Browsing by Subject "distance"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Goel, Rahul; Goodman, Anna; Aldred, Rachel; Nakamura, Ryota; Tatah, Lambed; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; de Sa, Thiago Herick; Tiwari, Geetam; de Nazelle, Audrey; Tainio, Marko; Buehler, Ralph; Götschi, Thomas; Woodcock, James (Informa UK Limited, 2022)
    Transport Reviews, 42:1, 58-81
    International comparisons of cycling behaviour have typically been limited to high-income countries and often limited to the prevalence of cycling, with lack of discussions on demographic and trip characteristics. We used a combination of city, regional, and national travel surveys from 17 countries across the six continents, ranging from years 2009 through 2019. We present a descriptive analysis of cycling behaviour including level of cycling, trip purpose and distance, and user demographics, at the city-level for 35 major cities (>1 million population) and in urbanised areas nationwide for 11 countries. The Netherlands, Japan and Germany are among the highest cycling countries and their cities among the highest cycling cities. In cities and countries with high cycling levels, cycling rates tend to be more equal between work and non-work trips, whereas in geographies with low cycling levels, cycling to work is higher than cycling for other trips. In terms of cycling distance, patterns in high- and low-cycling geographies are more similar. We found a strong positive association between the level of cycling and women’s representation among cyclists. In almost all geographies with cycling mode share greater than 7% women made as many cycle trips as men, and sometimes even greater. The share of cycling trips by women is much lower in geographies with cycling mode shares less than 7%. Among the geographies with higher levels of cycling, children (<16 years) are often overrepresented. Older adults (>60 years) remain underrepresented in all geographies but have relatively better representation where levels of cycling are high. In low-cycling settings, females are underrepresented across all the age groups, and more so when older than 16 years. With increasing level of cycling, representation of females improves across all the age groups, and most significantly among children and older adults. Clustering the cities and countries into homogeneous cycling typologies reveals that high cycling levels always coincide with high representation of females and good representations of all age groups. In low-cycling settings, it is the reverse. We recommend that evaluations of cycling policies include usage by gender and age groups as benchmarks in addition to overall use. To achieve representation across different age and gender groups, making neighbourhoods cycling friendly and developing safer routes to school, should be equally high on the agenda as cycling corridors that often cater to commuting traffic.
  • Luo, Wen (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The main purpose of this Master’s thesis was to examine the impacts of distance factors on the equity-based entry mode choice of forest multinational companies (MNCs) by testing the distances (both in cultural and geographical terms) combined with corporate and local factors. China was chosen as the case host country in this study, and the collected data followed the top global forest MNCs that made investments in China at the subsidiary level. Based on a series of internationalization theories and previous studies, 8 hypotheses were proposed. These hypotheses were suppositions of selected factors having positive or negative impacts on the preference of MNCs for wholly owned subsidiaries (WOS) rather than the joint venture (JV) mode. Logistic regression was utilized as the methodology to test these hypotheses.The dependent variables were defined as WOS vs. JV, and the selected independent variables were cultural and geographical distance, experience of the host country, investment size, resource commitment and geographic concentration. The development and status quo of forest foreign investment in China were given by a descriptive statistical analysis. The results demonstrated that the most popular home countries of the forest corporations in this case were the US, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore, and the most common investment locations in China were the east coastal regions. Furthermore, foreign investment in the forest industry showed differences between historical stages and economic regions. The statistical results indicate that a greater geographical distance, experience of the host country, and geographical concentration have positive impacts on the preference for WOS, while the CDI has a negative impact on it. However, investment size and resource commitment showed no impact on the equity-based entry mode choice in this study. The conclusions at the end of this thesis describe the future trend in and potential for forest foreign investment in China.
  • Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Laurila, Heikki; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Alakukku, Laura (2015)