Browsing by Subject "detection limit"

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  • Wlodarski, Maksymilian; Putkonen, Matti; Norek, Malgorzata (2020)
    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems in analysis of thin films. In this work, an approach is demonstrated to overcome these problems. It is shown that a standard IR spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study the structure and composition of films as thin as 20 nm, when the layers were grown on porous substrates with a well-developed surface area. In contrast to IR spectra of the films deposited on flat Si substrates, the IR spectra of the same films but deposited on porous ceramic support show distinct bands that enabled reliable chemical analysis. The analysis of Zn-S ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc (DEZ) and 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT) as precursors of Zn and S, respectively, served as proof of concept. However, the approach presented in this study can be applied to analysis of any ultrathin film deposited on target substrate and simultaneously on porous support, where the latter sample would be a reference sample dedicated for IR analysis of this film.
  • Debouk, Haifa; Altimir, Núria; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa (2018)
    Measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, particularly methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in mountain ecosystems are scarce due to the complexity and unpredictable behavior of these gases, in addition to the remoteness of these ecosystems. In this context, we measured CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes in four semi-natural pastures in the Pyrenees to investigate their magnitude and range of variability. Our interest was to study GHG phenomena at the patch-level, therefore we chose to measure the gas-exchange using a combination of a gas analyzer and manual chambers. The analyzer used is a photoacoustic field gas-monitor that allows multi-gas instantaneous measurements. After implementing quality control and corrections, data was of variable quality. We tackled this by categorizing data as to providing quantitative or only qualitative information:•50% and 59% of all CH4 and N2O data, respectively, provided quantitative information above the detection limit.•We chose not to discard data providing only qualitative information, because they identify highest- and lowest-flux peak periods and indicate the variability of the fluxes, along different altitudes and under different climatic conditions.•We chose not to give fluxes below detection limit a quantitative value but to acknowledge them as values identifying periods with low fluxes.