Browsing by Subject "dark matter theory"

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  • Enqvist, Kari; Hardwick, Robert J.; Tenkanen, Tommi; Vennin, Vincent; Wands, David (2018)
    We show that in the Feebly Interacting Massive Particle (FIMP) model of Dark Matter (DM), one may express the inflationary energy scale H-* as a function of three otherwise unrelated quantities, the DM isocurvature perturbation amplitude, its mass and its self-coupling constant, independently of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The FIMP model assumes that there exists a real scalar particle that alone constitutes the DM content of the Universe and couples to the Standard Model via a Higgs portal. We consider carefully the various astrophysical, cosmological and model constraints, accounting also for variations in inflationary dynamics and the reheating history, to derive a robust estimate for H-* that is con fined to a relatively narrow range. We point out that, within the context of the FIMP DM model, one may thus determine H-* reliably even in the absence of observable tensor perturbations.
  • Lebedev, Oleg; Yoon, Jong-Hyun (2021)
    We examine an intriguing possibility that a single field is responsible for both inflation and dark matter, focusing on the minimal set-up where inflation is driven by a scalar coupling to curvature. We study in detail the reheating process in this framework, which amounts mainly to particle production in a quartic potential, and distinguish thermal and non-thermal dark matter options. In the non-thermal case, the reheating is impeded by backreaction and rescattering, making this possibility unrealistic. On the other hand, thermalized dark matter is viable, yet the unitarity bound forces the inflaton mass into a narrow window close to half the Higgs mass. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • COSINE-100 Collaboration; Sogang Phenomenology Grp; Adhikari, G.; Yoon, Jong-Hyun (2019)
    Assuming a standard Maxwellian for the WIMP velocity distribution, we obtain the bounds from null WIMP search results of 59.5 days of COSINE-100 data on the DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 modulation effect within the context of the non-relativistic effective theory of WIMP-nucleus scattering. Here, we systematically assume that one of the effective operators allowed by Galilean invariance dominates in the effective Hamiltonian of a spin-1/2 dark matter (DM) particle. We find that, although DAMA/LIBRA and COSINE-100 use the same sodium-iodide target, the comparison of the two results still depends on the particle-physics model. This is mainly due to two reasons: i) the WIMP signal spectral shape; ii) the expected modulation fractions, when the upper bound on the time-averaged rate in COSINE-100 is converted into a constraint on the annual modulation component in DAMA/LIBRA. We find that the latter effect is the dominant one. For several effective operators the expected modulation fractions are larger than in the standard spin-independent or spin-dependent interaction cases. As a consequence, compatibility between the modulation effect observed in DAMA/LIBRA and the null result from COSINE-100 is still possible for several non-relativistic operators. At low WIMP masses such relatively high values of the modulation fractions arise because COSINE-100 is mainly sensitive to WIMP-sodium scattering events, due to the higher threshold compared to DAMA/LIBRA. A next COSINE analysis is expected to have a full sensitivity for the 5 a region of DAMA/LIBRA.
  • Lebedev, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor; Solomko, Timofey; Yoon, Jong-Hyun (2021)
    We study scalar dark matter production and reheating via renormalizable inflaton couplings, which include both quartic and trilinear interactions. These processes often depend crucially on collective effects such as resonances, backreaction and rescattering of the produced particles. To take them into account, we perform lattice simulations and map out parameter space producing the correct (non-thermal) dark matter density. We find that the inflaton-dark matter system can reach a quasi-equilibrium state during preheating already at very small couplings, in which case the dark matter abundance becomes independent of the inflaton-dark matter coupling and is described by a universal formula. Dark matter is readily overproduced and even tiny values of the direct inflaton couplings can be sufficient to get the right composition of the Universe, which reaffirms their importance in cosmology.
  • Fairbairn, Malcolm; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami (2019)
    We demonstrate the existence of a generic, efficient and purely gravitational channel producing a significant abundance of dark relics during reheating after the end of inflation. The mechanism is present for any inert scalar with the non-minimal curvature coupling xi RX2 and the relic production is efficient for modest values xi= O(1). The observed dark matter abundance can be reached for a broad range of relic masses extending from m similar to 1keV to m similar to 10(8) GeV, depending on the scale of inflation and the dark sector couplings. Frustratingly, such relics escape direct, indirect and collider searches since no non-gravitational couplings to visible matter are needed.
  • Beltran Almeida, Juan P.; Bernal, Nicolas; Rubio, Javier; Tenkanen, Tommi (2019)
    If cosmic inflation was driven by an electrically neutral scalar field stable on cosmological time scales, the field necessarily constitutes all or part of dark matter (DM). We study this possibility in a scenario where the inflaton field s resides in a hidden sector, which is coupled to the Standard Model sector through the Higgs portal lambda(hs)s(2) (HH)-H-dagger and non-minimally to gravity via xi(s)s(2)R. We study scenarios where the field s first drives inflation, then reheats the Universe, and later constitutes all DM. We consider two benchmark scenarios where the DM abundance is generated either by production during reheating or via non-thermal freeze-in. In both cases, we take into account all production channels relevant for DM in the mass range from keV to PeV scale. On the inflationary side, we compare the dynamics and the relevant observables in two different but well-motivated theories of gravity (metric and Palatini), discuss multi field effects in case both fields (s and h) were dynamical during inflation, and take into account the non-perturbative nature of particle production during reheating. We find that, depending on the initial conditions for inflation, couplings and the DM mass, the scenario works well especially for large DM masses, 10(2) GeV less than or similar to m(s) less than or similar to 10(6) GeV, although there are also small observationally allowed windows at the keV and MeV scales. We discuss how the model can be tested through astrophysical observations.
  • Gross, Christian; Lebedev, Oleg; Mambrini, Yann (2015)
    SU(N) Lie algebras possess discrete symmetries which can lead naturally to stable vector dark matter (DM). In this work, we consider the possibility that the dark SU(N) sector couples to the visible sector through the Higgs portal. We find that minimal CP-conserving hidden `Higgs sectors' entail stable massive gauge fields which fall into the WIMP category of dark matter candidates. For SU(N), N>2, DM consists of three components, two of which are degenerate in mass. In all of the cases, there are substantial regions of parameter space where the direct and indirect detection as well as relic abundance constraints are satisfied.
  • Räsänen, Syksy; Tomberg, Eemeli (2019)
    We study the production of primordial black hole (PBH) dark matter in the case when the Standard Model Higgs coupled non-minimally to gravity is the inflaton. PBHs can be produced if the Higgs potential has a near-critical point due to quantum corrections. In this case the slow-roll approximation may be broken, so we calculate the power spectrum numerically. We consider both the metric and the Palatini formulation of general relativity. Combining observational constraints on PBHs and on the CMB spectrum we find that PBHs can constitute all of the dark matter only if they evaporate early and leave behind Planck mass relics. This requires the potential to have a shallow local minimum, not just a critical point. The initial PBH mass is then below 10(6) g, and predictions for the CMB observables are the same as in tree-level Higgs inflation, n(s) = 0.96 and r = 5 x 10(-3) (metric) or r = 4 x 10(-8) ... 2 x 10(-7) (Palatini).
  • Laulumaa, Laura; Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami (2020)
    We demonstrate that adiabatic dark matter can be generated by gravity induced symmetry breaking during inflation. We study a Z(2) symmetric scalar singlet that couples to other fields only through gravity and for which the symmetry is broken by the space-time curvature during inflation when the non-minimal coupling xi is negative. We find that the symmetry breaking leads to the formation of adiabatic dark matter with the observed abundance for the singlet mass m similar to MeV and vertical bar xi vertical bar similar to 1.
  • Bernal, Nicolas; Rubio, Javier; Veermäe, Hardi (2020)
    In the Starobinsky model of inflation, the observed dark matter abundance can be produced from the direct decay of the inflaton field only in a very narrow spectrum of closeto-conformal scalar fields and spinors of mass similar to 10(7) GeV. This spectrum can be, however, significantly broadened in the presence of effective non-renormalizable interactions between the dark and the visible sectors. In particular, we show that UV freeze-in can efficiently generate the right dark matter abundance for a large range of masses spanning from the keV to the PeV scale and arbitrary spin, without significantly altering the heating dynamics. We also consider the contribution of effective interactions to the inflaton decay into dark matter.