Browsing by Subject "diabetic nephropathy"

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  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Jansson Sigfrids, Fanny; Stechemesser, Lars; Dahlström, Emma H.; Forsblom, Carol M.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Weitgasser, Raimund; Taskinen, Marja Riitta; Groop, Per Henrik (2022)
    Objectives: We studied apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) in relation to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Methods: The cohort comprised 3966 participants from the prospective observational Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Progression of DKD was determined from medical records. A major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular mortality through 2017. Cardiovascular and mortality data were retrieved from national registries. Results: ApoC-III predicted DKD progression independent of sex, diabetes duration, blood pressure, HbA1c, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, lipid-lowering medication, DKD category, and remnant cholesterol (hazard ratio [HR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval 1.05–1.94], p = 0.02). ApoC-III also predicted the MACE in a multivariable regression analysis; however, it was not independent of remnant cholesterol (HR 1.05 [0.81–1.36, p = 0.71] with remnant cholesterol; 1.30 [1.03–1.64, p = 0.03] without). DKD-specific analyses revealed that the association was driven by individuals with albuminuria, as no link between apoC-III and the outcome was observed in the normal albumin excretion or kidney failure categories. The same was observed for mortality: Individuals with albuminuria had an adjusted HR of 1.49 (1.03–2.16, p = 0.03) for premature death, while no association was found in the other groups. The highest apoC-III quartile displayed a markedly higher risk of MACE and death than the lower quartiles; however, this nonlinear relationship flattened after adjustment. Conclusions: The impact of apoC-III on MACE risk and mortality is restricted to those with albuminuria among individuals with type 1 diabetes. This study also revealed that apoC-III predicts DKD progression, independent of the initial DKD category.
  • Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Valo, Erkka; Ichimura, Takaharu; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Dina, Christian; Miller, Rachel G.; Shabalin, Ivan G.; Gyorgy, Beata; Cao, JingJing; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Satake, Eiichiro; Smiles, Adam M.; Haukka, Jani K.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Costacou, Tina; O'Neil, Kristina; Paterson, Andrew D.; Forsblom, Carol; Keenan, Hillary A.; Pezzolesi, Marcus G.; Pragnell, Marlon; Galecki, Andrzej; Rich, Stephen S.; Sandholm, Niina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Susztak, Katalin; Orchard, Trevor J.; Korstanje, Ron; King, George L.; Hadjadj, Samy; Rossing, Peter; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Warram, James H.; Krolewski, Andrzej S. (2021)
    Background Rare variants ingenecodingregions likely have agreater impactondisease-relatedphenotypes than common variants through disruption of their encoded protein. We searched for rare variants associated with onset of ESKD in individuals with type 1 diabetes at advanced kidney disease stage. Methods Gene-basedexome array analyses of15,449genes infivelarge incidence cohortsof individualswith type 1diabetes andproteinuriawere analyzedfor survival time toESKD, testing the top gene in a sixth cohort (n52372/1115 events all cohorts) and replicating in two retrospective case-control studies (n51072 cases, 752 controls). Deep resequencing of the top associated gene in five cohorts confirmed the findings. We performed immunohistochemistry and gene expression experiments in human control and diseased cells, and in mouse ischemia reperfusion and aristolochic acid nephropathy models. Results Protein coding variants in the hydroxysteroid 17- b dehydrogenase 14 gene (HSD17B14), predicted to affect protein structure, had a net protective effect against development of ESKD at exome-wide significance (n54196; P value53.331027). The HSD17B14 gene and encoded enzyme were robustly expressed in healthy human kidney, maximally in proximal tubular cells. Paradoxically, gene and protein expression were attenuated in human diabetic proximal tubules and in mouse kidney injury models. Expressed HSD17B14 gene and protein levels remained low without recovery after 21 days in a murine ischemic reperfusion injury model. Decreased gene expression was found in other CKD-associated renal pathologies. Conclusions HSD17B14 gene ismechanistically involved in diabetic kidney disease. The encoded sex steroid enzyme is a druggable target, potentially opening a new avenue for therapeutic development.
  • Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E.; Perkovic, Vlado; Hocher, Berthold; Kanasaki, Keizo; Haneda, Masakazu; Schernthaner, Guntram; Sharma, Kumar; Stanton, Robert C.; Toto, Robert; Cescutti, Jessica; Gordat, Maud; Meinicke, Thomas; Koitka-Weber, Audrey; Thiemann, Sandra; von Eynatten, Maximilian (2017)
    Aims: The MARLINA-T2D study (ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01792518) was designed to investigate the glycaemic and renal effects of linagliptin added to standard-of-care in individuals with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. Methods: A total of 360 individuals with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 6.5% to 10.0% (48-86 mmol/ mol), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >= 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary albumin-tocreatinine ratio (UACR) 30-3000 mg/g despite single agent renin-angiotensin-system blockade were randomized to double-blind linagliptin (n = 182) or placebo (n = 178) for 24 weeks. The primary and key secondary endpoints were change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 and time-weighted average of percentage change from baseline in UACR over 24 weeks, respectively. Results: Baseline mean HbA1c and geometric mean (gMean) UACR were 7.8% +/- 0.9% (62.2 +/- 9.6 mmol/mol) and 126 mg/g, respectively; 73.7% and 20.3% of participants had microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria, respectively. After 24 weeks, the placebo-adjusted mean change in HbA1c from baseline was -0.60% (-6.6 mmol/mol) (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.78 to -0.43 [-8.5 to -4.7 mmol/mol]; P Conclusions: In individuals at early stages of diabetic kidney disease, linagliptin significantly improved glycaemic control but did not significantly lower albuminuria. There was no significant change in placebo-adjusted eGFR. Detection of clinically relevant renal effects of linagliptin may require longer treatment, as its main experimental effects in animal studies have been to reduce interstitial fibrosis rather than alter glomerular haemodynamics.
  • Cherney, David Z. I.; Cooper, Mark E.; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Pfarr, Egon; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Lund, Soren S. (2018)
    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce HbA1c, blood pressure, and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. To investigate the effect of renal function on reductions in these parameters with the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin, we assessed subgroups by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) in pooled data from five 24-week trials of 2286 patients with type 2 diabetes randomized to empagliflozin or placebo. Reductions in HbA1c with empagliflozin versus placebo significantly diminished with decreasing baseline eGFR. Reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with empagliflozin were maintained in patients with lower eGFR. The mean placebo-corrected changes from baseline in systolic blood pressure at week 24 with empagliflozin were -3.2 (95% confidence interval -4.9,-1.5) mmHg, -4.0 (-5.4, -2.6) mmHg, -5.5 (-7.6, -3.4) mmHg, and -6.6 (-11.4, -1.8) mmHg in patients with an eGFR of 90 or more, 60 to 89, 30 to 59, and under 30 ml/min/1.73m(2), respectively. Similar trends were observed for diastolic blood pressure. Weight loss with empagliflozin versus placebo tended to be attenuated in patients with a lower eGFR. Results were consistent in a 12-week ambulatory blood pressure monitoring trial in 823 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Thus, unlike HbA1c reductions, systolic blood pressure and weight reductions with empagliflozin are generally preserved in patients with chronic kidney disease.
  • Jansson, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background: The traditional view of inevitable progression from early albuminuria to end-stage renal disease has recently been challenged in type 1 diabetes. However, the characteristics of regression of albuminuria are not widely understood. Particularly little is known about the clinical consequences of regression. Objective: To assess the rate of albuminuria regression, as well as its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Methods: A total of 3,642 individuals from the FinnDiane Study were included. Albuminuria stage was categorized using consensus reference limits in two out of three consecutive measurements to normal range, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria. Regression was defined as a change from a higher category of albuminuria pre-baseline to a lower current stage. Data on CVD and vitality status were retrieved from national registries. Individuals were followed over a median of 14.0 years (IQR 11.9–15.9). Results: Altogether 102 (23.3%) individuals with prior microalbuminuria and 111 (23.4%) with prior macroalbuminuria regressed. With those with normal albumin excretion as reference, the age-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for CVD were 1.42 (0.75-2.68) in individuals with regressed microalbuminuria, 2.62 (1.95-3.54) with sustained microalbuminuria, 3.15 (2.02-4.92) with regressed macroalbuminuria, and 5.49 (4.31-7.00) with sustained macroalbuminuria. Findings were similar for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions: Progression of diabetic nephropathy confers an increased risk of CVD and premature mortality. Notably, regression reduces the risk to the same level as for those who did not progress.
  • Jansson Sigfrids, Fanny; Dahlström, Emma Helena; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Harjutsalo, Valma; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Groop, Per-Henrik (2021)
    Background We aimed to assess whether remnant cholesterol concentration and variability predict the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and severe diabetic retinopathy (SDR) in type 1 diabetes. Methods This observational prospective study covered 5150 FinnDiane Study participants. Remnant cholesterol was calculated as total cholesterol - LDL cholesterol - HDL cholesterol and variability as the coefficient of variation. DN category was based on consensus albuminuria reference limits and the progression status was confirmed from medical files. SDR was defined as retinal laser treatment. For 1338 individuals, the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded using the ETDRS classification protocol. Median (IQR) follow-up time was 8.0 (4.9-13.7) years for DN and 14.3 (10.4-16.3) for SDR. Results Remnant cholesterol (mmol L-1) was higher with increasing baseline DN category (P < 0.001). A difference was also seen comparing non-progressors (0.41 [0.32-0.55]) with progressors (0.55 [0.40-0.85]), P < 0.001. In a Cox regression analysis, remnant cholesterol predicted DN progression, independently of diabetes duration, sex, HbA(1c), systolic blood pressure, smoking, BMI, estimated glucose disposal rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR: 1.51 [1.27-1.79]). Remnant cholesterol was also higher in those who developed SDR (0.47 [0.36-0.66]) than those who did not (0.40 [0.32-0.53]), P < 0.001, and the concentration increased stepwise with increasing DR severity (P < 0.001). Regarding SDR, the HR for remnant cholesterol was 1.52 (1.26-1.83) with the most stringent adjustment. However, remnant cholesterol variability was not independently associated with the outcomes. Conclusions Remnant cholesterol concentration, but not variability, predicts DN progression and development of SDR. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the associations are causal or not.
  • de Mello, Vanessa Derenji; Selander, Tuomas; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Kaarniranta, Kai (2021)
    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, and retinal microaneurysms (MA) are one of the first detected abnormalities associated with DR. We recently showed elevated serum triglyceride levels to be associated with the development of MA in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). The purpose of this metabolomics study was to assess whether serum fatty acid (FA) composition, plasmalogens, and low-grade inflammation may enhance or decrease the risk of MA. Originally, the DPS included 522 individuals (mean 55 years old, range 40-64 years) with impaired glucose tolerance who were randomized into an intervention (n = 265) or control group (n = 257). The intervention lasted for a median of four years (active period), after which annual follow-up visits were conducted. At least five years after stopping the intervention phase of DPS, participants classified as MA negative (n = 115) or MA positive (n = 51) were included in the current study. All these participants were free of diabetes at baseline (WHO 1985) and had high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum FA composition, and selected lipid metabolites measured during the active study period. Among the markers associated with MA, the serum plasmalogen dm16:0 (p = 0.006), the saturated odd-chain FA 15.0 (pentadecanoic acid; p = 0.015), and omega-3 very long-chain FAs (p < 0.05) were associated with a decreased occurrence of MA. These associations were independent of study group and other risk factors. The association of high serum triglycerides with the MA occurrence was attenuated when these MA-associated serum lipid markers were considered. Our findings suggest that, in addition to n-3 FAs, odd-chain FA 15:0 and plasmalogen dm16:0 may contribute to a lower risk of MA in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. These putative novel lipid biomarkers have an association with MA independently of triglyceride levels.
  • Simonsen, J. R.; Järvinen, A.; Harjutsalo, V.; Forsblom, C.; Groop, P-H; Lehto, M. (2020)
    Background Diabetes increases the risk of infections as well as coronary heart disease (CHD). Whether infections increase the risk of CHD and how this applies to individuals with diabetes is unclear. Objectives To investigate the association between bacterial infections and the risk of CHD in type 1 diabetes. Methods Individuals with type 1 diabetes (n = 3781) were recruited from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane), a prospective follow-up study. CHD was defined as incident events: fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention, identified through national hospital discharge register data. Infections were identified through national register data on all antibiotic purchases from outpatient care. Register data were available from 1.1.1995-31.12.2015. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity was measured from serum samples at baseline. Data on traditional risk factors for CHD were collected during baseline and consecutive visits. Results Individuals with an incident CHD event (n = 370) had a higher mean number of antibiotic purchases per follow-up year compared to those without incident CHD (1.34 [95% CI: 1.16-1.52], versus 0.79 [0.76-0.82],P <0.001), as well as higher levels of LPS activity (0.64 [0.60-0.67], versus 0.58 EU mL(-1)[0.57-0.59],P <0.001). In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the mean number of antibiotic purchases per follow-up year was an independent risk factor for incident CHD (HR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.14-1.29,P <0.0001). High LPS activity was a risk factor for incident CHD (HR 1.93 [1.34-2.78],P <0.001) after adjusting for static confounders. Conclusion Bacterial infections are associated with an increased risk of incident CHD in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Lehto, Markku; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a devastating condition associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality. The etiology of DKD is still largely unknown. However, the risk of DKD development and progression is most likely modulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Patients with autoimmune diseases, like type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease, share some genetic background. Furthermore, gastrointestinal disorders are associated with an increased risk of kidney disease, although the true mechanisms have still to be elucidated. Therefore, the principal aim of this review is to evaluate the impact of disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract on the development of renal disorders.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlstrom, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik; FinnDiane Study Grp (2017)
    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage.
  • Valle, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2018)
    Gut inflammation and permeability is speculated to play a major role in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Signs of a low-grade gut inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been found. Focus of this study was to understand the role of gut inflammation and increased gut permeability in the development of diabetic complications, especially nephropathy. Approximately, one-third of Finnish patients with T1D develop kidney disease during their lifetime. Inflammatory mechanisms may have an essential role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Lipopolysaccharide, LPS, is found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. LPS activates innate immune system and triggers the activation of inflammatory cytokines, neutrophils and macrophages as well as many pathophysiological processes in vivo, for instance fever and endotoxic shock. Aim of this study was to establish a zebrafish gut inflammation model using fluorophore conjugated endotoxin, LPS. We hypothesized that delivery of LPS in addition to EDTA in the gut of zebrafish triggers inflammation and increased gut permeability which may lead to leakage of LPS to blood stream and potentially kidney injury. This novel zebrafish inflammation model could possibly be used for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms of gut inflammation and possible kidney injury as well as for screening new anti-inflammatory drugs. In addition, this animal model can be used for studying intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in reducing gut permeability and LPS-mediated kidney damage. IAP is an enzyme produced in small-intestinal epithelium. IAP can detoxify several bacterial endotoxins including LPS and thus protect against the induction of intestinal inflammation. LPS and EDTA were delivered in the gut of 6 days old zebrafish larvae using microgavage injection. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of live zebrafish enabled following the same individual at different timepoints after injections. Paraffin sectioning of the small larvae was promising for investigating the morphology and permeability of the gut as well as possible immunostaining for detection of IAP. L-phenylalanine was used for inhibition of IAP enzyme. Using the novel method of microinjection to gut on zebrafish larvae the timing and amount of delivered materials to gut can be controlled well. The anatomy and function of the gut in zebrafish is very similar to small intestine of mammals and the highly developed vertebrate immune system makes zebrafish an interesting model organism for studying gut inflammation and permeability. In addition, inflammatory processes can be visualized in live, intact transparent zebrafish larvae. However, the technique has a lot of challenges including small size of the fish and possible tissue damage of the fish while performing injection. More experiments need to be carried out to establish the model for drug screening. Also, along with microscopy images, a more precise way for quantification the gut permeability is needed. Based on the images it’s not yet possible to conclude whether LPS increased gut permeability or if IAP inhibition with L-phenylalanine worked in zebrafish larvae. Using adult zebrafish in the future will give more information about the chronic gut inflammation and development of possible kidney injury.