Browsing by Subject "digitalization"

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  • Taar, J.; Koppel, Kristi; Palojoki, Päivi; Rendahl, J.; Åbacka, G. (IATED Academy, 2022)
    16th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
  • Heino, Waltteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis analyzes the digitalization policy of the Finnish government. The main attempt is to, firstly, identify the central ideas and ideologies behind the approach of the Finnish government toward societal digitalization. Secondly, the attempt is to analyze them from the perspective of the traditional ideas and ideologies of the Nordic welfare state. The underlining research question is, whether the possible approach of the Finnish government toward digitalization is compatible with the traditional ideas and ideologies of the Nordic welfare state. The method in this thesis is a combination of qualitative content analysis and historical research methods. Qualitative content analysis with a focus on an analysis of ideologies is used for analyzing primary sources. A historical perspective is used in an attempt to locate contemporary societal digitalization on a trajectory of societal transformations in post-industrial capitalist states, as well as when presenting the Nordic welfare state model. Overall, the approach of the Finnish government appears largely in line with traditional Nordic welfare state values, such as equality and inclusion. However, one of the main findings of this thesis is that the approach of the Finnish government toward digitalization is a largely apolitical and instrumentalized one. Although possible political, economic and social implications of digitalization are identified, the government appears more concerned with providing all citizens equal access to digitalization than facilitating a public discussion on the nature, form or scope of the phenomenon. While such a consensual approach may be analyzed from the perspective of the Nordic culture of conformity, one of the main arguments of this thesis is that a politicized approach to digitalization could allow for a fruitful discussion on its eventual effects on society.
  • Peltola, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this thesis the existence of Long Tail effect in Finnish music industry is studied. The Long Tail effect is defined as the expansion of music supply to include a higher number of niche products instead of focusing on fewer ‘superstar’ hits. Emergency of ‘superstar’ hits has been the trend in entertainment industry since the invention of mass media and music recording, but new technological innovations can start to challenge it. The source of the Long Tail effect is in newer technological innovations, such as online distribution services and digital production tools, which lower the cost of producing music and distributing it to customers. Previously the costs of production and distribution limited the amount of producers that entered the market, but with new technologies the barrier of entry is lower than ever. This allows higher number of producers to produce music and bring it to the market, thus expanding the variety of supply. The new products won’t take hits’ place on the top of the charts, but they can take bigger share of the market than before. The goal of this thesis is to study whether the Long Tail effect exists in Finnish music market or not. To do this the record companies are assumed to produce commercial and creative output, and production functions for both are defined. Then two hypotheses are formed regarding these outputs and digitalization. First hypothesis states that if the Long Tail effect exists, the creative output is higher for firms that have adapted to digitalization. Second hypothesis is that if the Long Tail effect exist, the commercial output is not affected by the adaption to digitalization. To test the hypotheses, empirical data for 52 record companies is collected and used. Business register data is used to measure companies commercial output, labor input and capital inputs. National Library legal deposit database is used to measure creative output and intangible capital input. A measurement for digitalization is created by observing the availability of companies’ releases in YouTube and Spotify. Commercial output is estimated from the empirical data with OLS regression model and creative output is estimated with Negative Binomial regression model. The significance of digitalization is tested for both outputs. The results for these estimations show that in case of commercial output, none of digitalization variables used in the estimation affects the output. This is in line with the hypothesis regarding commercial output, which supports the existence of Long Tail effect. In case of creative output, all digitalization variables have significant and positive effect on the output. This is in line with the hypothesis regarding creative output, which supports the existence of Long Tail effect. Similar estimations are also done for second dataset, where three largest companies are excluded as potential outliers. The results for this dataset are the same. Digitalization doesn’t affect commercial output, but it increases the creative output. Conclusions from the results of this thesis are that they support the existence of Long Tail effect in Finnish music market. The two hypotheses that support the Long Tail effect were that digitalization doesn’t affect the commercial output and digitalization increases the creative output, and the results show that both hypotheses are true. For robustness the estimation was done for a second dataset where three largest companies were excluded as potential outliers, and results from this estimation also support the existence of Long Tail effect.
  • Lahti, Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Introduction: The importance of good nutrition is not always recognized among athletes and their coaches. Young athletes need professional guidance, so they can learn how to execute dietary practices that support their athletic performance and overall well-being. The growing body of scientific evidence on performance enhancing nutrition and its practical applications challenges the Finnish field of competitive sports to invest in professional nutrition coaching among athletes. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to examine, if eating habits of young endurance athletes can be influenced by a nutrition intervention carried out using a mobile application (MealLoggerTM) with an inbuilt nutrition program. We also examined, whether the motivation towards sports and nutrition and the perceived competence for following a certain diet are related to athletes’ adherence to the nutrition program and to the measured changes in food intake. Materials and methods: 17 young individual endurance athletes followed through a four-week nutrition intervention by keeping a photo food journal and logging their food servings with the smart phone application MealLoggerTM. A common application inbuilt nutrition program with servings goals for different food groups was designed in advance and implemented after a group education session on optimal sports nutrition. During the intervention period, the participants received real-time feedback from the mobile application on their adherence to the nutrition program. In addition, individualized meal photo comments were provided by a nutritionist three times a week. The athletes also received common weekly motivational messages through the application. Food intake was measured at baseline, after the intervention and 8-weeks after the intervention using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The motivation and perceived competence were assessed with Self-Determination theory (SDT) questionnaires. The adherence to the nutrition program was assessed by comparing the logged food servings to the defined nutrition goals. Results: Twelve participants (71%) completed the post-intervention questionnaires. No statistically significant changes in consumption of food groups included in the nutrition program were detected. The consumption of berries increased 2,36 times per week (SD 4,07 p=0,049). The consumption of skimmed milk decreased 3,00 times per week (SD 4,28, p=0,042) and the consumption of milk/alternatives in total decreased 3,67 times per week (SD 5,82, p=0,034). MealLoggerTM data was retrieved from 15 participants. Most of the participants (n=8) with high adherence (H) achieved at least 3 out of 4 goals on every week. Most participants (n=7) with low adherence (L) failed to achieve any of the nutrition goals on any of the four weeks. No statistically significant differences in motivation or perceived competence were found between the H and L. The overall engagement to the mobile application was lower in L compared to H. The participants in L were mostly female, significantly younger and more likely to be living with a guardian, responsible for the acquisition and preparation of food. Discussion: Despite detecting only small dietary improvements, the application showed good feasibility and acceptability among the high adherence participants. In the future, to provide more effective nutrition coaching an appropriate baseline assessment should be included. The goals of the nutrition program should be adjusted according to the athletes’ individual needs. More democratic coaching styles, with parental involvement should be explored in order to increase engagement and adherence of young athletes.
  • Valoppi, Fabio; Agustin, Melissa; Abik, Felix; Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Sithole, Jaison; Bhattarai, Mamata; Varis, Jutta Johanna; Arzami, Anis; Pulkkinen, Elli Eva; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2021)
    While the world population is steadily increasing, the capacity of Earth to renew its resources is continuously declining. Consequently, the bioresources required for food production are diminishing and new approaches are needed to feed the current and future global population. In the last decades, scientists have developed novel strategies to reduce food loss and waste, improve food production, and find new ingredients, design and build new food structures, and introduce digitalization in the food system. In this work, we provide a general overview on circular economy, alternative technologies for food production such as cellular agriculture, and new sources of ingredients like microalgae, insects, and wood-derived fibers. We present a summary of the whole process of food design using creative problem-solving that fosters food innovation, and digitalization in the food sector such as artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality, and blockchain technology. Finally, we briefly discuss the effect of COVID-19 on the food system. This review has been written for a broad audience, covering a wide spectrum and giving insights on the most recent advances in the food science and technology area, presenting examples from both academic and industrial sides, in terms of concepts, technologies, and tools which will possibly help the world to achieve food security in the next 30 years.
  • Kouhia, Anna (2020)
    Over the past twenty years, hobby crafting has experienced a revival of interest, as people have started to seek new ways to engage with crafts as creative leisure in an increasingly digital world. Along the way, emerging, digital technologies have provided new tools and ways to engage in hobby crafting. Indeed, today's hobby crafts are frequently concerned with material mediated via the internet and accomplished with the aid of software, which also affects our understanding of maker identities in online communities. This article argues that digitalization has not only revolutionized hobbyist craft making with new tools and technologies, but has also paved new ways for practising creative skills, which has had a significant impact on makers' engagements with craft materials, objects and communities of practices. This is demonstrated through netnographic explorations on Facebook's leisure craft community where digital material practices are increasingly prevalent in hobbyists' everyday life. As a conclusion, the article speculates on visions of the future of hobby crafts and its relevance as a leisure pursuit.
  • Mustonen, Virpi; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Kai (2017)
    The present study analyses data collected from a series of developmental seminars in a fingerprint laboratory during which fingerprint examiners jointly discussed and developed their work processes, analytical methods, decision-making criteria and rules of documentation. The analysed organizational development took place in the context of moving from paper to digital documentation and from individually to collectively mastered work process. The fingerprint examiners who participated in the seminar series jointly reflected on their existing professional rules and operational practices, improvement of which was called for to facilitate organizational learning. The analysed data set consists of 10 audio-recorded developmental seminars with written documents as well as notes and decisions that were made during the seminar. The results of the study will reveal the complex ways in which the fingerprint examiners share their practical professional knowledge and collectively create decision-making criteria and rules of investigative practices so as to adapt their work practices to the changing quality requirements, evolving international standards and digitalization of research documentation.
  • Kurenlahti, Mikko Sakari; Salonen, Arto O. (2018)
    Due to the global challenges that are posed by the Anthropocene and the academic focus on the fragmented state of modernity, we extend an invitation for shared dialogue on the all-pervading nature of consumerism as the seemingly problematic ethos of Western consumer culture. To this end, we outline a way to approach consumerism as an implicit religion, theorized as having adopted functionalities related to explicitly faith-based traditions within secular settings. We suggest that a similar kind of holistic and multidimensional approach might be of great benefit in the implementation of sustainability, as this would allow, e.g., (i) a more holistic analysis of the all-pervading nature of consumerism; (ii) acknowledgement of the functional diversity of the phenomenon; (iii) recognition of the shallowness of the critique of consumerism as a way of life; and, (iv) shared dialogue across a spectrum of academic perspectives under a unified model. This approach problematizes standard interpretations of consumerism as being about the promotion of the individual against the collective and as leading to a general sense of purposelessness. The perspective of religion reveals how patterns of consumption become illuminated with meaning and connected to a shared way for individuals to articulate a sense of purpose in contemporary contexts.
  • Paldanius, Susanna; Seilo, Noora; Kunttu, Kristina; Autio, Reija; Kaila, Minna (2020)
    Background: Health questionnaires and health checks are an established part of preventive health care services in Finland. However, only very limited research of these has been conducted. The Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS) provides primary health care services to all bachelor's and master's degree university students (approximately 134,500 students) in Finland. FSHS's statutory health examination process of university entrants includes an electronic health questionnaire (eHQ) and, based on the students' eHQ responses, a subsequent health check if necessary. To our knowledge, no previous studies have been published on the use of questionnaires for screening students for general health checks. Objective: The general aim of the study is to evaluate the health examination process of university entrants. The objectives are to determine how students' self-reported health in the eHQ and participation in the health examination process are associated with graduation, mental health problems, and the use of student health care services. Methods: This is an ongoing, nationwide, retrospective, register-based cohort study with a 6-year follow-up. The study population is the cohort of university entrants (N=15,723) from the 2011-2012 academic year. These students were sent the eHQ, which consisted of 26 questions about health, health habits, social relations, and studying. Based on the eHQ responses, students were referred to one of the following interventions: (1) a health check, (2) an appointment other than a health check (eg, physiotherapy), or (3) electronic feedback to support a healthy lifestyle, when the other interventions were not necessary. Multiple comparisons will be made within these groups using logistic regression. The primary outcome variables are graduation, having a mental health problem, and attending a health check. The use of FSHS health care services will be studied with the cluster analysis method. The data have been obtained from three nationwide registers: the eHQ register, the medical records of FSHS, and the Higher education achievement register. The data have been linked using personal identity codes. Results: As of August 2019, the data collection and processing are complete and the statistical analyses are in progress. Preliminary results are expected in autumn 2019. Further publications are expected in 2020, and two PhD theses are expected to be completed by the end of 2022. Conclusions: Studying practical procedures in primary health care is highly important for resource allocation and the development of evidence-based processes. This study will be the first to assess the usage of a health questionnaire in screening students for health checks. The findings of this study will contribute to the field of preventive health care. The main practical implication is the development of the FSHS's health examination process. We hypothesize that participation in the health examination process enhances academic achievement and the detection of university students' mental health problems early on in their studies.
  • Kullström, Niklas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    My thesis is about photography and its aesthetics in a world of digitized culture. The main hypothesis is that there is an ongoing and fundamental change in the way photographs and images are being produced, distributed and consumed in society, resulting in a new kind of aesthetics, that did not previously exist in photography. I argue that digital photography should be seen as part of a wider range of digital imaging, as a separate field from traditional analogue photography. My observation is on all different aspects of photographic practice: artistic, technical and social; on the different aspects of photographic expression in different artistic, social and scientific practices (both analogue and digital). Fundamental issues are how the digital divide changes our perception, the way we work and how we process and understand images. I complement academic thought with empirical observations derived from my background as a practicing media-artist and film- and photography professional with almost two decades experience from the field. I start by introducing a basic history of photography, in order to place the practice in a historicaly and technologically determined context, followed by defining what a photograph is in an analogue and digital sense. The main discussion looks at aesthetic concepts related to photography and imaging. This is mainly done by deconstructing formal aspects of the image/photograph and examining the photographs function as a representation of reality and truth. To support my thoughts and to argue against conflicting theories, I mainly rely on writings and thoughts by authors like Bruce Wands, Vilém Flusser, Jerry L. Thompson, Martin Hand and Charlie Gere. From more classic writers on photographic theory I use Susan Sontag, Walter Benjamin, Roland Barthes, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Roger Scruton. The aim is to create a comprehensive image of the field of thought, both on a contemporary and historical axis, and through this build a solid base for understanding and argumentation. I conclude that we are already living in the future, and that the reality we know will change with an ever-increasing pace, soon taking the step over to augmented and virtual reality. Current and future image makers should consider in depth what it really means to create images in a digital universe. A new way of seeing digitally is crucial for future understanding of the changing digital landscape of images.
  • Puohiniemi, Martti; Verkasalo, Markku (2020)
    Finland changed from an industrial society to an information society in 1991-2015. Due to economic fluctuations, diffusion of digitalization and media turbulence the period changed Finnish society a lot. We studied the impact of this on basic human values with Schwartz's approach, and concentrated on zeitgeist effects. We developed a definition of zeitgeist effects and a set of hypotheses, based on the literature, to study how major societal changes influence values. Also, we found theoretical similarities between value consensus, democratization and the fragmentation of media use that we analyzed. Data (N = 7.172) were collected in five waves. We measured changes in the ten values, and used the two value dimensions based on factor analysis, also. Moreover, we used the Schwartz value map to illustrate value changes in social groups. The combination of the latter two methods offer a parsimonious way to get an overview of value change over a longer period of time, but single values suit better for the analysis of short-term changes. Our hypotheses received support regarding overall change that is small, as well as regarding zeitgeist effects in the 1990s, the disappearance of them in the new millennium, and how the values of social groups started to change in different directions in the era of social media. The above changes including the disappearance of zeitgeist effects in the new millennium were linked to societal events, e.g. fragmentation of media use. Moreover, we found that in a complex society zeitgeist effects might mirror simultaneous impact of several events.