Browsing by Subject "drainage"

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  • Västilä, Kaisa; Väisänen, Sari; Koskiaho, Jari; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Karttunen, Krister; Kuussaari, Mikko; Järvelä, Juha; Koikkalainen, Kauko (MDPI, 2021)
    Sustainability 13, 16
    Conventional dredging of ditches and streams to ensure agricultural drainage and flood mitigation can have severe environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential benefits of an alternative, nature-based two-stage channel (TSC) design with floodplains excavated along the main channel. Through a literature survey, investigations at Finnish field sites and expert interviews, we assessed the performance, costs, and monetary environmental benefits of TSCs in comparison to conventional dredging, as well as the bottlenecks in their financing and governance. We found evidence supporting the expected longer-term functioning of drainage as well as larger plant and fish biodiversity in TSCs compared to conventional dredging. The TSC design likely improves water quality since the floodplains retain suspended sediment and phosphorus and remove nitrogen. In the investigated case, the additional value of phosphorus retention and conservation of protected species through the TSC design was 2.4 times higher than the total costs. We demonstrate how TSCs can be made eligible for the obligatory vegetated riparian buffer of the European Union agri-environmental subsidy scheme (CAP-AES) by optimising their spatial application with respect to other buffer measures, and recommend to publicly finance their additional costs compared to conventional dredging at priority sites. Further studies on biodiversity impacts and long-term performance of two-stage channels are required.
  • Aaltonen, Heidi; Tuukkanen, Tapio; Palviainen, Marjo; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Tattari, Sirkka; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Ojala, Anne; Launiainen, Samuli; Finér, Leena (2021)
    Understanding the anthropogenic and natural factors that affect runoff water quality is essential for proper planning of water protection and forest management, particularly in the changing climate. We measured water quality and runoff from 10 unmanaged and 20 managed forested headwater catchments (7-12,149 ha) located in Finland. We used linear mixed effect models to test whether the differences in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) export and concentrations observed can be explained by catchment characteristics, land use, forest management, soil fertility, tree volume and hydrometeorological variables. Results show that much of variation in TOC, TN and TP concentrations and export was explained by drainage, temperature sum, peatland percentage and the proportion of arable area in the catchment. These models explained 45-63% of variation in concentrations and exports. Mean annual TOC export in unmanaged catchments was 56.4 +/- 9.6 kg ha(-1) a(-1), while in managed it was 79.3 +/- 3.3 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Same values for TN export were 1.43 +/- 0.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1) and 2.31 +/- 0.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1), while TP export was 0.053 +/- 0.009 kg ha(-1) a(-1) and 0.095 +/- 0.008 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for unmanaged and managed, respectively. Corresponding values for concentrations were: TOC 17.7 +/- 2.1 mg L-1 and 28.7 +/- 1.6 mg L-1, for TN 420 +/- 45 mu g L-1 and 825 +/- 51 mu g L-1 and TP 15.3 +/- 2.3 mu g L-1 and 35.6 +/- 3.3 mu g L-1. Overall concentrations and exports were significantly higher in managed than in unmanaged catchments. Long term temperature sum had an increasing effect on all concentrations and exports, indicating that climate warming may set new challenges to controlling nutrient loads from catchment areas.
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Marttila, Hannu; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Saarimaa, Miia; Tolvanen, Anne; Lepistö, Ahti; Futter, Martyn N.; Kløve, Bjørn (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2021)
    Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 147(4), 04021006
    Spatiotemporal information on historical peatland drainage is needed to relate past land use to observed changes in catchment hydrology. Comprehensive knowledge of historical development of peatland management is largely unknown at the catchment scale. Aerial photos and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enlarge the possibilities for identifying past peatland drainage patterns. Here, our objectives are (1) to develop techniques for semiautomatically mapping the location of ditch networks in peat-dominated catchments using aerial photos and LIDAR data, and (2) to generate time series of drainage networks. Our approaches provide open-access techniques to systematically map ditches in peat-dominated catchments through time. We focused on the algorithm in such a way that we can identify the ditch networks from raw aerial images and LIDAR data based on the modification of multiple filters and number of threshold values. Such data are needed to relate spatiotemporal drainage patterns to observed changes in many northern rivers. We demonstrate our approach using data from the Simojoki River catchment (3,160  km2) in northern Finland. The catchment is dominated by forests and peatlands that were almost all drained after 1960. For two representative locations in cultivated peatland (downstream) and peatland forest (upstream) areas of the catchment; we found total ditch length density (km/km2), estimated from aerial images and LIDAR data based on our proposed algorithm, to have varied from 2% to 50% compared with the monitored ditch length available from the National Land survey of Finland (NLSF) in 2018. A different pattern of source variation in ditch network density was observed for whole-catchment estimates and for the available drained-peatland database from Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE). Despite such differences, no significant differences were found using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test with a 0.05 significance level based on the samples of pixel-identified ditches between (1) aerial images and NLSF vector files and (2) LIDAR data and NLSF vector files.
  • Seppälä, Kustaa (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1972)
  • Laurén, Ari; Palviainen, Marjo; Launiainen, Samuli; Leppä, Kersti; Stenberg, Leena; Urzainki, Inaki; Nieminen, Mika; Laiho, Raija; Hökkä, Hannu (2021)
    Drainage is an essential prerequisite in peatland forest management, which generally, but not always, increases stand growth. Growth response depends on weather conditions, stand and site characteristics, management and biogeochemical processes. We constructed a SUSI-simulator (SUoSImulaattori, in Finnish), which describes hydrology, stand growth and nutrient availability under different management, site types and weather conditions. In the model development and sensitivity analysis, we used water table (WT) and stand growth data from 11 Scots pine stands. The simulator was validated against a larger dataset collected from boreal drained peatlands in Finland. In validation, SUSI was shown to predict WT and stand growth well. Stand growth was mainly limited by inadequate potassium supply, and in Sphagnum peats by low oxygen availability. Model application was demonstrated for ditch network maintenance (DNM) by comparing stand growth with shallow (-0.3 m) and deep ditches (-0.9 m): The growth responses varied between 0.5 and 3.5 m(3) ha(-1) in five years, which is comparable to experimental results. SUSI can promote sustainable peatland management and help in avoiding unnecessary drainage operations and associated environmental effects, such as increased carbon emissions, peat subsidence, and nutrient leaching. The source code is publicly available, and the modular structure allows model extension to cost-benefit analyses and nutrient export to water courses.
  • Finér, Leena; Lepistö, Ahti; Karlsson, Kristian; Räike, Antti; Härkönen, Laura; Huttunen, Markus; Joensuu, Samuli; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sallantaus, Tapani; Sarkkola, Sakari; Tattari, Sirkka; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 762 (2021), 144098
    More reliable assessments of nutrient export to surface waters and the Baltic Sea are required to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. Previous nutrient export estimates have recently been questioned since they did not include the long-term impacts of drainage for forestry. We made new estimates of the total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and total organic carbon (TOC) export from forests to surface waters at different spatial scales in Finland. This was done by formulating statistical equations between streamwater concentrations and climate, soil, forest management and runoff variables and spatial data on catchment characteristics. The equations were based on a large, long-term runoff and streamwater quality dataset, which was collected from 28 pristine and 61 managed boreal forest catchments located around Finland. We found that the concentrations increased with temperature sum (TS), i.e. from north to south. Nitrogen, P and TOC concentrations increased with the proportion of drained areas in the catchment; those of N and TOC also increased with the proportion of peatlands. In contrast, with the increasing concentrations of N and TOC with time, P concentrations showed a decreasing trend over the last few decades. According to our estimates, altogether 47,300 Mg of N, 1780 Mg of P and 1814 Gg of TOC is transported from forest areas to surface waters in Finland. Forest management contributes 17% of the N export, 35% of the P export and 12% of the TOC export. Our new forest management export estimates for N and P are more than two times higher than the old estimates used by the environment authorities. The differences may be explained by the long-term impact of forest drainage. The spatial results indicate that peatland forests are hotspots for N, P and TOC export, especially in the river basins draining to the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Silvola, Jouko; Välijoki, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heikki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
    At sites in SE Finland, hourly respiration varied mainly in the range 100-500 mg CO2/msuperscript 2 with changes following those in soil surface temp. with a time lag of 3 h. After groundwater table was reduced by about 0.5 m, respiration increased 2.5-fold (resulting in a rate of peat decomposition considerably in excess of the rate of production of new organic matter in the peat). Application of fast-dissolving PK or urea rapidly increased soil respiration at the site poorest in nutrients. Ash gave the greatest steady increase. At sites rich in nutrients, fertilizer treatment reduced soil respiration for 1-2 yr. Treatment with micronutrients caused an intial reduction in respiration followed by a pronounced increase.
  • Heikurainen, Leo; Päivänen, Juhani; Sarasto, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1964)
  • Päivänen, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Mälkönen, Eino; Paavilainen, Eero (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Welsh, Shawna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The largest wetland drainage project in Michigan was initiated in 1912 near the town of Seney in the eastern Upper Peninsula. This project included the construction of a series of drainage ditches intended to prepare the land for agricultural use. The largest of these ditches was the 35 km-long Walsh Ditch. Much of the drained wetland affected by the Walsh Ditch is now managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge (Seney NWR). Starting in 2002, a series of earthen ditch plugs were installed along the length of the ditch found within Seney NWR (and adjacent to the Seney Wilderness Area) in an attempt to restore the hydrology and ecological integrity to the affected wetlands and streams. The plugs North of C-3 Pool were completed in 2002. The ditch plugs South of C-3 Pool were completed in 2005. This study explores the effect of the ditch plugs on the hydrology and vegetation structure in the adjacent landscape north of C-3 Pool at multiple scales. Plot level measurements of hydrology and vegetation, combined with an analysis of landcover change over the entire study area, indicate that some areas are converting from artificial upland communities created by wetland drainage to more natural wetland community types. Mortality of upland tree species and colonization by typical wetland species are good indications that these sites will continue to develop into wetland ecosystems over time. However, some areas have shown no response to the hydrologic restoration. This is expected, as areas of the landscape were upland (referred to as “pine islands” in the literature) before Walsh Ditch and should remain so as natural hydrology is restored to the area. Landcover change analysis showed a decrease in open water of 90.82 ha, a decrease of upland area of 67.88 ha and an increase in wetland area of 151.88 ha. The areas of change were concentrated around stream channels and in the area just east of Walsh Ditch. With time, it is possible that areas further removed from the ditch will show a shift towards more natural hydrology and vegetation composition, but for the areas furthest removed from the ditch this may require active management.
  • Peltomaa, Elina; Könönen, Mari; Palviainen, Marjo; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Zhu, Xudan; Kinnunen, Niko; Aaltonen, Heidi; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2022)
    Boreal peatlands are vast carbon (C) stores but also major sources of dissolved organic C (DOC) and nutrients to surface waters. Drainage and forest harvesting accelerates DOC leaching. Continuous cover forestry (CCF) is considered to cause fewer adverse environmental effects. Yet, the effects of CCF on DOC processes are unrecognised. We study DOC production and quality in unharvested, CCF, and clear-cut drained peatland forests and in a non-forested alluvial sedge fen. Parallel replicate peat columns with ground vegetation are collected from the uppermost 50 cm at each site, and the water table (WT) is set to -20 or -40 cm depths on the columns. During the eight-month ex situ incubation experiment, the soil water samples are extracted monthly or bi-monthly. The samples are incubated at 15 degrees C for multiple 72 h incubation cycles to study pore water quality and biodegradation of DOC. The CO2 production occurs during the first three days. The DOC concentrations and the CO2 release per volume of water are significantly lower in the sedge fen than in the drained peatland forests. The WT has a negligible effect on DOC concentrations and no effect on DOC quality, but the higher WT has generally higher CO2 production per DOC than the lower WT. The results suggest that peat in the drained peatlands is not vulnerable to changes per se but that forest management alters biotic and abiotic factors that control the production, transport, and biodegradation of DOC.
  • Gyawali, Arun (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The balance between incoming precipitation (rainfall and snowfall) and outgoing evapotranspiration (ET), runoff and drainage to and from an ecosystem plus changes in soil moisture storage and the water equivalent of the snowpack is known as the water balance. A dominating feature of the water balance in the boreal zone is snowpack accumulation over winter and the spring snowmelt, both of which are affected by forest. In Finland, there are strong north-south gradients in the amount of precipitation, the proportion of rainfall and snowfall and temperature, and therefore latitudinal differences in the water balances components can be expected. Furthermore, the large canopy and deeper rooting of trees, together with the presence of a permanent ground vegetation cover, result in significant differences in interception, infiltration and water balance outputs of forests compared to other forms of land-use. Because of morphological and ecophysiological differences between the trees species, the water balance of Norway spruce and Scots pine dominated forests can be expected to differ. Determining the water balance of forest ecosystems across Finland would, therefore, help in assessing the hydrological ecosystem services provided by forests and form a basis for examining the effects of climate change and forest management on the water balance. This study aimed to compute the daily water balance of six Norway spruce, and three Scots pine dominated mature forest stands (plots) located throughout Finland over a 26-year study period (1990-2015). It was hypothesized that the various water balance components would systematically vary with latitude, a surrogate for climate, and differ between spruce and pine stands. The daily version of the water balance model “WATBAL” developed by Mike Starr (University of Helsinki, Dept. Forest sciences) was used for this study. The model requires daily meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, global radiation), stand parameters (canopy cover, rooting, crop coefficient), soil parameters (including infiltration coefficient, soil moisture contents at permanent wilting point, field capacity and saturation, and two soil moisture parameters for a plant available water content function). Six of the plots had soil developed in till and 3 plots had soil developed in sorted glaciofluvial deposits. Plot meteorological data for 1990-2015 was derived using spatially interpolated gridded data. If the daily air temperature was ≤0°C, any precipitation was assumed to be snowfall. The stand and soil parameters were derived from data collected from the 9 study plots by Luke (formerly Metla). The nine plots belong to the Finnish network of ICP-Forest level II plots that have been established throughout Europe. Pedotransfer functions (PTF) based on soil texture and organic matter contents were used to derive initial values for the soil hydraulic parameters. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) measured soil moisture data was available for 7 of the plots and, after carrying out careful quality control and rejection of outliers, used for calibration of modelled soil moisture and optimization of soil hydraulic parameters for those plots. Optimization was carried out using the non-linear Marquardt regression method. Goodness-of-fit for soil moisture was evaluated using correlation and R2 values from linear regression. After computing the daily water balance with the WATBAL model (using optimized soil hydraulic parameter values for the 7 plots and initial PTF values for the remaining 2 plots) the long-term mean annual and mean daily water balance components (with a 7-day moving average smoothing) were calculated. The water balances were computed for the humus layer plus 0-40 cm soil layer, which, based on literature, would have included most if not all of the roots. The dependence of the mean annual water balance components on latitude was evaluated using correlation analysis and linear regression, and the effect of tree species was tested for using the t-test on pairs of spruce-pine plots located close to each other. The raw TDR data was found to contain a considerable amount of gaps and erroneous (too high) values, often associated with the spring snowmelt. Optimization of the soil hydraulic parameters using the measured soil moisture contents calculated from the “cleaned” TDR data for the snow-free period resulted in a highly significant (p<0.001) Pearson correlation of +0.85 (R2 = 0.75) for the fit between measured and modelled soil moisture contents calculated across all 7 plots. The correlations for the individual plots were also highly significant. Based on the optimized WATBAL output, the fraction of plot mean annual precipitation as snowfall ranged from 20 to 29%. Corresponding ranges for ET, drainage and runoff were respectively 33 to 57%, 24 to 42%, and 18 to 25%. The mean annual water balance components were found to be significantly correlated to latitude, reflecting trends in precipitation and temperature. Evapotranspiration decreased with increasing latitude while maximum snow-on-ground, snowmelt and associated runoff increased with increasing latitude. Spruce mean annual ET was 9% higher than pine in one of the paired plot sets and 37% higher in the other set. For drainage, pine was 15% greater than spruce in one of the paired plot set and 74% higher in the other set of paired plots. There were no significant differences between spruce and pine plots for snowmelt and runoff. Variation around these trends were related to differences in soil hydraulic properties among the plots which, in turn, were related to differences in parent material and soil texture. The overall conclusion from this study was that the daily water balance of the forested plots could be realistically modelled using such a relatively simple water balance model as WATBAL. The importance of spatially representative and accurate soil moisture measurements for model calibration purposes was highlighted. While the importance of snowfall on the water balance increased northwards regardless of tree species, evapotranspiration was determined by both latitude and by species. Climate change can therefore be expected to have a significant impact on the water balance of Finnish forests resulting in environmentally important changes in leaching and runoff.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sallantaus, Tapani (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232 (2021), 371
    Contradictory results for the long-term evolution of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in waters discharging from drained peatland forests need reconciliation. We gathered long-term (10–29 years) water quality data from 29 forested catchments, 18 forestry-drained and 11 undrained peatlands. Trend analysis of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration data indicated variable trends from clearly decreasing to considerably increasing temporal trends. While the variations in phosphorus concentration trends over time did not correlate with any of our explanatory factors, trends in nitrogen concentrations correlated positively with tree stand volume in the catchments and temperature sum. A positive correlation of increasing nitrogen concentrations with temperature sum raises concerns of the future evolution of nitrogen dynamics under a warming climate. Furthermore, the correlation with tree stand volume is troublesome due to the generally accepted policy to tackle the climate crisis by enhancing tree growth. However, future research is still needed to assess which are the actual processes related to stand volume and temperature sum that contribute to increasing TN concentrations.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Haahti, Kersti; Sallantaus, Tapani; Koskinen, Markku; Ojanen, Paavo (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo - tutkimusartikkelit
    Viime vuosina julkaistujen tutkimusten mukaan metsäojitettujen soiden vesistö kuormituksen epäillään olevan moninkertaisesti aiemmin arvioitua suurempaa. Syynä tähän on se, että kuormitusta syntyy aiemmista käsityksistä poiketen silloinkin, kun ojitusalueilla ei ole vuosikausiin tehty mitään toimenpiteitä. Tässä työssä arvioitiin metsäojitusalueilta syntyvä vesistökuormitus ottamalla huomioon sekä tämä nykyisistä metsätaloustoimenpiteistä riippumaton ”ojituslisä” että kunnostusojituksen, lannoituksen ja hakkuiden aiheuttama kuormitus. Tehdyn arvion mukaan metsätaloudesta ojitetuilla soilla syntyy Suomessa vuosittain typpikuormitusta noin 8500 Mg ja fosforikuormi tusta 590 Mg. Kun ojituslisä otetaan huomioon, typpikuormitus on noin 18-kertainen ja fosforikuormitus 6–7-kertainen aiempiin vain eri toimenpiteiden kuormitukset huomioon ottaviin arvioihin verrattuna. Vesiensuojelun kannalta oleellista olisi selvittää, mitkä tekijät ojitusalueilla aiheuttavat ojituslisän muodossa tapahtuvaa pysyvää kuormitusta ja mitä tämän kuormituksen torjumiseksi on tehtävissä.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sallantaus, Tapani (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo 72(1) (2020)
  • Laurén, Ari; Palviainen, Marjo; Page, Susan; Evans, Chris; Urzainki, Inaki; Hökkä, Hannu (2021)
    Responsible management of Acacia plantations requires an improved understanding of trade-offs between maintaining stand production whilst reducing environmental impacts. Intensive drainage and the resulting low water tables (WT) increase carbon emissions, peat subsidence, fire risk and nutrient export to water courses, whilst increasing nutrient availability for plant uptake from peat mineralization. In the plantations, hydrology, stand growth, carbon and nutrient balance, and peat subsidence are connected forming a complex dynamic system, which can be thoroughly understood by dynamic process models. We developed the Plantation Simulator to describe the effect of drainage, silviculture, fertilization, and weed control on the above-mentioned processes and to find production schemes that are environmentally and economically viable. The model successfully predicted measured peat subsidence, which was used as a proxy for stand total mass balance. Computed nutrient balances indicated that the main growth-limiting factor was phosphorus (P) supply, and the P balance was affected by site index, mortality rate and WT. In a scenario assessment, where WT was raised from -0.80 m to -0.40 m the subsidence rate decreased from 4.4 to 3.3 cm yr(-1), and carbon loss from 17 to 9 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). P balance shifted from marginally positive to negative suggesting that additional P fertilization is needed to maintain stand productivity as a trade-off for reducing C emissions.
  • Päivänen, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1974)
  • Saikkonen, Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The objective of this thesis is to examine and compare, both theoretically and empirically the private profitability and social desirability of subsurface drainage and drainage by open ditches, under cultivation in Finland. Private and social optimums for cultivation are examined for (1) field without any drainage system, (2) field with subsurface drainage and (3) field with open ditch drainage. The results of optimum solutions are compared with each other to define the optimal drainage system. Incentives for fertilizer use and intensiveness of open ditch drainage are then set accordingly. In defining the social desirability, environmental externalities are taken into account. Within the framework of this study, the environmental externalities are the social costs of nutrient runoffs and the social benefits of maintenance of biodiversity by open drainage ditches. The approach to biodiversity herein is twofold. First, biodiversity is perceived as local species richness (alpha diversity) and then as landscape diversity (gamma diversity). Landscape diversity is defined within an area of 1 km2 and it takes into account the spatial autocorrelation of species diversity at landscape level. Numerical results show that subsurface drainage is privately a more profitable drainage system than open ditch drainage. When comparing the social desirability, calculations show that open ditch drainage is more desirable, but that is mostly due to the difference in nitrogen leaching compared with subsurface drainage. The empirical data used in calculations, concerning the nitrogen leaching, is partly insufficient and based on crude assumptions. Therefore it is not possible to conclude that open ditch drainage is socially more desirable. If biodiversity is perceived as landscape diversity, the value of social benefits of maintenance of biodiversity by open drainage ditches is 22.523 % higher than if biodiversity is calculated as local species richness. Based on the results, a cultivated field with either drainage system will lead to higher private profitability and social desirability than cultivation without a drainage system. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the results are stochastically sensitive. If the values of empirical parameters are drawn from normal and lognormal distributions with the standard deviations of 10 % of expected values, the standard deviations of the results can be as high as 38 % of the expected values.