Browsing by Subject "disease modeling"

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  • Chang, Mingyang; Bogacheva, Mariia S.; Lou, Yan-Ru (2021)
    The current organoid culture systems allow pluripotent and adult stem cells to self-organize to form three-dimensional (3D) structures that provide a faithful recapitulation of the architecture and function of in vivo organs. In particular, human pluripotent stem cell-derived liver organoids (PSC-LOs) can be used in regenerative medicine and preclinical applications, such as disease modeling and drug discovery. New bioengineering tools, such as microfluidics, biomaterial scaffolds, and 3D bioprinting, are combined with organoid technologies to increase the efficiency of hepatic differentiation and enhance the functional maturity of human PSC-LOs by precise control of cellular microenvironment. Long-term stabilization of hepatocellular functions of in vitro liver organoids requires the combination of hepatic endodermal, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells. To improve the biological function and scalability of human PSC-LOs, bioengineering methods have been used to identify diverse and zonal hepatocyte populations in liver organoids for capturing heterogeneous pathologies. Therefore, constructing engineered liver organoids generated from human PSCs will be an extremely versatile tool in in vitro disease models and regenerative medicine in future. In this review, we aim to discuss the recent advances in bioengineering technologies in liver organoid culture systems that provide a timely and necessary study to model disease pathology and support drug discovery in vitro and to generate cell therapy products for transplantation.
  • Lukander, Volter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Spinal muscular atrophy of Jokela type (SMAJ) is an autosomal dominant motor-neuron disease caused by a missense mutation c.197G>T, p.G66V in the gene CHCHD10. Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein 10 (CHCHD10) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein located in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria with an unknown exact function and disease-causing mechanism. In this project, the overarching aim was to correct a heterozygous SMAJ-causing mutation in patient myoblast cells with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. The goal was to create a genetically identical, isogenic, cell line to study only the effects of the mutation on cellular phenotype in vitro. Human myoblast cells isolated from patient biopsies provide the most pertinent experimental model to study neuromuscular atrophy-associated mutations in their natural genomic environment. More specific aims included genome editing optimization with myoblast cells, since it is not as widely conducted as with some other cell types, such as iPSCs. CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and associated donor template were used to induce homology-directed repair (HDR) in the genome of patient-derived myoblast cells and correct the mutation. After optimization of electroporation conditions for myoblast cells, guide RNAs were designed and transfected into patient myoblasts. Clonal cell lines were made by utilizing techniques such as fluorescence adjusted cell sorting (FACS) and manual colony picking. The success and precision of genome editing were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, comparing the performance of the different guide RNAs with restriction enzyme analysis and Synthego ICE CRISPR web tool, and screening regions of potential off-target genome editing. A genome-edited myoblast cell line with the CHCHD10 c.197G>T mutation corrected, was successfully generated to provide an isogenic control for the patient myoblast cell line. Optimization of myoblast electroporation was successful and conditions used proved to be effective. Clonal cell line creation proved to be challenging with myoblast cells and work is still needed to improve the viability of single-cell clones after FACS. Nevertheless, the advances taken here regarding myoblast genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 offer a fertile avenue for future research of myoblasts genome manipulation, myogenic disorders, and the role of CHCHD10 in skeletal muscle and SMAJ. Comparing the CHCHD10 protein level and mRNA expression between patient cells, corrected myoblasts, and differentiated myotubes is an area of future research. Future work also includes measuring the mitochondrial integrated stress response in both cell lines and co-culturing myotubes and iPSC derived motor neurons to study the effects of p.G66V on neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation.
  • Lithovius, Väinö; Otonkoski, Timo (2022)
    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a severe inherited neonatal disorder characterized by inappropriate insulin secretion caused by genetic defects of the pancreatic beta cells. Several open questions remain in CHI research, such as the optimal treatment for the most common type of CHI, caused by mutations in the genes encoding ATP-sensitive potassium channels, and the molecular mechanisms of newly identified CHI genes. Answering these questions requires robust preclinical models, particularly since primary patient material is extremely scarce and accurate animal models are not available. In this short review, we explain why pluripotent stem cell derived islets present an attractive solution to these issues and outline the current progress in stem-cell based modeling of CHI. Stem cell derived islets enable the study of molecular mechanisms of CHI and the discovery of novel antihypoglycemic drugs, while also providing a valuable model to study the biology of variable functional states of beta cells.