Browsing by Subject "critical discursive psychology"

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  • Rautamaa, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The public discourses that present immigrant men as dangerous towards women has intensified in Finland especially after the “refugee crisis” beginning in 2015. The discourse that posits immigrant men as dangerous to women simultaneously places responsibility on women, which often leads to monitoring of women’s conduct. This thesis aims to analyze how two individuals who position themselves as Finnish partners of immigrant men construct their interethnic relationships and their immigrant partners, and what subject positions they negotiate for themselves and their partners. The theoretical and methodological frameworks for this thesis are social constructionism and critical discursive psychology. Specifically, this thesis studies the interpretative repertoires and subject positions used and negotiated while accounting for interethnic relationships and immigrant partners. The data consist of two online forum discussion threads that have been initiated by individuals who position themselves as Finnish partners of immigrant men. The discussions have been written in Finnish, and the excerpts in the analysis have been translated to English by the author of this thesis. The results of the analysis show that while accounting for the interethnic relationships and the immigrant partners, the discussants drew on three different interpretative repertoires: the culturalist, individualistic and romantic repertoires. With these repertoires, the discussants were able to present their relationships and partners positively, and particularize them apart from other, allegedly patriarchal immigrant men. The discussants positioned their partners as the loving partner, equal partner, assimilated immigrant, Christian, good *Middle Easterner, and good asylum seeker, whereas immigrant men in general were positioned as patriarchal *Middle Easterners, Others, dangerous asylum seekers, and individuals. The sharp differences between these subject positions show that the most important way for the discussants to present their partners positively was to differentiate them from other men with foreign backgrounds. The discussants adopted the subject positions of the cautious realist, anti-victim, and equal partner, which all highlighted personal agency and control, and functioned as warding off the allegations of “wrong” kind of behavior in relation to immigrant men. One of the most important functions of the interpretative repertoires and subject positions was to present the partners as “good immigrant men” and normalize the relationships. The discursive construction of the partners as “good immigrant men” involved exclusion from the category of the “dangerous immigrant man” and the dispelling of the partners’ cultural backgrounds; and inclusion in the category of “us” by highlighting the partners’ Finnish-like features, values, and religion. By emphasizing their partners’ Finnish-like features, the discussants drew a dichotomous and hierarchical order between the allegedly modern and gender equal Finnish culture, and the allegedly conservative and patriarchal “foreign” cultures, thus complying with the hegemonic discourse about the incompatibility between the cultures. However, the discussants also resisted the culturalist discourse by drawing on the unique differences between individuals, and by legitimizing their relationships with highly idealized imagery of love and romance.
  • Sakki, Inari; Pettersson, Katarina (2018)
    Taking a (critical) discursive psychological approach, the present study explores the identity management of the Finnish and Swedish Prime Ministers (PM) in relation to the "refugee crisis" and their countries' asylum policies. By taking a longitudinal approach and analysing the PMs' accounts of the "refugee crisis" from 1-year period, we focused on the ways rhetorical devices related to ethos, logos, and pathos were used to manage the issues of stake and accountability, as well as on the ways in which categories were worked up to serve particular functions. Our comparative analysis demonstrated significant similarities in the Finnish and Swedish PMs' talk, especially with regard to the transfer from a discourse of pathos and ethos, describing refugees in terms of individualism and humaneness, to a discourse of logos, emphasizing rationality, justifying sharpened immigration policies, and homogenizing refugees. However, the different historical paths of the two countries' immigration policies and the specific political situation had implications for the PMs' discourse. The Swedish PM could feasibly scapegoat the Sweden Democrats and the political right in opposition, whereas the Finnish PM, with the populist radical right as a government partner, engaged more heavily in distinctions between "real, needing" and "false, undeserving" refugees. We argue for the longitudinal approach in the analysis of political discourse, as such an approach allows to identify the changes and continuities in the discourse, as well as to grasp the dialogical interplay between the discourse and its context.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (2021)
    Men's victimisation is a central topic in online discussions, particularly in the manosphere, where its emphasis is often combined with a strong anti-feminist stance. This article examines the interplay of affects and discourse in meaning-making around men's victimisation both in online discussions and among social and crisis workers asked to comment upon meanings circulating online. By using the concept of affective-discursive practice, the analysis shows how this meaning-making reiterates socially shared interpretative repertoires and positionings that mobilise affects based on sympathy, anger and hate. Furthermore, the article demonstrates how the practitioners respond to these affective meanings by adopting positions of responsibility, while also redirecting and neutralising online affect. The article contributes to knowledge on the interaction between online and offline meaning-making around men's victimisation, and to building an understanding of affects and discourse in seemingly moderate meaning-making around this topic that however resonates and links with the more extreme anti-feminism of the manosphere.
  • Cottier, Paul (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    At the the heart of this study can be seen the dual concern of how the nation is represented as a categorical entity and how this is put to use in everyday social interactions.This can be seen as a reaction to the general approach to categorisation and identity functions that tend to be reified and essentialized within the social sciences. The empirical focus of this study is the Isle of Man, a crown dependency situated geographically central within the British Isles while remaining political outside the United Kingdom. The choice of this site was chosen explicitly as ‘notions of nation’ expressed on the island can be seen as being contested and ephemerally unstable. To get at these ‘notions of nation’ is was necessary to choose specific theoretical tools that were able to capture the wider cultural and representational domain while being capable of addressing the nuanced and functional aspects of interaction. As such, the main theoretical perspective used within this study was that of critical discursive psychology which incorporates the specific theoretical tools interpretative repertoires, ideological dilemmas and subject positions. To supplement these tools, a discursive approach to place was taken in tandem to address the form and function of place attached to nationhood. Two methods of data collection were utilized, that of computer mediated communication and acquaintance interviews. From the data a number of interpretative repertoires were proposed, namely being, essential rights, economic worth, heritage claims, conflict orientation, people-as-nation and place-as-nation. Attached to such interpretative repertoires were the ideological dilemmas region vs. country, people vs. place and individualism vs. collectivism. The subject positions found are much more difficult to condense, but the most significant ones were gender, age and parentage. The final focus of the study, that of place, was shown to be more than just an unreflected on ‘container’ of people but was significant in terms of the rhetorical construction of such places for how people saw themselves and the discursive function of the particular interaction. As such, certain forms of place construction included size, community, temporal, economic, safety, political and recognition. A number of conclusions were drawn from the above which included, that when looking at nation categories we should take into account the specific meanings that people attach to such concepts and to be aware of the particular uses they are put to in interaction. Also, that it is impossible to separate concepts neatly, but it is necessary to be aware of the intersection where concepts cross, and clash, when looking at nationhood.
  • Kankkunen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Identity is a much-studied topic within social psychology, and it has historically been linked with rapid societal change, such as a shift to modernity or postmodernity. Nepal is one of the fastest developing and urbanizing countries in South Asia, which opens up for identity negotiation as societal structures and discourses shift. Previous anthropological research on young women in Nepal and Kathmandu has highlighted the tension present in constructing identities as modern and Nepali, both because of conflicting discourses available for women as well as hegemonic constructs of Nepali womanhood within development discourse. This thesis investigates how young women working in development NGOs in Kathmandu construct Nepali womanhood and position themselves in relation to these constructions. Building on previous anthropological and sociological research on women in Nepal, a Critical Discursive Psychological approach is introduced for inquiry on the topic. Identity is approached through the concept of subject positions and the critical discursive psychological theoretical tools of ideological dilemmas and interpretative repertoires are used to answer the research questions. The data was collected by semi-structured thematic interviews that included one-on-one, dyad and small group interviews. The data included for final analyses was collected through interviews with 11 participants selected through purposive sampling. The research process was marked by reflexivity and the analyses reshaped the research questions to a focus on the constructions of Nepali womanhood and the subject positions available, in relation to the dilemma of being a modern Nepali woman. The themes brought up by the participants were centred around gender inequality and marriage, both of which were also at the root of the dilemma. From the data three main interpretative repertoires were proposed, namely cultural, neoliberal and development repertoire. The main construction of Nepali womanhood was that of woman as mother, as ideal Nepali, as individual with agency, and as woman in need of development. In solving the dilemma and renegotiating the constructs of Nepali womanhood the participants positioned as atypical either by othering, accepting, resisting or altering. The main result is that the women interviewed actively renegotiate the meaning of both Nepaliness and what it means to be modern when negotiating their identities and thus construct alternative positions. Finally, methodological and theoretical concerns are raised and ideas for further research, such as including men working in the same field in Kathmandu, are proposed.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (2020)
    Whether intimate partner violence (IPV) is a gendered phenomenon or not is a question that continuously arouses debate both among scholars and the general public. This article analyses meaning-making around IPV and gender in online discussions that focus on IPV committed by women. The analysis draws upon critical discursive psychology, and identifies ideological dilemmas, interpretative repertoires and subject positions related in the discussions to the relevance of gender, on the one hand, and gender equality, on the other. The ideological dilemmas focused on the relevance of gender revolve around a gender-neutral repertoire and a gendered difference repertoire, while those focused on gender equality centre on the opposing repertoires of gender equality as a commonplace value and gender equality gone wrong. A more detailed examination of how these repertoires are constructed, negotiated, and used in the discussions reveals a pattern where discursive devices such as factualisation techniques are employed in combination with an affectively emphatic style of expression in ways that, for the most part, work to discredit the value of feminist understandings of links between IPV, gender, and power, while, instead, valorising seeming gender neutrality.