Browsing by Subject "diabetic retinopathy"

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  • Tuulonen, Anja; Kataja, Marko; Aaltonen, Vesa; Kinnunen, Kati; Moilanen, Jukka; Saarela, Ville; Linna, Miika; Malmivaara, Antti; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele (2022)
    This paper describes a holistic, yet simple and comprehensible, ecosystem model to deal with multiple and complex challenges in eyecare. It aims at producing the best possible wellbeing and eyesight with the available resources. When targeting to improve the real-world cost-effectiveness, what gets done in everyday practice needs be measured routinely, efficiently and unselectively. Collection of all real-world data of all patients will enable evaluation and comparison of eyecare systems and departments between themselves nationally and internationally. The concept advocates a strategy to optimize real-life effectiveness, sustainability and outcomes of the service delivery in ophthalmology. The model consists of three components: (1) resource-governing principles (i.e., to deal with increasing demand and limited resources), (2) real-world monitoring (i.e., to collect structured real-world data utilizing automation and visualization of clinical parameters, health-related quality of life and costs), and (3) digital innovation strategy (i.e., to evaluate and benchmark real-world outcomes and cost-effectiveness). The core value and strength of the model lies in the consensus and collaboration of all Finnish university eye clinics to collect and evaluate the uniformly structured real-world outcomes data. In addition to ophthalmology, the approach is adaptable to any medical discipline to efficiently generate real-world insights and resilience in health systems.
  • Surrogate Markers Micro-Macro-Vasc (2018)
    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to severe diabetic retinopathy. Methods Results A genome-wide association approach was applied. In the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) datasets, cases of severe diabetic retinopathy were defined as type 2 diabetic patients who were ever graded as having severe background retinopathy (Level R3) or proliferative retinopathy (Level R4) in at least one eye according to the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Grading Scheme or who were once treated by laser photocoagulation. Controls were diabetic individuals whose longitudinal retinopathy screening records were either normal (Level R0) or only with mild background retinopathy (Level R1) in both eyes. Significant Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were taken forward for meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts. Five hundred and sixty cases of type 2 diabetes with severe diabetic retinopathy and 4,106 controls were identified in the GoDARTS cohort. We revealed that rs3913535 in the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene reached a p value of 4.05 x 10(-9). Two nearby SNPs, rs10765219 and rs11018670 also showed promising p values (p values = 7.41 x 10(-8) and 1.23 x 10(-8), respectively). In the meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts (excluding GoDARTS), rs10765219 and rs11018670 showed associations for diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.003 and 0.007, respectively), while the p value of rs3913535 was not significant (p = 0.429). Conclusion This genome-wide association study of severe diabetic retinopathy suggests new evidence for the involvement of the NOX4 gene.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Eriksson, Marika; Summanen, Paula; Gordin, Daniel; Forsblom, Carol; Shams, Sara; Liebkind, Ron; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka; Groop, Per-Henrik; Martola, Juha; Thorn, Lena M. (2021)
    Introduction Cerebral small-vessel disease is common in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes. The retinal vasculature is thought to mirror the brain's vasculature, but data on this association are limited in type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to study associations between diabetic retinopathy severity and cerebral small-vessel disease in type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 189 participants with type 1 diabetes (median age 40 (33-45) years; 53% female; diabetes duration 21.6 (18.2-30.7) years) and 29 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Participants underwent a clinical investigation, brain MRI, and fundus imaging. Signs of cerebral small-vessel disease in brain MRIs were analyzed in relation to diabetic retinopathy severity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score). Results In type 1 diabetes, participants with cerebral small-vessel disease had higher ETDRS scores (35 (20-61) vs 20 (20-35), p=0.022) and a higher prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy than those without cerebral small-vessel disease (25% vs 9%, p=0.002). In adjusted analysis, proliferative diabetic retinopathy was associated with cerebral small-vessel disease (OR 2.57 (95% CI 1.04 to 6.35)). Median ETDRS score (35 (20-65) vs 20 (20-35), p=0.024) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy prevalence were higher (29% vs 13%, p=0.002) in participants with versus without cerebral microbleeds. ETDRS scores increased by number of cerebral microbleeds (p=0.001), both ETDRS score (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09)) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (8.52 (95% CI 1.91 to 37.94)) were associated with >2 cerebral microbleeds in separate multivariable analysis. We observed no association with white matter hyperintensities or lacunar infarcts. Conclusions Presence of cerebral small-vessel disease on brain MRI, particularly cerebral microbleeds, is associated with the severity of diabetic retinopathy.
  • Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kanclerz, Piotr; Huerva, Valentin; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Tuuminen, Raimo (2019)
    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Diabetic patients are at risk of developing cataract and present for surgery at an earlier age than non-diabetics. The aim of this study was to review the problems associated with cataract surgery in a diabetic patient. Corneal complications in diabetic patients include delayed wound healing, risk of developing epithelial defects or recurrent erosions due to the impairment of epithelial basement membranes and epithelial-stromal interactions. Diabetic patients present lower endothelial cell density and their endothelium is more susceptible to trauma associated with cataract surgery. A small pupil is common in diabetic patients making cataract surgery technically challenging. Finally diabetic patients have an increased risk for developing postoperative pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, posterior capsule opacification or endophthalmitis. In patients with pre-proliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema or iris neovascularization adjunctive therapy such as an intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection, can inhibit exacerbation related to cataract surgery.
  • Kanclerz, Piotr; Tuuminen, Raimo; Khoramnia, Ramin (2021)
    Introduction: Urbanization has caused dramatic changes in lifestyle, and these rapid transitions have led to an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. In terms of cost-effectiveness, screening for diabetic retinopathy is a critical aspect in diabetes management. The aim of this study was to review the imaging modalities employed for retinal examination in diabetic retinopathy screening. Methods: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were the main sources used to investigate the medical literature. An extensive search was performed to identify relevant articles concerning "imaging ", "diabetic retinopathy " and "screening " up to 1 June 2021. Imaging techniques were divided into the following: (i) mydriatic fundus photography, (ii) non-mydriatic fundus photography, (iii) smartphone-based imaging, and (iv) ultrawide-field imaging. A meta-analysis was performed to analyze the performance and technical failure rate of each method. Results: The technical failure rates for mydriatic and non-mydriatic digital fundus photography, smartphone-based and ultrawide-field imaging were 3.4% (95% CI: 2.3-4.6%), 12.1% (95% CI: 5.4-18.7%), 5.3% (95% CI: 1.5-9.0%) and 2.2% (95% CI: 0.3-4.0%), respectively. The rate was significantly different between all analyzed techniques (p < 0.001), and the overall failure rate was 6.6% (4.9-8.3%; I-2 = 97.2%). The publication bias factor for smartphone-based imaging was significantly higher than for mydriatic digital fundus photography and non-mydriatic digital fundus photography (b = -8.61, b = -2.59 and b = -7.03, respectively; p < 0.001). Ultrawide-field imaging studies were excluded from the final sensitivity/specificity analysis, as the total number of patients included was too small. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of the device used, retinal photographs should be taken on eyes with dilated pupils, unless contraindicated, as this setting decreases the rate of ungradable images. Smartphone-based and ultrawide-field imaging may become potential alternative methods for optimized DR screening; however, there is not yet enough evidence for these techniques to displace mydriatic fundus photography.
  • Jansson Sigfrids, Fanny; Dahlström, Emma Helena; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Harjutsalo, Valma; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Groop, Per-Henrik (2021)
    Background We aimed to assess whether remnant cholesterol concentration and variability predict the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and severe diabetic retinopathy (SDR) in type 1 diabetes. Methods This observational prospective study covered 5150 FinnDiane Study participants. Remnant cholesterol was calculated as total cholesterol - LDL cholesterol - HDL cholesterol and variability as the coefficient of variation. DN category was based on consensus albuminuria reference limits and the progression status was confirmed from medical files. SDR was defined as retinal laser treatment. For 1338 individuals, the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded using the ETDRS classification protocol. Median (IQR) follow-up time was 8.0 (4.9-13.7) years for DN and 14.3 (10.4-16.3) for SDR. Results Remnant cholesterol (mmol L-1) was higher with increasing baseline DN category (P < 0.001). A difference was also seen comparing non-progressors (0.41 [0.32-0.55]) with progressors (0.55 [0.40-0.85]), P < 0.001. In a Cox regression analysis, remnant cholesterol predicted DN progression, independently of diabetes duration, sex, HbA(1c), systolic blood pressure, smoking, BMI, estimated glucose disposal rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR: 1.51 [1.27-1.79]). Remnant cholesterol was also higher in those who developed SDR (0.47 [0.36-0.66]) than those who did not (0.40 [0.32-0.53]), P < 0.001, and the concentration increased stepwise with increasing DR severity (P < 0.001). Regarding SDR, the HR for remnant cholesterol was 1.52 (1.26-1.83) with the most stringent adjustment. However, remnant cholesterol variability was not independently associated with the outcomes. Conclusions Remnant cholesterol concentration, but not variability, predicts DN progression and development of SDR. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the associations are causal or not.
  • Silverberg, Emily L.; Sterling, Trevor W.; Williams, Tyler H.; Castro, Grettel; Rodriguez de la Vega, Pura; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    One-third of Americans with diabetes will develop diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness in working-age Americans. Social determinants of health (SDOHs) are conditions in a person's environment that may impact health. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between SDOHs and DR in patients with type II diabetes. This cross-section study used data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This study included people with self-reported diabetes in the US in 2018 (n = 60,703). Exposure variables included homeownership, marital status, income, health care coverage, completed level of education, and urban vs. rural environment. The outcome variable was DR. Logistic regression analysis were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Alaskan Native/Native American (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.14-3.90), out of work (OR 2.82; 95% CI: 1.62-4.92), unable to work (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.57-2.91), did not graduate high school (OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.30-2.79), only graduated high school (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.08-1.97), or only attended college or technical school without graduating (OR 1.42; 95% CI: 1.09-1.86) were SDOHs associated with DR in patients with diabetes. Health care providers should identify these possible SDOHs affecting their diabetic patients.