Browsing by Subject "dsRNA virus"

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  • Eskelin, Katri Johanna; Poranen, Minna Marjetta (2018)
    Viruses protect their genomes by enclosing them into protein capsids that sometimes contain lipid bilayers that either reside above or below the protein layer. Controlled dissociation of virions provides important information on virion composition, interactions, and stoichiometry of virion components, as well as their possible role in virus life cycles. Dissociation of viruses can be achieved by using various chemicals, enzymatic treatments, and incubation conditions. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is a gentle method where the separation is based on size. Here, we applied AF4 for controlled dissociation of enveloped bacteriophage phi 6. Our results indicate that AF4 can be used to assay the efficiency of the dissociation process and to purify functional subviral particles.
  • Levanova, Alesia A.; Vainio, Eeva J.; Hantula, Jarkko; Poranen, Minna M. (2021)
    Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 (HetRV6) is a double-stranded (ds)RNA mycovirus and a member of the recently established genus Orthocurvulavirus within the family Orthocurvulaviridae. The purpose of the study was to determine the biochemical requirements for RNA synthesis catalyzed by HetRV6 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). HetRV6 RdRp was expressed in Escherichia coli and isolated to near homogeneity using liquid chromatography. The enzyme activities were studied in vitro using radiolabeled UTP. The HetRV6 RdRp was able to initiate RNA synthesis in a primer-independent manner using both virus-related and heterologous single-stranded (ss)RNA templates, with a polymerization rate of about 46 nt/min under optimal NTP concentration and temperature. NTPs with 2′-fluoro modifications were also accepted as substrates in the HetRV6 RdRp-catalyzed RNA polymerization reaction. HetRV6 RdRp transcribed viral RNA genome via semi-conservative mechanism. Furthermore, the enzyme demonstrated terminal nucleotidyl transferase (TNTase) activity. Presence of Mn2+ was required for the HetRV6 RdRp catalyzed enzymatic activities. In summary, our study shows that HetRV6 RdRp is an active replicase in vitro that can be potentially used in biotechnological applications, molecular biology, and biomedicine.
  • Hanhijarvi, Kalle J.; Ziedaite, Gabija; Bamford, Dennis H.; Haeggstrom, Edward; Poranen, Minna M. (2017)
    Genome packaging of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) phages has been widely studied using biochemical and molecular biology methods. We adapted the existing in vitro packaging system of one such phage for single-molecule experimentation. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study the details of viral RNA packaging using optical tweezers. Pseudomonas phage phi 6 is a dsRNA virus with a tripartite genome. Positive-sense (+) single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome precursors are packaged into a preformed procapsid (PC), where negative strands are synthesized. We present single-molecule measurements of the viral ssRNA packaging by the phi 6 PC. Our data show that packaging proceeds intermittently in slow and fast phases, which likely reflects differences in the unfolding of the RNA secondary structures of the ssRNA being packaged. Although the mean packaging velocity was relatively low (0.07-0.54 nm/sec), packaging could reach 4.62 nm/sec during the fast packaging phase.