Browsing by Subject "economic value"

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  • Sampolahti, Sani (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In this study the economic values for the breeding goal traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle were determined by the bioeconomical model. Additionally, the economic value was determined for a new trait, feed efficiency, which was modelled as residual feed intake (RFI). Feed efficiency was added to breeding goals because of intrest in reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy cattle production. The effect of increasing feed costs on the economic weights was also studied. Economic values were determined by the program ECOWEIGHT. The bioeconomical model included 21 traits, which can be divided a few categories: milk production traits, growth and carcass traits and functional traits (calving difficulty, stillbirth, calf mortality in the rearing period, fertility traits, productive lifetime of cows, incidence of clinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS) and residual feed intake (RFI)). Economic values and standardized economic weights were defined for the traits. Profitability of the milk production was negative (?13,3%), when the subsidies were not included in the calculations. Adding RFI didn’t have any effect on the economic values of the other traits and it didn’t change the order of the traits in standardized economical weight. The marginal economic values for RFI of cows and heifers were ?55,8 and ?24,9 €/kg/d, respectively. The highest relative economic weights was found for 305-d milk (36%), protein (14%), fat (9%), mature weight (7%) and calving interval (5%). Relative economic weights for RFI of cows and heifers were 4,6% and 1,5%, respectively. An increase in the feeding costs (10, 30 and 50%) changed the order of the traits in standardized economical weights. The weights of milk production traits were decreased and the weights of growth traits, RFI and calving interval were increased. RFI of cows was the fifth important trait when feeding costs increased 30%. According to the results of this study would be beneficial, especially if the relative im-portance of feed efficiency will increase in the future due to increasing feed costs or in-creasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. However, more research will be needed before adding RFI to the breeding goals.
  • Luo, Fuhe (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Linnainmaa, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Dairy cattle breeding has been driven by economics since the 1930s. For a longer period, the costeffectiveness of dairy farming has been poor, and the farmers have been forced to look for all possible ways to improve economics, through either reducing costs or increasing profit. Finland had in 2018 6250 dairy farms, which all differ from each other by size, economics and production environment. Finland participates to Nordic Cattle Genetic Evaluation (NAV) and uses Nordic Total Merit (NTM) as a joint total merit index for Finland, Denmark and Sweden. It has not been published, whether Finnish dairy farms would need more farm specific total merit indices. Breeding goal preferences do differ not only between farms but also between production types, since organic farmers tend to put more emphasis on production, compared to conventional. The aim of this study was to study whether economic values on breeding goal traits differ between farms and production types. Herd specific economic values were counted for ten breeding goal traits. The study was fulfilled with seven dairy herds, who differed from each other by herd size and production environment. Two of the herds were organic. The calculation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model SimHerd. It is a stochastic simulation model, which simulates the herd in weekly steps, taking all events in a cow’s life into account. Traits analyzed in this study were chosen according to hypotheses of their economic values. Traits analyzed were ECM yield, mastitis, conception rate of cows, conception rate of heifers, cow mortality, calf mortality, claw and leg diseases, feed efficiency, body weight and other culling. Prices and variable costs as well as the phenotypic data of the farms was collected from the year 2018. Finnish milk production is highly dependent of subsidies, but due to their complexity, only direct subsidies for milk were considered in this study. Relations between traits were cut off from the model before simulation. The maximum number of cows for each farm was set to 1000 to improve the reliability of the simulations. Each trait was simulated three times: with the phenotypic data and then twice with changing the parameter. According to the results, the relative economic value of ECM yield was the highest for all farms. The highest economic values differ between farms, but on average the next highest economic values were for body weight, conception rate of cows and cow mortality. These economic values were in the same range for both conventional and organic farms. When relative economic values are presented as percentages of the sum of standardized economic values, traits affecting longevity cover together the greatest percentage. With improved longevity the cows have more productive years, which means greater lifetime milk yield, less replacement cots and smaller environmental impact. When results were compared between farms, they showed no need for farm specific TMI. A different TMI for organic production would need a further research.
  • Fredrikson, Martta (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The main objective of this Master’s thesis is to create an overview of the thematic entity of forest, health and economics based on earlier literature. The other objective is to demonstrate how to value these benefits with a computional estimation. There is lot of research made on the health benefits of forests or green space to human and strong evidence of those benefits. In this study the aspect of physical activity was chosen because the independent recreational use of forests can usually be classified as health enhancing physical activity, and in addition there are similarities between the health benefits of natural environment and physical activity. Health benefits can be valued by various methods. Commonly used methods are based on the value of statistical life or cost of illness and lost productivity from time off work. The Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) created by World Health Organization was used for the computional estimation in this study. The mechanism of HEAT is based on the value of statistical life. Furhermore a rough estimate of the value of health benefits based on cost of illness is presented. The computional estimation is based on a fictional 100 hectare forest situated nearby a city. The population living half a kilometer radius from the forest was estimated with the population density data of Helsinki. The value of health benefits for the population of 5000 working aged is remarkable: depending on the method the value can be over two million euros yearly. The value of health benefits is greater than the potential average annual earning of the forest used for wood production, yet smaller than the value of that area used for building. The economic value of health benefits of forests is considerable, especially in cities with high population density or nearby them. This study gives a scratch of the economic value of the health benefits of recreational use of forests and there is strong demand for further study on the subject. However, by taking the advantage of existing knowledge of the subject it is possible to make estimations of the value of health benefits, and those estimations should be used more often in policy making.