Browsing by Subject "dioecy"

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  • Zhang, Sheng; Tang, Duoteng; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    Dioecious trees have evolved sex-specific adaptation strategies to cope with inorganic phosphorus (Pi) limitation. Yet, little is known about the effects of Pi limitation on plant metabolism, particularly in dioecious woody plants. To identify potential gender-specific metabolites appearing in response to Pi limitation in poplars, we studied the metabolic and ionomic responses in the roots and leaves of Populus cathayana Rehd males and females exposed to a 60-day period of Pi deficiency. Besides significant decreases in phosphorus contents in both Pi-deficient roots and leaves, the calcium level decreased significantly and the sulfur content increased significantly in Pi-deficient male roots, while the zinc and ferrum contents increased significantly in Pi-deficient female roots. Inorganic P deficiency caused a smaller change in the abscisic acid content, but a significant increase in the jasmonic acid content was detected in both leaves and roots. Salicylic acid significantly decreased under Pi deficiency in male leaves and female roots. Changes were found in phospholipids and phosphorylated metabolites (e.g., fructose-6-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, phosphoric acid and inositol-1-phosphate) in roots and leaves. Both P. cathayana males and females relied on inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent but not on Pi-dependent glycolysis under Pi-deficient conditions. Sex-specific metabolites in leaves were primarily in the category of primary metabolites (e.g., amino acids), while in roots primarily in the category of secondary metabolites (e.g., organic acids) and sugars. The metabolome analysis revealed that sexually different pathways occurred mainly in amino acid metabolism, and the tissue-related differences were in the shikimate pathway and glycolysis. We observed changes in carbon flow, reduced root biomass and increased amino acid contents in P. cathayana males but not in females, which indicated that males have adopted an energy-saving strategy to adapt to Pi deficiency. Thus, this study provides new insights into sex-specific metabolic responses to Pi deficiency.
  • Liu, Miao; Bi, Jingwen; Liu, Xiucheng; Kang, Jieyu; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    Although increasing attention has been paid to the relationships between heavy metal and nitrogen (N) availability, the mechanism underlying adaptation to cadmium (Cd) stress in dioecious plants has been largely overlooked. This study examined Cd accumulation, translocation and allocation among tissues and cellular compartments in Populus cathayana Rehder females and males. Both leaf Cd accumulation and root-to-shoot Cd translocation were significantly greater in females than in males under a normal N supply, but they were reduced in females and enhanced in males under N deficiency. The genes related to Cd uptake and translocation, HMA2, YSL2 and ZIP2, were strongly induced by Cd stress in female roots and in males under a normal N supply. Cadmium largely accumulated in the leaf blades of females and in the leaf veins of males under a normal N supply, while the contrary was true under N deficiency. Furthermore, Cd was mainly distributed in the leaf epidermis and spongy tissues of males, and in the leaf palisade tissues of females. Nitrogen deficiency increased Cd allocation to the spongy tissues of female leaves and to the palisade tissues of males. In roots, Cd was preferentially distributed to the epidermis and cortices in both sexes, and also to the vascular tissues of females under a normal N supply but not under N deficiency. These results suggested that males possess better Cd tolerance compared with females, even under N deficiency, which is associated with their reduced root-to-shoot Cd translocation, specific Cd distribution in organic and/or cellular compartments, and enhanced antioxidation and ion homeostasis. Our study also provides new insights into engineering woody plants for phytoremediation.
  • Xia, Zhichao; He, Yue; Yu, Lei; Lv, Rubing; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    Soil phosphorus (P) availability and its distribution influence plant growth and productivity, but how they affect the growth dynamics and sex-specific P acquisition strategies of dioecious plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the impact of soil P availability and its distribution on dioecious Populus cathayana was characterized. P. cathayana males and females were grown under three levels of P supply, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous P distribution. Females had a greater total root length, specific root length (SRL), biomass and foliar P concentration under high P supply. Under P deficiency, males had a smaller root system than females but a greater exudation of soil acid phosphatase, and a higher colonization rate and arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal biomass, suggesting a better capacity to mine P and a stronger association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to forage P. Heterogeneous P distribution enhanced growth and root length density (RLD) in females. Female root proliferation in P-rich patches was related to increased foliar P assimilation. Localized P application for increasing P availability did not enhance the biomass accumulation and the morphological plasticity of roots in males, but it raised hyphal biomass. The findings herein indicate that sex-specific strategies in P acquisition relate to root morphology, root exudation and mycorrhizal symbioses, and they may contribute to sex-specific resource utilization patterns and niche segregation.