Browsing by Subject "drug policy"

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  • Hämäläinen, Lasse; Lahti, Emmi (2021)
    Aims: In October 2019, a citizens' initiative to decriminalise cannabis use started a large debate about drug policy in Finland. This study examines online discussions about the initiative to supplement the current knowledge about citizens' drug opinions. The focus is especially on argumentation techniques that are used to support or object to the decriminalisation. Design: Methodologically, the study is based on discourse studies, new rhetoric, and argumentation analysis. The data of 1,092 messages were collected from a popular Finnish anonymous discussion forum Ylilauta. Results: Online discussions about the legal status of cannabis are highly polarised. Decriminalisation is often both supported and resisted in a strong and affective manner, and even hate speech is not rare in the data. Statements made by both discussion parties often lack any argumentation or are based on fallacies, especially ad hominem arguments. Some discussants refer to scientific studies and expert statements, even though such references are usually inaccurate. Cannabis is compared to alcohol more often than to other illegal drugs. Conclusions: The emotional responses and inadequate argumentation might be partially explained by the general nature of online discussions and the culture of the investigated website, but also by the powerful stigma related to illegal drugs and insufficient knowledge on the subject. A future objective is to create a societal atmosphere where the complex question of the legal status of cannabis could be discussed more neutrally and rationally.
  • Ovaskainen, Harri; Airaksinen, Marja; Närhi, Ulla (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2004)
    This article provides an overview of the role of medicines in Finnish health care, and the structure of pharmaceutical services. The major public health concerns will be briefly presented to give a gramework for understanding national drug consumption patterns. In this connection, the main principles of the public social insurance system covering the whole population and most of the prescription medications for chronic diseases will be discussed. The different actors in the drug distribution chain are also introduced, including community pharmacies. At the end of the article, there will be a short overview on the Finnish pharmaceutical education system that is based on two academic degreesÖ Bachelor and Master of Science in Pharmacy, both of whick have their own professional roles in health care. At the end, a short review presents the goals of drug policy by 2010, set by the ministry of Social Affairs and Health in September 2003.
  • Forssén, Tuulikki (2004)
    The intravascular use of heroin and other opiates has increased in the end of 1990s. Due to the increasing use of opiates, there has also grown the need to increase treatment aimed at opiate addicted people. Medical care together with psychosocial support has turned to be efficient, because it improves the quality of life of clients and diminishes criminality and drug-deaths. There are many kinds of problems in organizing drug treatments. The point of views of clients, statutes and nursing staff may differ from each other. You may see problems such as new duties given to departments with a short notice. The regulations of Social and Health Ministry concerning maintenance treatment, don't give explicit policy about treatment. So, treatment is more open to various interpretations between nursing staff and clients. The aggressive behavior of clients and continuous working under the danger of violence makes it more difficult to do drug-nursing in practice. Employees feel that resources to accomplish the treatment are insufficient, when it's question about the work space or the amount of working vacancies. The are unrealistic expectations about the treatment. In addition to this clients' bottomless need to demand, brings the nursing stuff to the turbulence of pressure conflicts, when trying to decide, what is according to regulations and good treatment and which is the most secure way of accomplishing the treatment. This ethnographical case study is analyzing the aspect of the nursing stuff of a work community under the welfare for intoxicant abusers and how the process of becoming an expert will develop. The study produces information about the work done with severely drug addicted people and the challenges of this work. It's very important to research this new activity called maintenance treatment, because it's sure that you have to increase supplies for treatment in the future. The study that rises form practise is essential. It enables to produce information about actual issues, which are felt vital at fieldwork. It also makes it possible to get facts, which may not be found in any other way. Clients and nursing staff are heard. At the result of this study, you can evaluate, if the activities meet the needs of clients and are there enough resources for employees to work safely. This research is an ethnographical case study at the point of view of conflicts. The participants of the activities are compelled to an interest-conflict with each other. The study was executed by interviewing and by observation. Here ethnography means analyzing the meanings of maintenance treatment at social situations and activities at one nursing department during certain period of time. The activities are influenced as well by internal as by external factors. The activities are framed and formed at different conflicts. From there rises the culture of maintenance treatment and the knowing, how to accomplish it. The orientation of the nursing department was developed during two years period as the result of increasing interaction between employees and other authorities. Workers took part to various educations. Producing care without differentiation changed to producing care with specialization. Now there was a conversational, dissimilarity accepting and differentiated department, producing drug rehabilitation. Sources: Schein, Edgar: Organisational culture and management. Tourunen, Jouni: Epäilyksen polttopisteessä.
  • Salonen, Iiro (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    It was given a task to the Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) to prepare a national Medicines Information Strategy. The strategy process can be divided into four stages: 1) the collection and analysis of the information, 2) the determination of the strategy and the vision, 3) the realization and 4) the follow-up stage of the strategy. In the European Union (EU) the High Level Pharmaceutical Forum has drawn up the criteria for the high quality medicines information (MI) and the recommendations to improve the quality and availability of the MI directed to the consumers. The most significant medicines related political actions in Finland in the 21st century are the Medicine policy 2010 -document, the strategies of the National Agency for Medicines and the TIPPA-project. The objective of the Master's thesis was to produce the information to Fimea's MI work. The electric questionnaire was drawn up in the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was sent by email to all national Medicines Authorities in EU (n=27) in November 2009. The purpose of the questionnaire was to find out 1) the significance of the medicine information in the national legislation, 2) the possible MI strategies and 3) the control mechanisms of the medicine information directed to the consumers. The medicines information strategies were found in the United Kingdom (UK), Italy and Germany. Furthermore, the strategy process was unfinished in four countries. In the strategy of the UK 25 concrete actions were presented during a three-year strategy period to improve the quality and availability of the MI and to improve the cooperation between public and private actors. The information and communication technology (ICT) was in the centre of the medicines information offered to the consumers. ICT was utilised by publishing Patient Information Leaflets in Internet and by developing medicines information web pages, digitally patient counseling services and quality certificates. The results of the survey can be utilised as a part of the Fimea's Medicines Information Strategy process. Further studies, for example an analysis of the interest groups, are needed before the preparation of the national strategy. Furthermore, experiences of the implementation of the strategy and the results reached in the UK should be clarified.