Browsing by Subject "dominance"

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  • Errib, Abu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Big Data is considered an essential asset for online business models and crucial for their services. These business models depend on the processing and monetization of the data; thus, big data is said to be the driving force of their market behavior. The emergence of big data for online platform businesses may give rise to a specific type of abuse under Article 102 TFEU. For instance, incumbents may prevent competitors from accessing valuable data. In this regard, this thesis will analyze the concept of refusal to supply, which is considered an abuse of dominance under Article 102 TFEU in certain circumstances. Therefore, the purpose is to analyze the applicability of the refusal to supply in big data situations. The research question of this thesis is – can an online platform´s refusal to provide access to data constitutes an abuse of dominant position according to Article 102 TFEU. The analysis leads to the conclusion that under certain conditions, a dominant company can be forced to provide access to its datasets if the requirement is met. This thesis will mainly consider the issue of the indispensability requirement of big data.
  • Antao, Laura H.; Pöyry, Juha; Leinonen, Reima; Roslin, Tomas (2020)
    Aim Biodiversity is currently undergoing rapid restructuring across the globe. However, the nature of biodiversity change is not well understood, as community-level changes may hide differential responses in individual population trajectories. Here, we quantify spatio-temporal community and stability dynamics using a long-term high-quality moth monitoring dataset. Location Finland, Northern Europe. Time period 1993-2012. Major taxa studied Nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera). Methods We quantified patterns of change in species richness, total abundance, dominance and temporal variability at different organizational levels over a 20 year period and along a latitudinal gradient of 1,100 km. We used mixed-effects and linear models to quantify temporal trends for the different community and stability metrics and to test for latitudinal (or longitudinal) effects. Results We found contrasting patterns for different community metrics, and strong latitudinal patterns. While total moth abundance has declined, species richness has simultaneously increased over the study period, but with rates accelerating with latitude. In addition, we revealed a latitudinal pattern in temporal variability-the northernmost locations exhibited higher variability over time, as quantified by both metrics of richness and aggregated species population trends. Main conclusions When combined, our findings likely reflect an influx of species expanding their ranges poleward in response to warming. The overall decline in abundance and the latitudinal effect on temporal variability highlight potentially severe consequences of global change for community structure and integrity across high-latitude regions. Importantly, our results underscore that increases in species richness may be paralleled by a loss of individuals, which in turn might affect higher trophic levels. Our findings suggest that the ongoing global species redistribution is affecting both community structure and stability over time, leading to compounded and partly opposing effects of global change depending on which biodiversity dimension we focus on.
  • Lehmann, Laurent; Keller, Lukas F; Kokko, Hanna (2007)
    Female mate choice influences the maintenance of genetic variation by altering the mating success of males with different genotypes. The evolution of preferences themselves, on the other hand, depends on genetic variation present in the population. Few models have tracked this feedback between a choice gene and its effects on genetic variation, in particular when genes that determine offspring viability and attractiveness have dominance effects. Here we build a population genetic model that allows comparing the evolution of various choice rules in a single framework. We first consider preferences for good genes and show that focused preferences for homozygotes evolve more easily than broad preferences, which allow heterozygous males high mating success too. This occurs despite better maintenance of genetic diversity in the latter scenario, and we discuss why empirical findings of superior mating success of heterozygous males consequently do not immediately lead to a better understanding of the lek paradox. Our results thus suggest that the mechanisms that help maintain genetic diversity also have a flipside of making female choice an inaccurate means of producing the desired kind of offspring. We then consider preferences for heterozygosity per se, and show that these evolve only under very special conditions. Choice for compatible genotypes can evolve but its selective advantage diminishes quickly due to frequency-dependent selection. Finally, we show that our model reproduces earlier results on selfing, when the female choice strategy produces assortative mating. Overall, our model indicates that various forms of heterozygote-favouring (or variable) female choice pose a problem for the theory of sexual ornamentation based on indirect benefits, rather than a solution.