Browsing by Subject "diameter"

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  • Kilkki, Pekka; Varmola, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Kilkki, Pekka; Saramäki, Matti; Varmola, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)
  • Hari, Jyrki; Kanninen, Markku; Hari, Pertti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)
  • Haapanen, Tapani; Hari, Pertti; Kellomäki, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Luoma, Ville (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    There develops heartwood in the stems of the Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) that differs by its natural characteristics from the other sections of the wood material in the pine stem. Pine heartwood is natural-ly decay resistant and it can be used in conditions where the normal wood products can’t be used. The aim of this study was to develop a method, which can be used for predicting the diameter and volume of heartwood. There is a need for this kind of method, because it still is not possible to estimate the amount of heartwood in a standing tree without damaging the tree itself. The variables measured from single trees describing the diameter of the heartwood on eight relative heights were analysed by using linear regression. When the best explanatory variables were selected, a mixed linear model was created for each of the relative heights. The mixed linear models could also be used for predicting the diameter of pine heartwood at those relative heights. With the help of the pre-dicted diameters a taper curve could be created for the heartwood. The pine heartwood taper curve describes the tapering of the heartwood as function of the tree height. By integrating the taper curve, it was also possible to predict the total volume of the heartwood in a single tree. The models that used tree diameter at breast height and the length of the tree as explanatory variables were able to explain the variation of heartwood diameter on relative heights between 2,5 % and 70 % with coefficient of determination ranging from 0,84 to 0,95 and also recorded a relative RMSE from 15 % to 35 %. Models for relative heights of 85 % and 95 % were not as good as the others (R2-values 0,65 and 0,06 as well as RMSE-values of 74 % and 444 %). Despite not succeeding on all the relative heights, the most important thing is that the models worked best on that area of the stem where most of the heart-wood is located. The volume predictions for single trees based on the heartwood diameter models rec-orded relative RMSE of 35 % and bias of -5 %. Based on the results of the study it shows that exact prediction of pine heartwood diameter is much easier in the base of the stem than in the top part of it. A great deal of variation could be observed whether there was heartwood or not in the top parts of the stem. The volume of heartwood can already be estimated for single trees, but the amount of heartwood can be predicted also in larger scale, such as forest stands. But to get more accurate results in the future, there is a need for more detailed and com-prehensive research data, which would help to determine the still unknown parts of the behaviour of pine heartwood.
  • Lahtinen, Aatos (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
    A standard tree tapers off monotonically upwards. An algorithm is presented for constructing a monotony preserving taper curve using a quadratic spline. It is suggested that the resultant taper curve is better than the usual cubic spline.
  • Uusitalo, Jori (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    To enhance the utilization of the wood, the sawmills are forced to place more emphasis on planning to master the whole production chain from the forest to the end product. One significant obstacle to integrating the forest-sawmill-market production chain is the lack of appropriate information about forest stands. Since the wood procurement point of view in forest planning systems has been almost totally disregarded there has been a great need to develop an easy and efficient pre-harvest measurement method, allowing separate measurement of stands prior to harvesting. The main purpose of this study was to develop a measurement method for pine stands which forest managers could use in describing the properties of the standing trees for sawing production planning. Study materials were collected from ten Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris) located in North Häme and South Pohjanmaa, in southern Finland. The data comprise test sawing data on 314 pine stems, dbh and height measures of all trees and measures of the quality parameters of pine sawlog stems in all ten study stands as well as the locations of all trees in six stands. The study was divided into four sub-studies which deal with pine quality prediction, construction of diameter and dead branch height distributions, sampling designs and applying height and crown height models. The final proposal for the pre-harvest measurement method is a synthesis of the individual sub-studies. Quality analysis resulted in choosing dbh, distance from stump height to the first dead branch (dead branch height), crown height and tree height as the most appropriate quality characteristics of Scots pine. Dbh and dead branch height are measured from each pine sample tree while height and crown height are derived from dbh measures by aid of mixed height and crown height models. Pine and spruce diameter distribution as well as dead branch height distribution are most effectively predicted by the kernel function. Roughly 25 sample trees seems to be appropriate in pure pine stands. In mixed stands the number of sample trees needs to be increased in proportion to the intensity of pines in order to attain the same level of accuracy.
  • Tornberg, S. V.; Kilpeläinen, T. P.; Järvinen, P.; Visapää, H.; Järvinen , R.; Taari, K.; Nisén, H. (2018)
    Background and Aims: To evaluate simple tumor characteristics (renal tumor diameter and parenchymal invasion depth) compared with more complex classifications, that is, Renal Tumor Invasion Index (RTII) and Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical classification, in predicting the type of nephrectomy (radical vs partial) performed. Material and Methods: A total of 915 patients who had undergone either partial nephrectomy (n=388, 42%) or radical nephrectomy (n=527, 58%) were identified from the Helsinki University Hospital kidney tumor database between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. Tumor maximum diameter and depth of invasion into the parenchyma were estimated from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging images and compared with Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical and Renal Tumor Invasion Index. Logistic regression and receiver operating curves were used to compare the parameters at predicting the type of nephrectomy. Results and conclusion: All the anatomical variables of receiver operating curve/area under the curve analyses were significant predictors for the type of nephrectomy. Parenchymal invasion (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93), RTII (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93), and diameter (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) performed significantly better than Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical classification (area under the curve 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.89). In multivariable analysis, invasion depth was the best predictor of nephrectomy type (percentage correct, 85.6%). Addition of one anatomic parameter into the model of non-anatomical cofactors improved the accuracy of the model significantly, but the addition of more parameters did not. Parenchymal invasion depth and tumor diameter are the most accurate anatomical features for predicting the nephrectomy type. All potential anatomical classification systems should be tested against these two simple characteristics.
  • Kilkki, Pekka; Varmola, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Henttonen, Helena (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
    Results for Scots pine and Norway spruce are discussed from a number of studies mainly in S. Finland by different authors. From autocorrelation and cross correlation analyses it is concluded that in Scots pine the most important factors were the effective temperature sum for the latter part of the growing season and, especially on arid sites, the precipitation sum during May-July; in Norway spruce the most important factor was the effective temperature sum of the growing season, although warm periods in the latter parts of the previous summer had a negative effect on indices.
  • Kilkki, Pekka; Päivinen, Risto (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)