Browsing by Subject "critical illness"

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  • SICS Study Grp; Hiemstra, Bart; Eck, Ruben J.; Wiersema, Renske; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2019)
    Objectives: Caregivers use clinical examination to timely recognize deterioration of a patient, yet data on the prognostic value of clinical examination are inconsistent. In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I, we evaluated the association of clinical examination findings with 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective single-center cohort study. Setting: ICU of a single tertiary care level hospital between March 27, 2015, and July 22, 2017. Patients: All consecutive adults acutely admitted to the ICU and expected to stay for at least 24 hours. Interventions: A protocolized clinical examination of 19 clinical signs conducted within 24 hours of admission. Measurements Main Results: Independent predictors of 90-day mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Model performance was compared with established prognostic risk scores using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Robustness of our findings was tested by internal bootstrap validation and adjustment of the threshold for statistical significance. A total of 1,075 patients were included, of whom 298 patients (28%) had died at 90-day follow-up. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and norepinephrine infusion rate demonstrated that the combination of higher respiratory rate, higher systolic blood pressure, lower central temperature, altered consciousness, and decreased urine output was independently associated with 90-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78). Clinical examination had a similar discriminative value as compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.79; p = 0.29) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.74-0.80; p = 0.16) and was significantly better than the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71; p <0.001). Conclusions: Clinical examination has reasonable discriminative value for assessing 90-day mortality in acutely admitted ICU patients. In our study population, a single, protocolized clinical examination had similar prognostic abilities compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV and outperformed the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score.
  • Stewart, Juhani A.; Koistinen, Riitta; Lempiäinen, Anna; Hotakainen, Kristina; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Vakkuri, Anne; Wennervirta, Johanna; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Koistinen, Hannu (2020)
    The concentrations of several diagnostic markers have been found to increase dramatically in critically ill patients with a severe disturbance of normal physiological homeostasis, without indication of the diseases they are normally associated with. To prevent false diagnoses and inappropriate treatments of critically ill patients, it is important that the markers aiding the selection of second-line treatments are evaluated in such patients and not only in the healthy population and patients with diseases the markers are associated with. The levels of trypsinogen isoenzymes, the trypsin inhibitor serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), hCG and hCG beta, which are used as pancreatitis and cancer markers, were analyzed by immunoassays from serum samples of 17 adult patients who have undergone surgery of the ascending aorta during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) with optional selective cerebral perfusion. Highly elevated levels of trypsinogen-1, -2 and -3, SPINK1 and hCG beta were observed in patients after HCA. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of S100 beta and NSE. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of critically evaluating the markers used for aiding selection of second line of treatments in critically ill patients.
  • HOT-ICU Investigators; Schjorring, Olav L.; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jorn; Lange, Theis; Keus, Frederik; Laake, Jon H.; Okkonen, Marjatta; Siegemund, Martin; Morgan, Matthew; Thormar, Katrin M.; Rasmussen, Bodil S. (2019)
    Background Acutely ill adults with hypoxaemic respiratory failure are at risk of life-threatening hypoxia, and thus oxygen is often administered liberally. Excessive oxygen use may, however, increase the number of serious adverse events, including death. Establishing the optimal oxygenation level is important as existing evidence is of low quality. We hypothesise that targeting an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) of 8 kPa is superior to targeting a PaO2 of 12 kPa in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Methods The Handling Oxygenation Targets in the ICU (HOT-ICU) trial is an outcome assessment blinded, multicentre, randomised, parallel-group trial targeting PaO2 in acutely ill adults with hypoxaemic respiratory failure within 12 hours after ICU admission. Patients are randomised 1:1 to one of the two PaO2 targets throughout ICU stay until a maximum of 90 days. The primary outcome is 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes are serious adverse events in the ICU, days alive without organ support and days alive out of hospital in the 90-day period; mortality, health-related quality-of-life at 1-year follow-up as well as 1-year cognitive and pulmonary function in a subgroup; and an overall health economic analysis. To detect or reject a 20% relative risk reduction, we aim to include 2928 patients. An interim analysis is planned after 90-day follow-up of 1464 patients. Conclusion The HOT-ICU trial will test the hypothesis that a lower oxygenation target reduces 90-day mortality compared with a higher oxygenation target in adult ICU patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure.
  • Törnblom, Sanna; Nisula, Sara; Vaara, Suvi T.; Poukkanen, Meri; Andersson, Sture; Pettilä, Ville; Pesonen, Eero (2019)
    Background Inflammation, reflected by high plasma interleukin-6 concentration, is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic patients. Neutrophil activation has pathophysiological significance in experimental septic AKI. We hypothesized that neutrophil activation is associated with AKI in critically ill sepsis patients. Methods We measured plasma (n = 182) and urine (n = 118) activin A (a rapidly released cytosolic neutrophil protein), interleukin-8 (a chemotactic factor for neutrophils), myeloperoxidase (a neutrophil biomarker released in tissues), and interleukin-6 on intensive care unit admission (plasma and urine) and 24 hours later (plasma) in sepsis patients manifesting their first organ dysfunction between 24 hours preceding admission and the second calendar day in intensive care unit. AKI was defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Results Plasma admission interleukin-8 (240 [60-971] vs 50 [19-164] pg/mL, P <.001) and activin A (845 [554-1895] vs 469 [285-862] pg/mL, P <.001) were but myeloperoxidase (169 [111-300] vs 144 [88-215] ng/mL, P = .059) was not higher among patients with AKI compared with those without. Urine admission interleukin-8 (50.4 [19.8-145.3] vs 9.5 [2.7-28.7] ng/mL, P <.001) and myeloperoxidase (7.7 [1.5-12.6] vs 1.9 [0.4-6.9] ng/mL, P <.001) were but activin A (9.7 [1.4-42.6] vs 4.0 [0.0-33.0] ng/mL, P = .064) was not higher in AKI than non-AKI patients. Urine myeloperoxidase correlated with urine interleukin-8 (R = .627, P <.001) but not with plasma myeloperoxidase (R = .131, P = .158). Conclusion Interleukin-8 in plasma and urine was associated with septic AKI. Elevated plasma activin A indicates intravascular neutrophil activation in septic AKI. Concomitant plasma and urine myeloperoxidase measurements suggest neutrophil accumulation into injured kidneys.