Browsing by Subject "documentation"

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  • Harhio, Säde (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The importance of software architecture design decisions has been known for almost 20 years. Knowledge vaporisation is a problem in many projects, especially in the current fast-paced culture, where developers often switch from project to another. Documenting software architecture design decisions helps developers understand the software better and make informed decisions in the future. However, documenting architecture design decisions is highly undervalued. It does not create any revenue in itself, and it is often the disliked and therefore neglected part of the job. This literature review explores what methods, tools and practices are being suggested in the scientific literature, as well as, what practitioners are recommending within the grey literature. What makes these methods good or bad is also investigated. The review covers the past five years and 36 analysed papers. The evidence gathered shows that most of the scientific literature concentrates on developing tools to aid the documentation process. Twelve out of nineteen grey literature papers concentrate on Architecture Decision Records (ADR). ADRs are small template files, which as a collection describe the architecture of the entire system. The ADRs appear to be what practitioners have become used to using over the past decade, as they were first introduced in 2011. What is seen as beneficial in a method or tool is low-cost and low-effort, while producing concise, good quality content. What is seen as a drawback is high-cost, high-effort and producing too much or badly organised content. The suitability of a method or tool depends on the project itself and its requirements.
  • Rintakorpi, Kati (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Early childhood education carries multiple experiences, activities, challenges, disappointments, achievements and encounters. Small children have difficulties to remember, piece together and pass on those experiences and feelings to their teachers or parents. The aim of this study was to examine the context and organization of early childhood education where documentation raises and develops. Furthermore it was examined what the documentation of small children means in practice and how the teachers understood it. In this study the mixed methods have been used to expose different perspectives about the subject. Also the material was collected using several methods and is a part of two other studies. The quantitative study was made with material which included 892 randomly chosen children and their teachers from 313 daycare units in the metropolitan area of Finland. The material is a part of a "Children's agentive perception uncovered" study (2010), which was carried out by the University of Helsinki. The qualitative study was made by using the material of a "VKK-Metro" development project, which was carried out also in the metropolitan area (2009). The analysis and the conclusions were made by using Reunamo's theoretical model of agentive perception and Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The angle is childcentered, constructivistic and sosioconstructivistic education. In this study a remarkable confrontation was found between the visions and the practices of the early childhood educators. The documentation was not a powerful educational tool for them and the pedagogy was not built up in a sosioconstructive way. After all it was noticeable that when the teachers got more resources and pedagogical support to the documentation of the children, they found more child-centered angel in their practices as early educators. It seemed that the teachers usally work under quite a pressure and should get more resources to become able to develop the pedagogy. This study is useful for those who are interested in the child-centered way of working and the documentation as a pedagogical tool. It is also a good basis for further studies and for the attempts to regenerate early childhood education.
  • Kääriäinen, Aino (2003)
    The primary task of this study is to clarify the significance of documentation in professional practices and information formation involved in social work concerning child protection. The document texts under study were examined from three angles: 1) How were the documents written? 2) What information did the documents contain? 3) Why were the documents written as they were? The research material consisted of information from a database of client information compiled from notes and custody decisions by social workers involved in child protection. Documents relating to twenty children of varying ages and their families were selected for this study, a total of 1613 pages. The texts are dated between 1989 and 2000. The method of study is discourse analytical and is based on a three-dimensional model developed by Fairclough (1997) in which discourse is defined as the interaction between texts, practices and socio-cultural environment. The model used for the analysis consists of rhetoric and thematic material as well as investigation from the pragmatic point of view. Categorizing the documents into speaker categories revealed the polyphony of the texts, text-structures including viewpoints and opinions of several people. The rhetorical analysis showed that documents pertaining to social work involving child protection contain a large amount of dynamic description of the work. The polyphony of the texts adds to their credibility and is one way to influence the meaning by using rhetoric. The thematic study showed that the content of the themes in the documents and the empirical themes repeat themselves as dynamically interchanging concentric and superimposed threads. Social workers introduce many simultaneous themes into their documents, which help them to form a professional judgement of the case at hand. Studying the documents from the pragmatic angle revealed the contextual dimensions of reading and writing and the process of information formation. The drawing up of documents is one of the practices employed in social work. It is also a crucial part of the creation and maintenance of professional understanding. The dynamics of information forming that is revealed in documents originates in writing practices, and in the common areas of writing and reading and occupational practices.
  • Lindholm, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Medication reviews have been highlighted as one of the most important strategies for improving medication safety and medication management especially in older adults. Current electronic health records document and communicate e-prescriptions but their medication use related patient information content should be extended to cover e.g. medication review documentation. The documentation should be in structured format to be useful in clinical practice and evidence-informed decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify medication review related patient information and other patient data that should be in a structured form in electronic health record systems (EHRs) at a national and organizational level. The aim was also to determine which medication review related patient information should be documented in electronic health record systems. The study was conducted as 3-round survey using the Delphi-method. The Delphi method is a qualitative consensus method based on the views of experts aiming at reaching consensus of the experts on the studied subject. The Delphi rounds were conducted as electronic surveys in September-December 2020. Expert panelists assessed which medication-related patient data and other data generated by healthcare providers should be documented in a structured form in EHRs and in which national digital data system services (Kanta and My Kanta Pages) the medication review related patient information should be accessible and by whom. The expert panel consisted of 41 participants: 12 physicians, 13 pharmacists, 10 nurses, and 6 information management professionals. The results of the study were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Consensus was reached on a total of 108 medication review related patient information topics that should be documented in a structured form in EHRs and that should be available for medication reviews through EHRs. Of the topics, 39 related to medication reviews in general, 25 to adverse drug reaction symptoms, 11 to the burden of adverse drug effects, 12 to laboratory tests and other test results, 12 to medication adherence and 9 to the use of intoxicants. Structuring the data was considered as important or important to some extent in most of the presented medication review related information topics. Especially, the documentation of renal function was rated by the expert panelists as a crucial piece of information to be structured. Medication adherence information and information related to the use of intoxicants were rated as less important to be documented in a structured form than other topics. Consensus was also reached on the accessibility of medication review documentation in the Kanta and My Kanta services. The expert panel of this study had a common and strong view that data related to medication reviews should be structured in EHRs. The expert panel reached a strong consensus that almost all of the data presented in the study should be structured. Based on this Delphi study, the expert panel identified the benefits of structuring and standardized recording. Because not all data can be structured at once, further prioritization of the data identified in this study is still needed. The practical implementation of the structured information could be accomplished in the form of a checklist. The study addresses a very current problem related to the shortcomings of medication information management and overall medication management.
  • Väätäinen, Heikki (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    In past decades, the agricultural work has first been mechanized, and then amount of automation have increased. Today, increasing the size of the machines will no longer increase the productivity significantly, but the work must be done by intensifying the existing use of resources more efficiently. In this study, the focus is a self-propelled forage harvester chain in grass silage harvesting. Silage harvest intensity and a generous amount of machine units are a demanding combination to the foremen. The aim was to investigate the requirements for information management system to be developed to support agricultural contracting. During the survey altogether 12 contractors and cooperate farmers were interviewed. The study shows that contractors have the need for information systems. Of course, arrangements and the extent of contracting are affecting the issue. According to the study the key requirements for information management are: • extensive, detailed and automated data collection from the work carried out • map-based system, drivers route guidance • the client registry, work orders electronically • tender templates, price counters • reliability, stability of knowledge • the applicability of a wide range of work • compatibility with other systems The system to be developed should include the following items: easy-to-use planning / customer database tool, functions to machine monitoring, guidance and work management, data acquisition during the work and processing functions of the data collected. All users don’t need all functions so contractor should be able to choose the parts needed and possibly add functionality later. Contractors working in tough economic and temporal frames are demanding customers. Technology they use must be effective and reliable. On the other hand, human errors occur also for experienced people, so a good information system will make work easier and more efficient.