and division into ‘us and them’, associated with street homelessness. When addressing social issues, such as homelessness, it is necessary to examine the role of media as it is the most important source of information for most of the people, Furthermore, it plays a crucial role in framing social issues for the public and influencing their opinions. The data was collected from three newspapers, representing both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. These newspapers are the Guardian, the Daily Mail and the Sun. Articles containing the search terms “homelessness-England” were searched from the newspapers’ online databases from 2017–2020. A total of fifteen articles were selected for further analysis. These were considered most relevant to the topic in question; that is, they discussed the way the public interacts with and how they portray the people sleeping rough in England. The methodology applied in this thesis was Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for critical discourse analysis. These dimensions are discourse-as-text, discourse-as-discursive-practice, and discourse-as-social-practice. Four overlapping categories were identified based on how they portrayed homeless people. These categories are 1. homeless people as objects of charity; 2. homeless people as security threats; 3. homeless people as demonstrations of inequality and 4. homeless people as victims. The research shows that these discourses are promoted in the articles by certain choices of vocabulary and discursive practice. Furthermore, it is argued that these narratives promote the dichotomy between ‘us’ (the people with housing) and ‘them’ (the homeless people). Based on the results, spoken and emotional driven language was more evident in the articles by Daily Mail and the Sun. Emotional discourses was used to create both positive (sympathy) and negative (fear) emotions among the readers. Overall, the research shows that the discourse of homelessness, constructed by the British newspapers, promotes the stereotypical views of homeless people as passive objects. Indeed, the active element in the narratives was in most cases given to the other people, not the homeless person. In the news storied of people experiencing street homeless they were talked about or seen but were not given the active voice.
  • Koskela, Riina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The language we use when we talk about terrorism has an important role to play in the discursive construction of terrorism. Thus, how terrorism is perceived in the media, politics and official public discourses influences how we perceive terrorists to be. The constructive perspective of terrorism does not deny the existence of it: terrorism is real, but what it means depends on the interpretations. Counterterrorism also depends on these interpretations of terrorism. Therefore, it is argued that how states perceive ‘terrorism’ impacts their counterterrorism measures and policies. The overall aim of the study is to examine the interplay between terrorism and counterterrorism. The focus is on understanding how terrorism is perceived in the official public discourse of terrorism within the context of the UK’s counterterrorism strategy ‘CONTEST’ and contemporary terrorism since 9/11. Another layer of the argument concerns how the discursive practices constitute terrorist Other and thus, how the perceptions of terrorist Other constructed by the Self reproduce, reinforce and constitute behaviour, interests and identity of the Self. The aim is not to understand terrorist Other, but rather to analyse how Other is constructed by the Self and what effects this has on the Self. In this study, the UK occupies the role of Self, and contemporary terrorism, as perceived by the Self, represents the Other. The theoretical background of the study is on critical terrorism studies, constructivism by Alexander Wendt and securitisation theory. The research material consists of four different versions of the UK’s counterterrorism strategy CONTEST from the years 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2018. CONTEST provides comprehensive research material for this study because it sets the general agenda of counterterrorism aims, measures and policies in the UK. In the first part of the analysis, the study identifies five different perceptions of terrorist Other utilising critical discourse analysis by Norman Fairclough. The five perceptions of terrorist Other are active, different from the Self, radicalised, a non-state actor, and finally, an enemy. Based on these five perceptions of terrorist Other, the second part of the analysis then focuses on the interplay between terrorist Other and Self. The perceptions of terrorist Other are argued to reproduce, reinforce and constitute Self’s behaviour, interests and identity, and therefore influence on the counterterrorism practised by the UK. Analysing how terrorism is perceived through the construction of terrorist Other provides a broader understanding of the official public discourse of terrorism in the UK. In addition, the study argues that Self decides its actions by reflecting on the perceptions of terrorism it has created itself. Therefore, constructing terrorism as represented might partially explain counterterrorism measures and policies in the UK.
  • Warius, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Since begging East European Roma became a common view in the streets of larger Nordic cities, vivid discussions about their presence and activities have been carried out in the mass media. This thesis examines the public debates in Finland and Norway through a discursive analysis and comparison of press content from the two countries. The aim of the study is firstly to identify the prominent discourses which construct certain images of the beggars, as well as the elements and internal logics that these discourses are constructed around. But in addition to scrutinizing representations of the Roma, also an opposite perspective is applied. In accordance with the theoretical concept of ‘othering’, debates about ‘them’ are assumed to simultaneously reveal something significant about ‘us’. The second research question is thus what kind of images of the ideal Finnish and Norwegian societies are reflected in the data, and which societal values are salient in these images. The analysis comprises 79 texts printed in the main Finnish and Norwegian quality newspapers; Helsingin Sanomat and Aftenposten. The data consists of news articles, editorials, columns and letters to the editor from a three-month period in the summer of 2010. The analysis was carried out within the theoretical and methodological framework of critical discourse analysis as outlined by Norman Fairclough. A customized nine-step coding scheme was developed in order to reach the most central dimensions of the texts. Seven main discourses were identified; the Deprivation-solidarity, Human rights, Order, Crime, Space and majority reactions, Authority control, and Authority critique discourse. These were grouped into two competing normative stances on what an ideal society looks like; the exclusionary and the inclusionary stance. While the exclusionary stance places the begging Roma within a frame of crime, illegitimate use of public space and threat to the social order, the other advocates an attitude of solidarity and humanitarian values. The analysis points to a dominance of the former, although it is challenged by the latter. The Roma are 'individualized' by quoting and/or presenting them by name in a fair part of the Finnish news articles. In Norway, the opposite is true; there the beggars are dominantly presented as anonymous and passive. Overall, the begging Roma are subjected to a double bind as they are faced with simultaneous expectations of activity and passivity. Theories relating to moral panics and ‘the good enemy’ provide for a deepened understanding of the intensity of the debates. Helsingin Sanomat, Aftenposten, Norman Fairclough