Browsing by Subject "cultural identity"

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  • Korhonen, Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The starting point of this study was to find out how the historical consciousness manifest in conceptions and experiences of Chilean refugees and their descendants. The previous research of historical consciousness has shown that powerful experiences such as the revolution and being a refugee may have an effect on historical consciousness. The purpose of this study is to solve how those experiences in the past have influenced Chilean refugees and their descendant's interpretations of the present and expectations for the future. The research material was collected by interviewing four Chilean refugees that escaped to Finland in years 1973 1976 and four young adults who represent the second generation. All second generation interviewees were born in Finland and their other parent or both parents were Chilean refugees. The two groups were not in a family relation to each other. The empirical part of the research was made by qualitative methods. The research material was collected by the method of focused interview and it was analysed by the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti 6.0. Content analysis was the main research tool. The previous theory of historical consciousness and the study questions was used to create the seven categories that manifest historical consciousness. The seven categories were biographical memory, collective memory, experiences of living between two cultures, idea of man, the essence of history and the reason for living, value conceptions and expectations of the future. Content analysis was based on those categories. Subcategories were based on the research material and were created during the analysis. The results of this study were made up of categories. The study revealed that experiences of revolution and of being a refugee has a significant role in the historical consciousness of the Chilean refugees. It became evident in their biographical memory being separated in three parts, in their values and in the belief of possibility of an individual to govern her own life. The second generation was also exposed to their parent's experiences in the past. The collective trauma in their parent's past has been part of their life indirectly and has affected the way they think of themselves, their concepts and their place in the present world. The active and regular retrospection in Finland by Chilean adults and special Gabriela Mistral club activities has played a big part in the construction of their historical consciousness.
  • Pritup, Daria (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkimuksessa käsittelen suosittua bulgarialaista televisiosarjaa hyödyntäen balkanismin ja itsekolonisaation teorioita löytääkseni merkkejä 2010-luvun bulgarialaisen kulttuuri-identiteetin rakentumisesta. Näiden teorioiden mukaan “Balkan” on käsitteellistetty sivistymättömänä ja jälkeenjääneenä kulttuurillisena alueena, josta “sivistyneen Euroopan” ongelmat juontavat. Länsieurooppalainen kulttuurihegemonia määrittelee aina itsensä “sivistyksen” ja “edistyksen” keskiöön, ja siitä poikkeavat periferiaan. Periferiakulttuurit puolestaan muodostavat kulttuuri-identiteetin, joka perustuu vieraisiin arvoihin ja on aina puutteellinen ja kehittymätön suhteessa keskukseen. Itsekolonisoivat kulttuurit jäljentävät vahingollista käsitystä minuudestaan luontaisesti puutteellisena, mikä johtaa kolonisaatioon ilman hyökkäystä – alistumiseen “lännen” kulttuurihegemonian edessä. Tutkimuksessa käsittelen neljää tuotantokautta draamasarjasta Staklen dom (suom. Lasitalo), joka on yksi suurimmista televisioproduktioista 2010-luvun Bulgariassa. Tapahtumat sijoittuvat sofialaiseen ostoskeskukseen, jonka omistajat ja työntekijät ovat sarjan päähahmoja. Sarjan nimi viittaa ostoskeskuksen lasiseen arkkitehtuuriin, mutta samalla kommentoi perinteisten arvojen haurautta modernissa, individualistisessa ja kulutusmyönteisessä maailmassa. Staklen domin juonessa heijastuvat Bulgarian ajankohtaiset yhteiskunnalliset kysymykset, joten se tarjoaa mahdollisuuden tutkia bulgarialaisten käsityksiä omasta kulttuuristaan taiteen keinoin. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu noin 65 tunnista videokuvaa, josta olen analysoinut käsikirjoitusta, tarinankerrontaa ja kuvamateriaalia teoria-aineiston avulla. Tutkimuksessa käytetty dialogikäsikirjoitus on jaoteltu kahdeksaan teemaan: Bulgaria alueena ja sijaintina; bulgarialaiset kansana, ryhmänä tai yhteisönä; bulgarialaisen kulttuurin tuotteet ja symbolit; balkanistinen tai orientalistinen diskurssi; jaetun kulttuuritilan ajattomuus ja pysähtyneisyys; jaettu kulttuuritila väli- ja siirtymätilana, symbolisena siltana tai risteyksenä; siirtolaiskokemus ja sen toiseuttaminen; sekä etnisten vähemmistöjen ja “kyläläisten” toiseuttaminen. Tutkimus osoittaa, että bulgarialainen kulttuuri-identiteetti muodostuu kamppailussa kulttuurillisten, taloudellisten ja poliittisten voimien risteyksessä. Euroopan laajuisen kansallisen heräämisen ja balkanistisen käsityksen valossa Bulgarian anti omalle kulttuuriperinnölleen on näyttäytynyt vähäiseltä ja kiusalliselta myös aikalaistensa silmissä. Neuvostoliiton vallan alla bulgarialaisuus oli osa suurempaa slaavilaisuutta, mutta vuoden 1989 jälkeen neuvostoajan perintö jouduttiin kieltämään kokonaan, jotta Bulgaria voisi demokratisoitua ja modernisoitua. Bulgarian NATO- ja EU -pyrkimykset kertovat siitä, että bulgarialaisen jälkisosialistisen yhteiskunnan katse on suunnattu länteen, mutta länsi ei katso suopeasti takaisin. Aineiston pohjalta voidaan tulkita, että sosioekonomiset kysymykset ovat tiukasti sidottuna kulttuurisiin kysymyksiin vallitsevan kulutusyhteiskunnan myötä, mutta myös Bulgarian viimeisen 40 vuoden poliittisen ja yhteiskunnallisen tilanteen johdosta. Bulgarian siirtymä sosialismista liberaalidemokratiaan ja suunnitelmataloudesta markkinatalouteen on ollut kivulias, jonka takia yhteiskunnan rakenteet eivät edelleenkään heijasta bulgarialaisten monimuotoisuutta ja edistä valinnanvapautta tai turvallisuudentunnetta. Tämä näkyy sarjan esittämässä identiteettien keskeneräisyydessä, ylistyspuheessa kapitalismille ja alistumisessa itsekolonisaatioon. Tutkimusaineistosta voidaan havaita, että muinaisen (bulgarialaisen) kulttuurin symbolit ovat modernissa kontekstissa vanhanaikaisia ja uudet symbolit ovat löytyneet globaalista kulutusyhteiskunnasta. Tämä puolestaan on aiheuttanut jonkinasteisen eksistentiaalisen kulttuuri- ja identiteettikriisin. Ongelma on maailmanlaajuinen, mutta bulgarialaisessa kontekstissa erityisen vahingoittava, sillä samainen kulttuuri ja identiteetti ovat alun perin vahvasti balkanismin perintöön perustuvia uudelleen esitettyjä olemassaolon kuvauksia. Aineistossa näkyy myös selkeästi Bulgarian etnisten vähemmistöjen sekä paluumuuttajien toiseuttaminen nationalistisen ja poissulkevan ideologian pohjalta. Bulgarialainen identiteetti on eräänlainen siirtymäidentiteetti ja “puoli-identiteetti”, jonka keskeneräisyys johtuu toisaalta sen muodostumiseen vaikuttaneista historian tapahtumista, mutta toisaalta myös vanhentuneeseen olemusajatteluun kulttuurin suhteen. Tutkimuksen lopputulema on, että bulgarialaisen kulttuuri-identiteetin suurin haaste on inkluusio ja olemusajattelusta irtautuminen.
  • Sohlo, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In the school world today more attention should be put to the attitudes towards difference. Individuals should learn to recognize and accept diversities in the society. The focus of the ethics is to assist pupils to become conscious of their personal worldview and be aware of the differences of their fellow pupil's views. Main goal is to be able to encounter others more tolerant and respect the different values in the world. The aim of ethics teaching is to support pupil's identity work to find a tolerant and open-minded cultural identity. First it's important to become aware of the personal cultural background before understanding other views and co-operate with people from different backgrounds. The aim of this research is to clarify the objectives and contents of ethics in the National Curriculum 2004. The focus is on the theme Self-Awareness and Cultural Identity. This qualitative research is based on interviews. The research studies the views of primary school ethics teachers about cultural identity, the goals of their teaching and the methods to support the development of the pupil's cultural identity in the framework of ethics. Eight primary school ethics teachers from different backgrounds were interviewed for this research. The interview was a three parted focused interview. The material was analysed with a content analysis. The teachers supported their pupil's identity work with various methods. The common view of the development was towards a respectful and tolerant cultural identity. The main results of the research suggest that teachers should develop their pupil's skills from five different content categories. The categories are the awareness of the self, cultural awareness, co-operation and interaction, cultural education and cultural competence. The results emphasize the development of different skills: thinking skills, self-regulation skills, interaction skills, co-operational skills, conversational skills and cultural skills.
  • Tallberg, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of the study is to examine primary school teachers’ opinions concerning a reformed model of the religious- and ethics education in the Finnish school context and how it can affect the students development of their own cultural identity and feeling of solidarity in schools. The study is based on the current discussions about the subject where globalization and diversity is seen to be demanding more of schools (Rautionmaa & Kallioniemi, 2017). Previous studies also show that the cultural segregation that is seen in the society is a result of the segregation done in schools (Korkeakoski & Ubani, 2018). A relatively new study done in Finland found out the Finnish populations view about a reformed model of these subjects and shows that the majority of the population advocate a reformation (Mattsonn, 2020). The research was conducted as a qualitative study with a phenomenographic research approach. The material consists of six semi-structured, individual interviews with teachers working in four different schools in the metropolitan area. The collected material was analyzed using content analysis. The results showed that the majority of the teachers, four out of six, found a reformed model of the subject as a positive development and that it would come to support every student. Some of the effects predicted were an increased understanding and solidarity between students with different cultural backgrounds, more equality that would lead to a more integrated society. Some of the aspects seen from the teachers who didn’t support a reformation was that education in faith is important, the possibility that one student may feel excluded and that an separate religious education would be important especially for those who belong to a minority religion.
  • Tupala, Tiia (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aim of the study. Society has become more diverse during the last decade. Tolerance is the key to today's society. Knowing cultural heritage helps to construct cultural identity. Understanding cultural heritage and cultural identity helps to understand other cultures better. Museums have an important role in cultural heritage education. Museums can offer visitors things they can relate to and identify with. In this way museums can help to construct cultural identity. The aim of this study is to find out how different cultures are taken into account in museums according to professionals. The aim is also to find out how museums can help to construct cultural identity. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study. The data was collected from two professionals in museum field. The research data was collected by individual interviews using theme interviews. Data from the interviews was analysed by qualitative content-based analysis. The data was analysed by themes utilizing the themes from the interviews. Results and conclusions. The results show that the aim in museums is to have an interactive relationship with the museums visitors. Museums have also tried to get more diverse spectrum of visitors. The professionals consider multiculturalism as an important topic. Multiculturalism and the increasing diversity of society create new challenges for museums. Multiculturalism also brings new possibilities and new perspectives. Museums have an important role in the society as an advocate of tolerance. The professionals are worried that tolerance education is not appreciated enough in the society though. Museums can increase tolerance by providing information about different cultures. It is important to provide culture for the minorities also. Professionals see that museums can support the process of constructing cultural identity. It is important that museums highlight the issues visitors can identify with.
  • Jäske, Alice (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this Master's Thesis is to research the understanding of the white normativity of the Finnish education system and the racism associated within it, from the perspective of the Finns’ who identify as mixed-race. The thesis also considers the views of the mixed-race Finns on how the white normative school system has impacted their cultural identity. The thesis makes use of Stuart Hall’s theory of cultural identity, and Robert Miles’ theory of racialization. Previous studies have shown that there is white normative practice and racism present in the Finnish education system. Nonetheless, I noticed that previous studies had not been done from the point of view of the Finns identifying as mixed-race. Therefore, I wanted to explore the pos-sibilities that examining white normativity in the Finnish education system from this perspective could offer. I wrote this thesis as an insider since I identify as a mixed-race Finn. Furthermore, there were six others who took part in my study. Two semi-structured focus group interviews were con-ducted twice during the 2019-2020 academic year. In these interviews, we discussed the white normativity of the Finnish educational system and our own cultural identity. I applied both nar-rative and thematic methodology in my analysis. This meant understanding the phenomena with the help of narratives but organizing the results thematically. When it comes to my results, I discovered that there is the attribute of white normativity con-joined with the Finnish cultural identity. Thereby, the white normativity and the whiteness as a precondition for identifying as Finnish defined the cultural identity and its perception of those Finns identifying themselves as mixed-race. The white normativity of the Finnish educational system and the racism associated with it contributed to the development of internalized racism experienced by the Finnish mixed-race students. In this thesis, I have recognized and named these white normative structures in the Finnish educational system with the focus group inter-viewees. The results can be used for further research in the field of racism.