Browsing by Subject "dioxins"

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  • Pihlajamäki, Mia-Elina; Asikainen, Arja; Ignatius, Suvi; Haapasaari, Päivi; Tuomisto, Jouni (2019)
    Using fish resources for food supply in a sustainable and efficient way requires an examination of the feasibility of prioritising the use of forage species. The present paper deals with the issue from the consumer perspective. Using Baltic herring as a case study, the role of sociodemographic determinants, the drivers and barriers of Baltic herring consumption are investigated in four Baltic Sea countries, based on an internet survey. The drivers and barriers of Baltic herring consumption are compared to those relating to Baltic salmon, to identify the main differences in consumer perceptions on species that are primarily used as feed and food. The present paper concludes that prioritising forage species primarily for human consumption calls for proactive catch use governance, which (1) acknowledges the species- and country-specific intricacies of forage fish consumption, (2) improves the availability of safe-to-eat fish on the market, and 3) provides consumers with sufficient information on the species (e.g., the type of herring and its origin), the sustainability of the fisheries, and the related health risks and benefits.
  • Haapasaari, Paivi; Ignatius, Suvi; Pihlajamaki, Mia; Sarkki, Simo; Tuomisto, Jouni; Delaney, Alyne (2019)
    This article focuses on the dioxin problem of Baltic herring and salmon fisheries and its governance that is based on natural scientific knowledge. The dioxin problem weakens the perceived quality of Baltic salmon and herring as food and affects the way the catches can be used. This influences negatively the fishing livelihood, the coastal culture, and the availability of the fish for consumers. We explored how the governance of the dioxin problem could be improved, to better address its socio-economic and cultural implications. We identified four main actions: (1) adopt environmental, economic and social sustainability, and food security and safety as shared principles between the environmental, food safety/public health, and fisheries policies, (2) establish collaboration between the environmental, public health, and fisheries sectors at the regional level, (3) enhance interaction around the dioxin problem within the fisheries sector, and (4) support the participation of the Baltic fisheries stakeholders in the EU-level food safety governance. Viewing dioxins in fish not only as a natural scientific problem but as a multidimensional one would enable a wider toolbox of governing instruments to be developed to better address the different dimensions. This would support steps towards collaborative governance and a food system approach.
  • Viluksela, Matti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2019)
    Dioxins are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants whose background levels are still reason for concern. There is mounting evidence from both epidemiological and experimental studies that paternal exposure to the most potent congener of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), can lower the male/female ratio of offspring. Moreover, in laboratory rodents and zebrafish, TCDD exposure of parent animals has been reported to result in reduced reproductive performance along with other adverse effects in subsequent generations, foremost through the paternal but also via the maternal germline. These impacts have been accompanied by epigenetic alterations in placenta and/or sperm cells, including changes in methylation patterns of imprinted genes. Here, we review recent key studies in this field with an attempt to provide an up-to-date picture of the present state of knowledge to the reader. These studies provide biological plausibility for the potential of dioxin exposure at a critical time-window to induce epigenetic alterations across multiple generations and the significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in mediating these effects. Currently available data do not allow to accurately estimate the human health implications of these findings, although epidemiological evidence on lowered male/female ratio suggests that this effect may take place at realistic human exposure levels.
  • Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Viluksela, Matti (2020)
    Dioxins and related compounds are common environmental contaminants. Although their levels have gone down, they are still of concern, in particular regarding developmental toxicity. The adverse effects of these compounds are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), whose canonical signaling pathway has been unveiled in fair detail. The alternative (non-genomic) pathways are much more obscure. AHR has also proven to be a master regulator of numerous physiological phenomena, which has led to the search of selective AHR modulators with low toxicity. Papers of this Special Issue address the developmental toxicity of dioxins and related compounds as well as selective modulators of AHR and both its canonical and alternative signaling pathways. In addition, new optical and stereoscopic methods for the detection of dioxins are presented. As a whole, this Special Issue provides an up-to-date view on a wide variety of aspects related to dioxin toxicity mechanisms from both original research articles and reviews.