Browsing by Subject "earthquake"

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  • Lyu, Bingying (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Modern China has entered an era of risk society. The emerging public crises are challenging the government's reactions including the openness and speed of information, the reconstruction of credibility and reputation. On the other hand, the media environment has changed enormously. Despite the tight censorship of China's traditional media, social media provide both opportunities and challenges for government crisis communication in terms of its fast speed of transmitting and instantaneous sharing of information, reliance on user-generated content, and openness of public opinions and easiness to access. Since social media are empowered to reshape the public opinion field, media manipulation from the government changes accordingly. Therefore, this study focuses on the way social media was used actively in the crisis communication in the 2013 Ya'an earthquake by the Chinese government and respond from the public. Mixed research methods are used in the study, including content analysis as quantitative method, and frame analysis as qualitative method. This research first identifies how did the state-owned media presented the crisis. Subsequently, it explores what crisis communication strategies the state-owned media applies on social media during the earthquake, and how effective those strategies are based on attitudes of the public. As an authoritarian country, the Chinese government used to cover crisis and suppress discussions to maintain stability of the society, which caused distrust among the public. However, different from the stereotype, the Chinese government tends to guide public opinion to the positive direction rather than hiding the truth nowadays. Based on the analysis, the conclusion can be drawn clearly how the Chinese government managed and responded to the crisis through the state-owned media.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi (2017)
    The present article is the first part of a snapshot of macroseismology in Finland from the 1730s to the 2000s. In the 1730s, more numerous and informative earthquake reports began to appear. Continuing up until the early 1880s, these reports were often by-products of compilations of statistics and weather conditions; afterwards, felt earthquake observations were the objective of specific macroseismic surveys. During the Swedish era until 1809, earthquake reports are attributed to the developing press, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Statistical Office. In the Grand Duchy of Finland, learned societies collected data on different natural phenomena. In the Republic of Finland since 1917, the designing and use of macroseismic questionnaires shifted to the established seismological units. The designing and dissemination of macroseismic questionnaires constitute the core of macroseismic surveys in Finland. This part focuses on the design. Seven generations of printed macroseismic questionnaires are identified. The first questionnaire in 1882 was designed by a geologist. The second-generation questionnaire was produced by the Geological Commission. In the 1900s, the third-generation questionnaire was owned by the Geographical Society of Finland, the fourth by the seismological station of the University of Helsinki, the fifth by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, the sixth by the Department of Geophysics of the University of Oulu and the seventh of the Institute of Seismology of the University of Helsinki. At the turn of the 2000s the questionnaire was placed on the Internet.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi Birgitta (2017)
    The present article is the second part of a snapshot of macroseismology in Finland from the 1730s to the 2000s. In the 1730s, more numerous and informative earthquake reports began to appear. The article begins with an outline of the connection between academia and macroseismology. The focus is on the dissemination of macroseismic questionnaires and their respondents. The standard practice in Finland is to conduct macroseismic surveys remotely. Postal services were widely used to disseminate questionnaires in the areas affected by earthquakes. The newspaper press has frequently been utilized in the surveys. Since the latter half of the 1800s, telephones and telegraphs made instant communication possible. Macroseismic field surveys have sometimes been conducted after important local earthquakes to interview eyewitnesses and to disseminate questionnaires on the spot. The group of earthquake reporters that stands out throughout the centuries is the clergy. Its leading position waned only in the 1900s. Finns became more literate, acquiring their writing skills during the 1800s. The occupational groups of the respondents became more versatile in the 1900s, reflecting the evolution of macroseismology into a genuine citizen science. Macroseismic reporting mirrors the development of society throughout the centuries. In particular, new technologies have an immediate effect on the surveys.