Browsing by Subject "diagnosis"

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  • Sorsa, Timo; Alassiri, Saeed; Grigoriadis, Andreas; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Sakellari, Dimitra (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of incorporating active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) as a biomarker into the new periodontitis classification system (stage/grade) presented in 2018. This study included 150 Greek adults aged 25-78, of whom 74 were men and 76 women. Participants were tested with an aMMP-8 point-of-care mouthrinse test, after which a full-mouth clinical examination was performed to assess their periodontal and oral health. The aMMP-8 levels in mouthrinse were significantly lower among healthy patients compared with patients in more severe periodontitis stages and grades (Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn-Bonferroni test for pairwise post-hoc comparisons; p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). Furthermore, aMMP-8 levels were less correlated with plaque levels than bleeding on probing (BOP) (Spearman's rho = 0.269, p <0.001; Spearman's rho = 0.586, p <0.001); respectively). Thus, aMMP-8 was more robust to the confounding effects of oral hygiene than traditional periodontal parameter bleeding on probing. The aMMP-8 point-of-care mouthrinse test can be utilized as an adjunctive and preventive diagnostic tool to identify periodontal disease, classified by stage and grade, and ongoing periodontal breakdown chairside in clinical practice in only 5 min. Overall, integrating aMMP-8 into the new periodontitis classification system seems beneficial.
  • Hernández, Marcela; Baeza, Mauricio; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Contreras, Johanna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Chaparro, Alejandra; Sorsa, Timo; Hernández-Ríos, Patricia (2021)
    Periodontitis is a host-mediated bacterial disease that affects the tooth attachment apparatus. Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), a validated biomarker, could aid in clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of active (a) MMP-8 immunotest versus total (t) MMP-8 ELISA for quantitative real-time diagnosis and assessment of periodontitis severity at the site level. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled from 30 healthy, 42 mild, and 59 severe periodontitis sites from thirty-one volunteers. MMP-8 concentrations were determined by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA package. Both active and total MMP-8-based methods discriminated among sites according to periodontal diagnosis and severity, with a positive correlation between the two tests (p < 0.001). (a) MMP-8 models showed the best performance in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate between healthy and periodontitis sites (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.89), while (t) MMP-8 demonstrated a high diagnostic precision in the detection of mild from severe periodontitis sites (AUC ≥ 0.80). The use of (a) MMP-8 and (t) MMP-8 could represent a useful adjunctive tool for periodontitis diagnosis and severity. These results support the applicability of new point-of-care methods in the monitoring of high-risk periodontal patients.
  • Wuokko-Landen, Annina; Blomgren, Karin; Välimaa, Hannamari (2019)
    Background: Odontogenic sinusitis (OS) is a common but underdiagnosed form of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). OS carries no specific characteristics, but unilateral symptoms and certain microbiological as well as radiological findings indicate odontogenic origin. Aims/objectives: We studied the proportion of OS in ARS patients, the presence and associations of unilateral symptoms, and possible OS microbial and radiological findings. In addition, we investigated how this condition is recognised among ear, nose and throat specialists and radiologists. Materials and methods: All 676 ARS patients treated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Helsinki University Hospital in 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. The data were collected from patients' hospital medical records, the laboratory database and radiological reports. Results: Odontogenic origin of ARS was suspected in 59 (15.3%) patients. Altogether (29.9%) 115 patients complained of unilateral symptoms and these were found to associate with probable oral microbial findings (p <.001). These findings covered 20.2% of isolates. Teeth were mentioned in 89.6% of the radiological reports.
  • Harbach, Ralph E.; Dallimore, Thom; Briscoe, Andrew G.; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Vaux, Alexander G. C.; Medlock, Jolyon M. (2017)
    We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838), the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.
  • Kautto, A.; Vehkalahti, M. M.; Ventä, I. (2018)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the age of patients at the time of extraction of third molars. Our data included all routine and surgical extractions of third molars (n = 8199 teeth) performed by general and specialist dentists of the public oral health services of the city of Helsinki over the period 2013-2014. Measurements included patient's age, gender, the identified third molar, the type of anaesthesia, the method of extraction, and the diagnosis at extraction. Patients' ages ranged from 10 to 99 years. We found significant differences between younger and older age groups: third molar extractions occurred more often for women than for men below the age of 30 years (P <0.001) and vice versa for patients older than 30. Extractions were more prevalent for the upper jaw (P <0.001), and surgical extractions were more common than routine extractions (P <0.001) below the age of 40 years, but the corresponding prevalences reversed after the age of 40 years. Diagnoses at extraction differed between younger and older patients. We conclude that the treatment pattern of third molars at public health services varies greatly over a lifetime, and that a greater variety exists than had been reported previously from oral and maxillofacial units.
  • Ng, Wai Tong; But, Barton; Choi, Horace C. W.; de Bree, Remco; Lee, Anne W. M.; Lee, Victor H. F.; Lopez, Fernando; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Saba, Nabil F.; Tsang, Raymond K. Y.; Ferlito, Alfio (2022)
    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and, in 2020, 77% of global cases were diagnosed in these regions. Apart from its distinct epidemiology, the natural behavior, treatment, and prognosis are different from other head and neck cancers. With the growing trend of artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning (DL), in head and neck cancer care, we sought to explore the unique clinical application and implementation direction of AI in the management of NPC. Methods: The search protocol was performed to collect publications using AI, machine learning (ML) and DL in NPC management from PubMed, Scopus and Embase. The articles were filtered using inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the papers was assessed. Data were extracted from the finalized articles. Results: A total of 78 articles were reviewed after removing duplicates and papers that did not meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After quality assessment, 60 papers were included in the current study. There were four main types of applications, which were auto-contouring, diagnosis, prognosis, and miscellaneous applications (especially on radiotherapy planning). The different forms of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) accounted for the majority of DL algorithms used, while the artificial neural network (ANN) was the most frequent ML model implemented. Conclusion: There is an overall positive impact identified from AI implementation in the management of NPC. With improving AI algorithms, we envisage AI will be available as a routine application in a clinical setting soon.
  • Lee, Jiwoo; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Mars, Nina; Jukarainen, Sakari; Ingelsson, Erik; Neale, Benjamin; Ripatti, Samuli; Natarajan, Pradeep; Ganna, Andrea (2021)
    Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinically significant presentation of coronary heart disease. Genetic information has been proposed to improve prediction beyond well-established clinical risk factors. While polygenic scores (PS) can capture an individual's genetic risk for ACS, its prediction performance may vary in the context of diverse correlated clinical conditions. Here, we aimed to test whether clinical conditions impact the association between PS and ACS. Methods: We explored the association between 405 clinical conditions diagnosed before baseline and 9080 incident cases of ACS in 387 832 individuals from the UK Biobank. Results were replicated in 6430 incident cases of ACS in 177 876 individuals from FinnGen. Results: We identified 80 conventional (eg, stable angina pectoris and type 2 diabetes) and unconventional (eg, diaphragmatic hernia and inguinal hernia) associations with ACS. The association between PS and ACS was consistent in individuals with and without most clinical conditions. However, a diagnosis of stable angina pectoris yielded a differential association between PS and ACS. PS was associated with a significantly reduced (interaction P=2.87x10(-8)) risk for ACS in individuals with stable angina pectoris (hazard ratio, 1.163 [95% CI, 1.082-1.251]) compared with individuals without stable angina pectoris (hazard ratio, 1.531 [95% CI, 1.497-1.565]). These findings were replicated in FinnGen (interaction P=1.38x10(-6)). Conclusions: In summary, while most clinical conditions did not impact utility of PS for prediction of ACS, we found that PS was substantially less predictive of ACS in individuals with prevalent stable coronary heart disease. PS may be more appropriate for prediction of ACS in asymptomatic individuals than symptomatic individuals with clinical suspicion for coronary heart disease.
  • Carpelan-Holmström, M.; Koskenvuo, L.; Haapamäki, C.; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L. (2020)
    Abstract Aim The aim of this single institution study was to analyse the diagnostic methods, pre-operative work-up and outcomes of 52 retrorectal tumours. Method All patients treated for retro-rectal tumours from 2012 to 2017 were included. Results Out of 52 patients, 40 (77%) were women. The patients? median age at the time of surgery was 43 (19-76) years, and 30 (58%) of the patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. All tumours were visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting malignancy on pre-operative imaging for retro-rectal tumours were 25% and 98%, respectively. Forty-four procedures (85%) were performed using the perineal approach. The median hospital stay was three (1-18) days. There was no 30-day post-operative mortality. Eleven (21%) patients developed post-operative complications, mostly surgical site infections. Twenty-nine tumours (56%) were benign tailgut cysts. Four (8%) tumours were malignant and were considered to be removed with a tumour-free resection margin. Local recurrent disease was detected on MRI in 14 (27%) patients at a median of 1.05 (range: 0.78-1.77) years after primary surgery. Only the multi-lobular shape of the tumour was found to be an independent risk factor for recurrence (p=0.030). Conclusion A pre-operative MRI is mandatory in order to plan the surgical strategy for retro-rectal tumours. Symptomatic, solid, large tumours should be removed because of the risk of malignancy. Minor cystic lesions with thin walls as well as asymptomatic recurrences of benign tumours are suitable to be followed conservatively.
  • Ala-Houhala, M.; Koukila-Kahkola, P.; Antikainen, Jenni; Valve, J.; Kirveskari, J.; Anttila, V. -J. (2018)
    Objectives: To assess the clinical use of panfungal PCR for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. Methods: We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Next we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013 to 2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was nonselected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), comparing the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with culture and microscopy results. Results: There were 48 positive (16%) and 259 negative (84%) PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing IFDs were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results, 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Conclusions: Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. M. Ala-Houhala, Clin Microbiol Infect 2018;24:301 (C) 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kallio, Jouko; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Lehtovuori, Tuomo; Raina, Marko; Suominen, Lasse; Kauppila, Timo (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether competition is an effective method to remind primary oral health care dentists to record diagnoses (RRD). The effectiveness of competition was examined in comparison with financial group bonuses (FGBs) and electronic reminders (ERs) of the electronic health record, together with superior-subordinate or development discussions. Putative differences in the diagnosis recording cultures of Finnish public health care physicians and dentists were studied. This was a retrospective quasi-experimental observational study in which the effects of the interventions on the rate of recording diagnoses were identified using a general linear regression model and proportions of visits with recorded diagnoses. The rate of increase in the recording of diagnoses in dentists was 0.995 +/- 0.273%/month (mean +/- SEM) after the implementation of RRDs and this did not differ from that obtained after starting FGBs (0.919 +/- 0.130%/month) or ERs with superior-subordinate or development discussions (1.562 +/- 0.277%/month) in physicians. As the rates of increase did not differ none of the applied methods seemed to be more effective than the others when trying to influence the behaviour of primary health care clinicians. Altogether, public primary health care physicians were more active than respective primary oral health care dentists to record diagnoses.
  • Jain, Shruti; Nadeem, Nimrah; Ulfenborg, Benjamin; Mäkelä, Maria; Ruma, Shamima Afrin; Terävä, Joonas; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Leivo, Janne; Kristjansdottir, Björg; Pettersson, Kim; Sundfeldt, Karin; Gidwani, Kamlesh (2022)
    Our study reports the discovery and evaluation of nanoparticle aided sensitive assays for glycovariants of MUC16 and MUC1 in a unique collection of paired ovarian cyst fluids and serum samples obtained at or prior to surgery for ovarian carcinoma suspicion. Selected glycovariants and the immunoassays for CA125, CA15-3 and HE4 were compared and validated in 347 cyst fluid and serum samples. Whereas CA125 and CA15-3 performed poorly in cyst fluid to separate carcinoma and controls, four glycovariants including MUC16(MGL), MUC16(STn), MUC1(STn) and MUC1(Tn) provided highly improved separations. In serum, the two STn glycovariants outperformed conventional CA125, CA15-3 and HE4 assays in all subcategories analyzed with main benefits obtained at high specificities and at postmenopausal and early-stage disease. Serum MUC16(STn) performed best at high specificity (90%-99%), but sensitivity was also improved by the other glycovariants and CA15-3. The highly improved specificity, excellent analytical sensitivity and robustness of the nanoparticle assisted glycovariant assays carry great promise for improved identification and early detection of ovarian carcinoma in routine differential diagnostics.
  • Silén, Yasmina; Sipilä, Pyry N; Raevuori, Anu; Mustelin, Linda; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2020)
    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the lifetime prevalence, 10-year incidence, and peak periods of onset for eating disorders as defined by the Fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) among adolescents and young adults born in the 1980s in Finland. METHOD: Virtually all Finnish twins born in 1983-1987 (n = 5,600) were followed prospectively from the age of 12 years. A subsample of participants (n = 1,347) was interviewed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview in their early twenties. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 eating disorders was 17.9% for females and 2.4% for males (pooled across genders, 10.5%). The estimated lifetime prevalences for females and males, respectively, were 6.2 and 0.3% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.4 and 0.16% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 0.6 and 0.3% for binge-eating disorder (BED), 4.5 and 0.16% for other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED), and 4.5 and 1.6% for unspecified feeding or eating disorder (UFED). Among females, the prevalence of OSFED subcategories was as follows: atypical AN 2.1%, purging disorder 1.3%, BED of low frequency/limited duration 0.7%, and BN of low frequency/limited duration 0.4%. The 10-year incidence rate of eating disorders was 1,700 per 100,000 person-years among females (peak age of onset 16-19 years) and 220 per 100,000 person-years among males. DISCUSSION: Eating disorders are a common public health concern among youth and young adults, affecting one in six females and one in 40 males. Adequate screening efforts, prevention, and interventions are urgently needed.
  • Osiewicz, Magdalena A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Bracci, Alessandro; Ahlberg, Jari; Pytko-Polonczyk, Jolanta; Manfredini, Daniele (2019)
    Objectives: The aim is to describe the process of translating the smartphone application BruxApp into Polish within the context of an ongoing multicenter project on awake bruxism (AB) epidemiology. Material and Methods: An ongoing cooperation involving 11 universities is based on the adoption of the smartphone-based EMA protocol to collect real time report of AB behaviors in the natural environment. The English version of BruxApp is adopted as a template for the multi-language translation, according to a step-by-step procedure led by mother-tongue experts in the field. A dedicated web platform for translation (viz., POEditor) is used. The process of translation into Polish is here described as an example. Results: There are two software versions available, viz., BruxApp and BruxApp Research. For both versions, back translation from Polish to English was performed to verify the accuracy of the translation procedure. The validity of the translation has been confirmed by the perfect agreement between the original and back-translated English versions, and the Polish version of BruxApp can thus be introduced in the clinical and research setting to get deeper into the study of AB epidemiology in Poland. Conclusions: As far as clinical studies are concerned, the described strategy to record data can be very useful -patients can acknowledge their habits, monitor changes over time, and implement remedial measures. In the field of research, BruxApp makes possible to collect and store a huge amount of data about the epidemiology of different forms of awake bruxism, both at the individual level and at the population level.
  • Krastl, G.; Weiger, R.; Filippi, A.; Van Waes, H.; Ebeleseder, K.; Ree, M.; Connert, T.; Widbiller, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Dummer, P. M. H.; Galler, K. (2021)
    The pulp plays a key role in the treatment of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) and is strongly associated with the outcome, particularly in severe cases. A correct pulp diagnosis is essential as it forms the basis for developing the appropriate management strategy. However, many TDIs are complex, and their treatment requires a profound knowledge of the physiological and pathological responses of the affected tissues. This comprehensive review will look at the dentine-pulp complex and its interaction with the surrounding tissues following TDIs. The literature up to 2020 was reviewed based on several searches on PubMed and the Cochrane Library using relevant terms. In addition to the recently revised guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology, this article aims to provide background information with a focus on endodontic aspects and to gather evidence on which a clinician can make decisions on the choice of the appropriate endodontic approach for traumatized permanent teeth.
  • Stacchiotti, S.; Miah, A. B.; Frezza, A. M.; Messiou, C.; Morosi, C.; Caraceni, A.; Antonescu, C. R.; Bajpai, J.; Baldini, E.; Bauer, S.; Biagini, R.; Bielack, S.; Blay, J. Y.; Bonvalot, S.; Boukovinas, I.; Bovee, J. V. M. G.; Boye, K.; Brodowicz, T.; Callegaro, D.; De Alava, E.; Deoras-Sutliff, M.; Dufresne, A.; Eriksson, M.; Errani, C.; Fedenko, A.; Ferraresi, V.; Ferrari, A.; Fletcher, C. D. M.; Del Muro, X. Garcia; Gelderblom, H.; Gladdy, R. A.; Gouin, F.; Grignani, G.; Gutkovich, J.; Haas, R.; Hindi, N.; Hohenberger, P.; Huang, P.; Joensuu, H.; Jones, R. L.; Jungels, C.; Kasper, B.; Kawai, A.; Le Cesne, A.; Le Grange, F.; Leithner, A.; Leonard, H.; Pousa, A. Lopez; Broto, J. Martin; Merimsky, O.; Merriam, P.; Miceli, R.; Mir, O.; Molinari, M.; Montemurro, M.; Oldani, G.; Palmerini, E.; Pantaleo, M. A.; Patel, S.; Piperno-Neumann, S.; Raut, C. P.; Ravi, Arumugam Veera; Razak, A. R. A.; Reichardt, P.; Rubin, B. P.; Rutkowski, P.; Safwat, A. A.; Sangalli, C.; Sapisochin, G.; Sbaraglia, M.; Scheipl, S.; Schoffski, P.; Strauss, D.; Strauss, S. J.; Hall, K. Sundby; Tap, W. D.; Trama, A.; Tweddle, A.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.; Van de Sande, M. A. J.; Van Houdt, W.; van Oortmerssen, G.; Wagner, A. J.; Wartenberg, M.; Wood, J.; Zaffaroni, N.; Zimmermann, C.; Casali, P. G.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Gronchi, A. (2021)
    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an ultra-rare, translocated, vascular sarcoma. EHE clinical behavior is variable, ranging from that of a low-grade malignancy to that of a high-grade sarcoma and it is marked by a high propensity for systemic involvement. No active systemic agents are currently approved specifically for EHE, which is typically refractory to the antitumor drugs used in sarcomas. The degree of uncertainty in selecting the most appropriate therapy for EHE patients and the lack of guidelines on the clinical management of the disease make the adoption of new treatments inconsistent across the world, resulting in suboptimal outcomes for many EHE patients. To address the shortcoming, a global consensus meeting was organized in December 2020 under the umbrella of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) involving >80 experts from several disciplines from Europe, North America and Asia, together with a patient representative from the EHE Group, a global, disease-specific patient advocacy group, and Sarcoma Patient EuroNet (SPAEN). The meeting was aimed at defining, by consensus, evidence-based best practices for the optimal approach to primary and metastatic EHE. The consensus achieved during that meeting is the subject of the present publication.
  • Ibounig, Thomas; Simons, T. A. (2016)
    Background and Aims: Quadriceps and patella tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries often resulting from minor trauma typically consisting of an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps muscle. Since rupture of a healthy tendon is very rare, such injuries usually represent the end stage of a long process of chronic tendon degeneration and overuse. This review aims to give an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and recommended treatment protocols as supported by the literature and institutional experience. Material and Methods: A non-systematic review of the current literature on the subject was conducted and reflected against the current practice in our level 1 trauma center. Results and Conclusion: Risk factors for patella and quadriceps tendon rupture include increasing age, repetitive micro-trauma, genetic predisposition, and systemic diseases, as well as certain medications. Diagnosis is based on history and clinical findings, but can be complemented by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Accurate diagnosis at an early stage is of utmost importance since delay in surgical repair of over 3weeks results in significantly poorer outcomes. Operative treatment of acute ruptures yields good clinical results with low complication rates. Use of longitudinal transpatellar drill holes is the operative method of choice in the majority of acute cases. In chronic ruptures, tendon augmentation with auto- or allograft should be considered. Postoperative treatment protocols in the literature range from early mobilization with full weight bearing to cast immobilization for up to 12weeks. Respecting the biology of tendon healing, we advocate the use of a removable knee splint or orthotic with protected full weight bearing and limited passive mobilization for 6weeks.
  • Krastl, G.; Weiger, R.; Filippi, A.; Van Waes, H.; Ebeleseder, K.; Ree, M.; Connert, T.; Widbiller, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Dummer, P. M. H.; Galler, K. (2021)
    This position statement represents a consensus of an expert committee convened by the European Society of Endodontology (ESE) on the endodontic management of traumatized permanent teeth. A recent comprehensive review with detailed background information provides the basis for this position statement (Krastl et al. 2021, International Endodontic Journal, ). The statement is based on current scienti?c evidence as well as the expertise of the committee. Complementing the recently revised guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology, this position statement aims to provide clinical guidance for the choice of the appropriate endodontic approach for traumatized permanent teeth. Given the dynamic nature of research in this area, this position statement will be updated at appropriate intervals.
  • Mäkitie, Antti A.; Almangush, Alhadi; Youssef, Omar; Metsälä, Markus; Silen, Suvi; Nixon, Iain J.; Haigentz, Missak; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Saba, Nabil F.; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Head and neck cancer (HNC) comprises a heterogeneous group of upper aerodigestive tract malignant neoplasms, the most frequent of which is squamous cell carcinoma. HNC forms the eighth most common cancer type and the incidence is increasing. However, survival has improved only moderately during the past decades. Currently, early diagnosis remains the mainstay for improving treatment outcomes in this patient population. Unfortunately, screening methods to allow early detection of HNC are not yet established. Therefore, many cases are still diagnosed at advanced stage, compromising outcomes. Exhaled breath analysis (EBA) is a diagnostic tool that has been recently introduced for many cancers. Breath analysis is non-invasive, cost-effective, time-saving, and can potentially be applied for cancer screening. Here, we provide a summary of the accumulated evidence on the feasibility of EBA in the diagnosis of HNC.
  • Braicu, Elena Ioana; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Schmitt, Wolfgang D.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Heiskanen, Laura; Pöhö, Päivi; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Frezza, Christian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Hilvo, Mika (2017)
    Ovarian cancer is a very severe type of disease with poor prognosis. Treatment of ovarian cancer is challenging because of the lack of tests for early detection and effective therapeutic targets. Thus, new biomarkers are needed for both diagnostics and better understanding of the cellular processes of the disease. Small molecules, consisting of metabolites or lipids, have shown emerging potential for ovarian cancer diagnostics. Here we performed comprehensive lipidomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue samples from high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients to find lipids that were altered due to cancer and also associated with progression of the disease. Ovarian cancer patients exhibited an overall reduction of most lipid classes in their serum as compared to a control group. Despite the overall reduction, there were also specific lipids showing elevation, and especially alterations in ceramide and triacylglycerol lipid species were dependent on their fatty acyl side chain composition. Several lipids showed progressive alterations in patients with more advanced disease and poorer overall survival, and outperformed CA-125 as prognostic markers. The abundance of many serum lipids correlated with their abundance in tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation of serum lipids with 3-hydroxybutyric acid, suggesting an association between decreased lipid levels and fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, here we present a comprehensive analysis of lipid metabolism alterations in ovarian cancer patients, with clinical implications.