Browsing by Subject "cs.HC"

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  • Cowley, Benjamin Ultan; Torniainen, Jari (2016)
    The application of psychophysiology in human-computer interaction is a growing field with significant potential for future smart personalised systems. Working in this emerging field requires comprehension of an array of physiological signals and analysis techniques. One of the most widely used signals is electrodermal activity, or EDA, also known as galvanic skin response or GSR. This signal is commonly used as a proxy for physiological arousal, but recent advances of interpretation and analysis suggest that traditional approaches should be revised. We present a short review on the application of EDA in human-computer interaction. This paper aims to serve as a primer for the novice, enabling rapid familiarisation with the latest core concepts. We put special emphasis on everyday human-computer interface applications to distinguish from the more common clinical or sports uses of psychophysiology. This paper is an extract from a comprehensive review of the entire field of ambulatory psychophysiology, including 12 similar chapters, plus application guidelines and systematic review. Thus any citation should be made using the following reference: B. Cowley, M. Filetti, K. Lukander, J. Torniainen, A. Henelius, L. Ahonen, O. Barral, I. Kosunen, T. Valtonen, M. Huotilainen, N. Ravaja, G. Jacucci. The Psychophysiology Primer: a guide to methods and a broad review with a focus on human-computer interaction. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 150--307, 2016.
  • Ahonen, Lauri; Cowley, Benjamin (2016)
    arXiv.org
    The application of psychophysiology in human-computer interaction is a growing field with significant potential for future smart personalised systems. Working in this emerging field requires comprehension of an array of physiological signals and analysis techniques. Methods to study central nervous system (CNS) are usually expensive and laborious. However, electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the most affordable and ambulatory methodologies for CNS research. It is in use in various clinical studies and have been broadly studied over decades. Despite that the recorded EEG signals are quite prone to noise and environmental factors it is the most widely used method in study of brain-computer interaction (BCI). Here we discuss briefly on various aspects of the recorded signals, their interpretation, and usage in the field of interaction studies. This paper aims to serve as a primer for the novice, enabling rapid familiarisation with the latest core concepts. We put special emphasis on everyday human-computer interface applications to distinguish from the more common clinical or sports uses of psychophysiology. This paper is an extract from a comprehensive review of the entire field of ambulatory psychophysiology, including 12 similar chapters, plus application guidelines and systematic review. Thus any citation should be made using the following reference: B. Cowley, M. Filetti, K. Lukander, J. Torniainen, A. Henelius, L. Ahonen, O. Barral, I. Kosunen, T. Valtonen, M. Huotilainen, N. Ravaja, G. Jacucci. The Psychophysiology Primer: a guide to methods and a broad review with a focus on human-computer interaction. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 150--307, 2016.
  • Ravaja, Niklas; Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari (2016)
    arXiv.org
    The application of psychophysiology in human-computer interaction is a growing field with significant potential for future smart personalised systems. Working in this emerging field requires comprehension of an array of physiological signals and analysis techniques. Electromyography (EMG) is a useful signal to estimate the emotional context of individuals, because it is relatively robust, and simple to record and analyze. Common uses are to infer emotional valence in response to a stimulus, and to index some symptoms of stress. However, in order to interpret EMG signals, they must be considered alongside data on physical, social and intentional context. Here we present a short review on the application of EMG in human-computer interaction. This paper aims to serve as a primer for the novice, enabling rapid familiarisation with the latest core concepts. We put special emphasis on everyday human-computer interface applications to distinguish from the more common clinical or sports uses of psychophysiology. This paper is an extract from a comprehensive review of the entire field of ambulatory psychophysiology, including 12 similar chapters, plus application guidelines and systematic review. Thus any citation should be made using the following reference: B. Cowley, M. Filetti, K. Lukander, J. Torniainen, A. Henelius, L. Ahonen, O. Barral, I. Kosunen, T. Valtonen, M. Huotilainen, N. Ravaja, G. Jacucci. The Psychophysiology Primer: a guide to methods and a broad review with a focus on human-computer interaction. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 150--307, 2016.
  • Huotilainen, Minna; Cowley, Benjamin; Ahonen, Lauri (2016)
    arXiv.org
    The application of psychophysiology in human-computer interaction is a growing field with significant potential for future smart personalised systems. Working in this emerging field requires comprehension of an array of physiological signals and analysis techniques. Event-related potentials, termed ERPs, are a stimulus- or action-locked waveform indicating a characteristic neural response. ERPs derived from electroencephalography have been extensively studied in basic research, and have been applied especially in the field of brain-computer interfaces. For ecologically-valid settings there are considerable challenges to application, however recent work shows some promise for ERPs outside the lab. Here we present a short review on the application of ERPs in human-computer interaction. This paper aims to serve as a primer for the novice, enabling rapid familiarisation with the latest core concepts. We put special emphasis on everyday human-computer interface applications to distinguish from the more common clinical or sports uses of psychophysiology. This paper is an extract from a comprehensive review of the entire field of ambulatory psychophysiology, including 12 similar chapters, plus application guidelines and systematic review. Thus any citation should be made using the following reference: B. Cowley, M. Filetti, K. Lukander, J. Torniainen, A. Henelius, L. Ahonen, O. Barral, I. Kosunen, T. Valtonen, M. Huotilainen, N. Ravaja, G. Jacucci. The Psychophysiology Primer: a guide to methods and a broad review with a focus on human-computer interaction. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 150--307, 2016.
  • Kosunen, Ilkka; Cowley, Benjamin (2016)
    arXiv.org
    The application of psychophysiology in human-computer interaction is a growing field with significant potential for future smart personalised systems. Working in this emerging field requires comprehension of an array of physiological signals and analysis techniques. Respiration is unique among physiological signals in that it can be consciously controlled which has to be taken into account when designing applications. Respiration is tightly connected to other physiological signals, especially cardiovascular activity, and often analyzed in conjunction with other signals. When analyzed separately, an increase in the rate of respiration can be seen as an increase in metabolic demand which indicates activate states such as engagement and attention. We present a short review on the application of respiration in human-computer interaction. This paper aims to serve as a primer for the novice, enabling rapid familiarisation with the latest core concepts. We put special emphasis on everyday human-computer interface applications to distinguish from the more common clinical or sports uses of psychophysiology. This paper is an extract from a comprehensive review of the entire field of ambulatory psychophysiology, including 12 similar chapters, plus application guidelines and systematic review. Thus any citation should be made using the following reference: B. Cowley, M. Filetti, K. Lukander, J. Torniainen, A. Henelius, L. Ahonen, O. Barral, I. Kosunen, T. Valtonen, M. Huotilainen, N. Ravaja, G. Jacucci. The Psychophysiology Primer: a guide to methods and a broad review with a focus on human-computer interaction. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 150--307, 2016.
  • Cowley, Benjamin Ultan; Charles, Darryl (2016)
    We present the last of a series of three academic essays which deal with the question of how and why to build a generalized player model. We propose that a general player model needs parameters for subjective experience of play, including: player psychology, game structure, and actions of play. Based on this proposition, we pose three linked research questions: RQ1 what is a necessary and sufficient foundation to a general player model?; RQ2 can such a foundation improve performance of a computational intelligence- based player model?; and RQ3 can such a player model improve efficacy of adaptive artificial intelligence in games? We set out the arguments behind these research questions in each of the three essays, presented as three preprints. The third essay, in this preprint, presents the argument that adaptive game artificial intelligence will be enhanced by a generalised player model. This is because games are inherently human artefacts which therefore, require some encoding of the human perspective in order to effectively autonomously respond to the individual player. The player model informs the necessary constraints on the adaptive artificial intelligence. A generalised player model is not only more efficient than a per-game solution, but also allows comparison between games which makes it a useful tool for studying play in general. We describe the concept and meaning of an adaptive game. We propose requirements for functional adaptive AI, arguing from first principles drawn from the games research literature. We propose solutions to these requirements, based on a formal model approach to our existing 'Behavlets' method for psychologically-derived player modelling: Cowley, B., & Charles, D. (2016). Behavlets: a Method for Practical Player Modelling using Psychology-Based Player Traits and Domain Specific Features. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 26(2), 257-306.
  • Cowley, Benjamin Ultan (2016)
    General game playing artificial intelligence has recently seen important advances due to the various techniques known as 'deep learning'. However the advances conceal equally important limitations in their reliance on: massive data sets; fortuitously constructed problems; and absence of any human-level complexity, including other human opponents. On the other hand, deep learning systems which do beat human champions, such as in Go, do not generalise well. The power of deep learning simultaneously exposes its weakness. Given that deep learning is mostly clever reconfigurations of well-established methods, moving beyond the state of art calls for forward-thinking visionary solutions, not just more of the same. I present the argument that general game playing artificial intelligence will require a generalised player model. This is because games are inherently human artefacts which therefore, as a class of problems, contain cases which require a human-style problem solving approach. I relate this argument to the performance of state of art general game playing agents. I then describe a concept for a formal category theoretic basis to a generalised player model. This formal model approach integrates my existing 'Behavlets' method for psychologically-derived player modelling: Cowley, B., Charles, D. (2016). Behavlets: a Method for Practical Player Modelling using Psychology-Based Player Traits and Domain Specific Features. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 26(2), 257-306.
  • Sherman, Michael; Clark, Gradeigh; Yang, Yulong; Sugrim, Shridatt; Modig, Arttu; Lindqvist, Janne; Oulasvirta, Antti; Roos, Teemu (ACM, 2014)
  • Cowley, Benjamin Ultan; Charles, Darryl (2016)
    We present the second in a series of three academic essays which deal with the question of how to build a generalized player model. We begin with a proposition: a general model of players requires parameters for the subjective experience of play, including at least three areas: a) player psychology, b) game structure, and c) actions of play. Based on this proposition, we pose three linked research questions, which make incomplete progress toward a generalized player model: RQ1 what is a necessary and sufficient foundation to a general player model?; RQ2 can such a foundation improve performance of a computational intelligence-based player model?; and RQ3 can such a player model improve efficacy of adaptive artificial intelligence in games? We set out the arguments for each research question in each of the three essays, presented as three preprints. The second essay, in this preprint, illustrates how our 'Behavlets' method can improve the performance and accuracy of a predictive player model in the well-known Pac-Man game, by providing a simple foundation for areas a) to c) above. We then propose a plan for future work to address RQ2 by conclusively testing the Behavlets approach. This plan builds on the work proposed in the first preprint essay to address RQ1, and in turn provides support for work on RQ3. The Behavlets approach was described previously; therefore if citing this work please use the correct citation: Cowley B, Charles D. Behavlets: a Method for Practical Player Modelling using Psychology-Based Player Traits and Domain Specific Features. User Modelling and User-Adapted Interaction. 2016 Feb 8; online (Special Issue on Personality in Personalized Systems):150.