Browsing by Subject "eco-evolutionary dynamics"

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  • Hiltunen, Teppo; Virta, Marko; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2017)
    The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics. Furthermore, antibiotic leakage to natural environments can radically alter bacterial communities. Overall, we argue that eco-evolutionary feedback loops in microbial communities can be modified by residual antibiotics and evolution of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this review is to connect some of the well-established key concepts in evolutionary biology and recent advances in the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics to research on antibiotic resistance. We also identify some key knowledge gaps related to eco-evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance, and review some of the recent technical advantages in molecular microbiology that offer new opportunities for tackling these questions. Finally, we argue that using the full potential of evolutionary theory and active communication across the different fields is needed for solving this global crisis more efficiently. This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.
  • DiLeo, Michelle F.; Husby, Arild; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2018)
    There is now clear evidence that species across a broad range of taxa harbor extensive heritable variation in dispersal. While studies suggest that this variation can facilitate demographic outcomes such as range expansion and invasions, few have considered the consequences of intraspecific variation in dispersal for the maintenance and distribution of genetic variation across fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine how landscape characteristics and individual variation in dispersal combine to predict genetic structure using genomic and spatial data from the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We used linear and latent factor mixed models to identify the landscape features that best predict spatial sorting of alleles in the dispersal-related gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi). We next used structural equation modeling to test if variation in Pgi mediated gene flow as measured by F-st at putatively neutral loci. In a year when the population was recovering following a large decline, individuals with a genotype associated with greater dispersal ability were found at significantly higher frequencies in populations isolated by water and forest, and these populations showed lower levels of genetic differentiation at neutral loci. These relationships disappeared in the next year when metapopulation density was high, suggesting that the effects of individual variation are context dependent. Together our results highlight that (1) more complex aspects of landscape structure beyond just the configuration of habitat can be important for maintaining spatial variation in dispersal traits and (2) that individual variation in dispersal plays a key role in maintaining genetic variation across fragmented landscapes.
  • Scheued, Thomas; Cairns, Johannes; Becks, Lutz; Hiltunen, Teppo (2019)
    Predation is one of the key ecological mechanisms allowing species coexisence and influencing biological diversity. However, ecological processes are subject to contemporary evolutionary change, and the degree to which predation affects diversity ultimately depends on the interplay between evolution and ecology. Furthermore, ecological interactions that influence species coexistence can be altered by reciprocal coevolution especially in the case of antagonistic interactions such as predation or parasitism. Here we used an experimental evolution approach to test for the role of initial trait variation in the prey population and coevolutionary hisory of the predator in the ecological dynamics of a two-species bacterial community predated by a ciliate. We found that initial trait variation both at the bacterial and ciliate level enhanced species coexistence, and that subsequent trait evolutionary trajectories depended on the initial genetic diversity present in the population. Our findings provide further support to the notion that the ecology-centric view of diversity maintenance must be reinvestigated in light of recent findings in the field of eco-evolutionary dynamics.
  • Nonaka, Etsuko; Kaitala, Veijo (2020)
    Many parasitoids have single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), which produces sterile or inviable males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. A previous study theoretically showed that small populations have elevated risks of extinction due to the positive feedback between inbreeding and small population size, referred to as the diploid male vortex. A few modeling studies have suggested that the diploid male vortex may not be as common because balancing selection at sex determining loci tends to maintain high allelic diversity in spatially structured populations. However, the generality of the conclusion is yet uncertain, as they were drawn either from models developed for particular systems or from a general-purpose competition model. To attest the conclusion, we study several well-studied host-parasitoid models that incorporate functional response specifying the number of attacked hosts given a host density and derive the conditions for a diploid male vortex in a single population. Then, we develop spatially structured individual-based versions of the models to include female behavior, diploid male fertility, and temporal fluctuations. The results show that producing a handful of successful offspring per female parasitoid could enable parasitoid persistence when a typical number of CSD alleles are present. The effect of functional response depends on the levels of fluctuations in host abundance, and inviable or partially fertile diploid males and a small increase in dispersal can alleviate the risk of a diploid male vortex. Our work supports the generality of effective genetic rescue in spatially connected parasitoid populations with sl-CSD. However, under more variable climate, the efficacy of the CSD mechanism may substantially decline.
  • Penczykowski, Rachel M.; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Koskella, Britt (2016)
    Predicting the emergence, spread and evolution of parasites within and among host populations requires insight to both the spatial and temporal scales of adaptation, including an understanding of within-host up through community-level dynamics. Although there are very few pathosystems for which such extensive data exist, there has been a recent push to integrate studies performed over multiple scales or to simultaneously test for dynamics occurring across scales. Drawing on examples from the literature, with primary emphasis on three diverse host-parasite case studies, we first examine current understanding of the spatial structure of host and parasite populations, including patterns of local adaptation and spatial variation in host resistance and parasite infectivity. We then explore the ways to measure temporal variation and dynamics in host-parasite interactions and discuss the need to examine change over both ecological and evolutionary timescales. Finally, we highlight new approaches and syntheses that allow for simultaneous analysis of dynamics across scales. We argue that there is great value in examining interplay among scales in studies of host-parasite interactions.