Browsing by Subject "economy"

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  • Costa, Luis; Hildén, Mikael; Kropp, Jürgen; Böttcher, Kristin; Fronzek, Stefan; Swart, Rob; Otto, Juliane; McCormick, Niall; Radojevic, Milka; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Luojus, Kari; Singh, Tanya; Pöyry, Juha; Sanchez, Emilia; Juckes, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2016)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 41/2016
    This report documents and reviews a selected set of climate change and impact indicators. They are documented according to reference criteria that were based on a literature study and later refinement in expert discussions. Methodological description, data requirements and availability, treatment of uncertainty, fitness for purpose of indicator time series, and seven other relevant criteria are documented for a total of 81 climate change and impact related indicators. The indicators were grouped into three tiers that reflect their main purpose of use, ranging from change in climate variables to the socio-economic consequences of climate change. A key observation is the limited availability of indicators that explicitly link climate change with socio-economic phenomena. This might be explained by the complexity of the system that hinders quantitative attribution of economic and multi-level societal development to climatic factors. The strengths and weaknesses of indicators are discussed at a general level and also outlined both on an indicator-by-indicator basis and with respect to their potential uses. The report presents a consistent set of criteria and approaches for the incorporation of indicator information into climate information portals. The collected information on climate change and impact indicators can support the development of the Copernicus Climate Services and the indicators that such services will promote.
  • Nissinen, Ari; Savolainen, Hannu (Finnish Environment Institute, 2020)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 15en/2019
    The aim of the research was to analyse the carbon footprint (i.e. life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions) and raw material requirements (RMR) for public procurement and household consumption. The main method used was the environmentally extended input-output model ENVIMAT, supplemented with statistics on public procurement. Greenhouse gas emissions for the final domestic demand, i.e. the consumption-based emissions of Finland, amounted to 73.4 million tons carbon dioxide equivalents (Mt CO2e) in 2015. This can also be seen as the carbon footprint of Finland, and it was 33 % bigger than the territorial emissions which form the basis of the official national inventories. The carbon footprint for public procurement in 2015 was 8.3 Mt CO2e. State procurement accounted for 1.78 Mt, municipalities for 4.73 Mt CO2e, and federations of municipalities (FM) for 1.79 Mt CO2e. The carbon footprint of investments made by public organisations amounted to 2.7 Mt CO2e. In state procurement 42 % of the emissions were caused by buying services, 38 % from goods, 12 % from rents, and 8 % were due to other costs. Buying goods caused the largest emission share in the defence administration (55 %), whereas services caused the largest share (81 %) in the traffic and communications sector. In the procurement made by municipalities and federations of municipalities 42–43 % of emissions were caused by the procurement of services and 52 % from goods. Looking at state administration, defence caused the largest share (43 %) of emissions, and next were the traffic and communications (21 %) and the ministry of the interior (10 %). Urban municipalities caused 3.33 Mt of emissions, and semi-urban municipalities caused 0.69 Mt and rural municipalities 0.71 Mt. Hospital districts had the largest emissions (1.03 Mt) among the federations of municipalities. The raw material requirement of public procurement amounted to 19.5 Mt in 2015. The share of state procurement was 34 %, whereas municipalities and FM caused the remaining 66 %. The RMR of investments made by public organisations amounted to 25.7 Mt. The RMR of household consumption in 2015 was 64.8 Mt. The share of other products and services came to 32 %, housing including energy use amounted to 30 %, foodstuffs and non-alcoholic beverages contributed 26 % and transport 12 %. Regarding the carbon footprint of households in 2016, transport caused 30 % of all carbon emission equivalents, housing and energy use 29 %, foodstuffs and non-alcoholic beverages 19 %, and other products and services 22 %. The overall carbon footprint was 53.4 Mt CO2e in 2000 and 60.1 Mt in 2016 (12.5 % growth). Emissions were the largest in 2007 (66.6 Mt). A structural decomposition of the change in the carbon footprint from 2000 to 2016 shows three major factors: change in consumption expenditure (which alone would change the footprint by +30.7 %), change in consumption structure (-5.7 %) and technological change (-12.5 %). The annual average carbon footprint per capita varied between 10.1 and 12.6 tons of CO2e. Statistics Finland’s Household Budget Survey was used to analyse different households. In the lowest income decile the carbon footprint was 7.2 t CO2e per consumption unit, and in the highest income decile it was 19.0. The emission intensity (i.e. emissions per euro consumed) did not have any clear relationship to the income. Regarding types of households, couples without children and couples with children had the largest footprint per consumption unit. When housing was not taken into account, households in inner urban areas had the smallest and households in peri-urban and rural areas close to urban areas had the largest carbon footprint per consumption unit. Of the consumption sectors, transport had the highest emission intensity (0.81 kg CO2e /€). Additionally, food had a high emission intensity (0.76). The two expenditure categories related to housing had smaller intensities (0.51 and 0.45), and other goods and services had the smallest (0.24). The average emission intensity was around 0.5.
  • Berg, Annukka; Antikainen, Riina; Hartikainen, Ernesto; Kauppi, Sari; Kautto, Petrus; Lazarevic, David; Piesik, Sandra; Saikku, Laura (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 26/2018
    As a new paradigm for economic development, the circular economy has significant environmental, economic and social benefits at the global scale. The circular economy concept highlights the notion of replacing the ‘end-of-life’ in current production and consumption practices by reducing, reusing, and recycling products and materials in production, distribution and consumption processes. Promoting circularity aims to accomplish sustainable development, and the circular economy has links to many of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) approved by the United Nations in 2015. This report is a background contribution asked by the Independent group of scientists writing the Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR) 2019. The GSDR 2019 is the first in a series of comprehensive, in-depth Reports that will be produced every four years to inform the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development convened under the auspices of the General Assembly. Thus, this background report seeks to provide a condensed package on the circular economy; the concept, its history, potentials, business opportunities, management and measurement. Some of the key messages entail that moving towards a circular economy presents vast opportunities for businesses of various kind, and that increasing the material circularity of economy can also be a way to alleviate poverty. Yet, the systemic and disruptive changes required for a circular economy transition will not take place without significant changes to existing regulatory structures.
  • Kim, Sergey (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The thesis focuses on the process of large-scale privatization in Russia and Kazakhstan in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The main research problem was finding the structural similarities that two countries shared before and during the implementation of the economic reforms and, also, the differences that defined the divergence of the political and economic trajectories already in the second half of the 1990s. The main method used in the thesis is a comparative analysis based on David Kang´s analytical framework described in his book ‘Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines’ (Cambridge University Press, 2002). The focus of the analysis is the balance of power between the government and the private sector as one of the main determinants of economic development. The conclusion of our work is that the large-scale privatization that was supposed to be democratic and distributive ended up enriching a small group of beneficiaries in both Russia in Kazakhstan but because of completely different reasons. Kazakhstani regime very early transformed into the predatory state where the political elite, consolidated around a strong figure of the president, could successfully take advantage of the private sector. Whereas, in Russia, stronger political polarization led to the rise of the powerful economic groups and actors (the ‘oligarchs’) that had a say in the key political decisions during the 1990s. Thus, portraying just one group of actors (whether the oligarchs or the corrupt government) as responsible for the ‘failure’ of large-scale privatization is too simplistic. The dynamics between the government and the private businesses as the system constraint was much more important.
  • Lehtonen, Veli-Matti (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Economics and Society
    Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, edistääkö Suomen valtionhallinnossa tuotettava henkilöstötilinpäätösinformaatio henkilöstöprosesseihin perustuvan henkilöstöstrategian tehokasta toteuttamista. Tutkimuksen uutuusarvo alan kansainvälisen tutkimuksen kentässä perustuu laaja-alaiseen tarkastelunäkökulmaan. Tämän mahdollisti tutkimuskohteena olevasta ilmiöstä käytössä oleva monipuolinen, yhtenäisiin käsitteisiin perustuva ja useita vuosia koskeva henkilöstötilinpäätöksen tunnuslukuaineisto. Aikaisempien tutkimusten usein yksittäisiin tekijöihin perustuvasta analyysistä poiketen, tutkimuksella selvitettiin henkilöstön johtamiseen ja tuloksellisuuteen sidoksissa olevien tekijöiden vaikutuksia laajoina kokonaisuuksina, koskien kaikkia henkilöstön johtamisprosesseja. Tutkimus avaa uusia näköaloja henkilöstöinformaation hyväksikäytölle henkilöstön eri johtamisprosesseissa, jotka liittyvät saumattomasti organisaation toimintaan ja kokonaisjohtamiseen. Käytetty henkilöstön johtamisprosessikeskeinen tarkastelukulma auttaa ymmärtämään henkilöstön osaamisen, motivaation, työhyvinvoinnin, johtamisen ja palkinnan yhteyksiä sekä toisiinsa että organisaation pitkäjänteiseen toimintaan ja tuloksellisuuteen. Tutkimuksen keskeinen tavoite on motivoida johtoa, esimiehiä ja HR -ammattilaisia entistä enemmän hyväksikäyttämään henkilöstöön liittyvää analysoitua tietoa henkilöstöstrategioiden teon ja käytäntöön viennin, johtamisen ja henkilöstösuunnittelun apuvälineenä.
  • Alaranta, Joonas; Turunen, Topi (Oxford University Press, 2020)
    Journal of Environmental Law, Volume 33, Issue 1, March 2021, Pages 113–136
    This article discusses the regulation of ‘substances of concern’ in the circular economy (CE) in the European Union (EU). It analyses the tensions and obstacles that the present sectoral separation of waste, product and chemicals legislation sets for the development of the CE. We argue that in a longer term perspective the aim should be to erase the border between waste and chemicals regulation and create a single regime for the regulation of materials and their flow. However, the eventual aim of such non-toxic material circulation can be achieved only via precautious transitional measures that outweigh the costs and benefits of each material flow and set restrictions for the particular substances of concern. Regulatory actions addressing the risks posed by the substances of concern in the waste-based material flows are urgently needed. New measures are necessary to protect human health and the environment and to support the development of the markets for the secondary materials.
  • Humalisto, Niko; Valve, Helena; Åkerman, Maria (Taylor & Francis, 2021)
    Environmental Politics, 30:5, 833-853
    The circular economy (CE) is currently generating considerable expectations. The concept describes an aspired future but does not provide clear guidance for policy-making. As policy outcomes often rest on initiatives generated in a bottom-up fashion, our attention must be directed to the ways policies are made accessible and interesting to those who might take the initiative. We claim that on-line publicity plays a key role in this. Our findings from a hyperlink analysis focusing on a government funding call for nutrient recycling in Finland show how multiple versions of the policy topic unfold online, as emergent hyperlink clusters prioritize specific agents, material circuits, and policy visions over others. The topic becomes connected with activities and agendas to create path dependencies and to strengthen existing divisions rather than to advocate change. Thus, we argue that CE policy design must recognize the way policy is shaped through online publicity creation.
  • Harkonen, Heidi (2019)
    Among low-income Havana residents, men frequently give money and other forms of material support to women in whom they have a romantic interest. For women, men's material contributions are expressions of responsibility and care. While men share this view to a degree, they sometimes have more ambiguous emotions regarding such practices. These tensions in different views of gendered reciprocity are influenced by large-scale changes that have taken place in Cuban society since the 1990s. Although, traditionally, state socialism has embraced ideas of gender egalitarianism and women's independent income, the post-Soviet period has seen the emergence of new inequalities, dependencies, and marginalizations that threaten earlier, socialist understandings of intimacy. The importance that women currently place on material wealth in terms of their views of a desirable partner highlights the gendered consequences of Cuba's contemporary economic transformations and their complex interplay with individuals' aspirations for love.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Pyykönen, Emilia; Kivinen, Markku Jalmari (Prime Minister's Office, 2016)
    Publications of the Government's analysis, assessment and research activities
    The first part of the two-piece project consists of an evaluation of peer-reviewed research on Russian security policy, conducted in Finland in 2011-2015. The second part is based on an analysis of Russia’s key security policy trends. In this part, Russia’s goals, resources and ability to carry out its goals in defence, economy, societal and state security, and the effect on Finland are evaluated. The report recommends the construction of a strategy on Russian security policy research, which would concentrate on crucial, but less studied themes. Based on the evaluation of Russia’s security developments, the report offers recommendations for Finland’s foreign and security policy. It is essential that Finnish decision makers assess Russia’s development in a comprehensive manner and are prepared for various alternatives.
  • Thu Thuy Pham; Wong, Grace; Le, Dung Ngoc; Brockhaus, Maria (Center fo International Forestry Research, 2016)
    Occasional paper
  • Ylä-Anttila, Matti Tuomas; Vesa, Juho Antti; Eranti, Veikko; Kukkonen, Anna Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Tomi Henrik; Lonkila, Markku; Luhtakallio, Eeva (2018)
    Building on theories of valuation and evaluation, we develop an analytical framework that outlines six elements of the process of consolidation of an idea in the public sphere. We then use the framework to analyse the process of consolidation of the idea of climate change mitigation between 1997 and 2013, focusing on the interplay between ecological and economic evaluations. Our content analysis of 1274 articles in leading newspapers in five countries around the globe shows that (1) ecological arguments increase over time, (2) economic arguments decrease over time, (3) the visibility of environmental nongovernmental organizations as carriers of ecological ideas increases over time, (4) the visibility of business actors correspondingly decreases, (5) ecological ideas are increasingly adopted by political and business elites and (6) a compromise emerges between ecological and economic evaluations, in the form of the argument that climate change mitigation boosts, rather than hinders economic growth.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Pyykönen, Emilia; Kivinen, Markku Jalmari (Valtioneuvoston kanslia, 2016)
    Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja
    The first part of the two-piece project consists of an evaluation of peer-reviewed research on Russian security policy, conducted in Finland in 2011-2015. The second part is based on an analysis of Russia’s key security policy trends. In this part, Russia’s goals, resources and ability to carry out its goals in defence, economy, societal and state security, and the effect on Finland are evaluated. The report recommends the construction of a strategy on Russian security policy research, which would concentrate on crucial, but less studied themes. Based on the evaluation of Russia’s security developments, the report offers recommendations for Finland’s foreign and security policy. It is essential that Finnish decision makers assess Russia’s development in a comprehensive manner and are prepared for various alternatives.
  • Kletter, Raz (2014)
    Discussion of dry and liquid capacity measures in Judah/ the Bible/ ANE; LMlk jars; Bath, hin and other capacity measures existed already in the Iron Age; Albright estimation of bath as c. 20 liters was right as an inscribed jar from Lachish prooves. Tehre were no "lamlk stamp systems" or "jar handle systems" of administration in Judah - administaration was not sitting in a Shphelah pottery workshop obsessed with stamping (carelessly!) a minory of lmlk type jars; but in Jerusalem, issuing orders and writing on papyry which did not survive.
  • Nuorivaara, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In recent years, the role of economic models in guiding government policy has provoked discussion as human wellbeing and the state of the environment are threatened by multiple sustainability challenges, most notably by the ecological sustainability crisis. The mainstream economic approach has received criticism since it has not been able to solve these challenges and thus, several alternative approaches in pursuit for a just and sustainable future have gained popularity both nationally and internationally. In this thesis I focus on the wellbeing economy concept in the Finnish welfare state in the early 2020s. Wellbeing economy was introduced in Finland by the Finnish Federation for Social Affairs and Wealth (SOSTE) in 2012 to highlight the interdependency of human wellbeing and economy. The concept has since been developed and realized by different actors of the society, but it is not yet that well-known among the public. To find out the potential role of this new economic approach in the transition towards sustainable welfare society, it is important to get a clear picture of how the concept is interpreted by its advocates. Therefore, in my case study, I examined the expert narratives of wellbeing economy. My main research question is: What does the concept of wellbeing economy mean in Finland in the early 2020s? This question is complemented by two sub-questions: 1) What are the shared contents and practices associated with wellbeing economy? and 2) What are the key differences between different conceptions of wellbeing economy? The underlying disagreements in theory and in practice of wellbeing economy might impact the integrity of the concept even if the concept formulation of wellbeing economy seems consistent. I conducted seven (7) semi-structured expert interviews from five (5) different organizations during the spring 2021. The interviews were thematically analysed with a focus on the memes of neoliberal narratives and the memes of alternative narratives as well as the conflicting memes in alternative narratives. In this study, a meme is defined as the structural component of a narrative. Finally, I identified similarities and differences in these building blocks of wellbeing economy narratives between different experts. I found that there were more shared memes than differences in the experts’ conceptions of wellbeing economy. Most of the interviewees mentioned memes of neoliberal narrative. All the interviewees mentioned the alternative narrative memes connected networks, sustainability, cooperation with others, and human dignity, prosperity, and wellbeing. Most of them also considered the Covid-19 pandemic as an opportunity in crisis. However, the meme a new economic system created the greatest division in the interpretations of wellbeing economy. In conclusion, some interviewees supported the neoliberalism more clearly while others opposed this narrative, and the rest were not clearly for or against the growth-agenda. The ambiguity of the concept especially in terms of economic growth should be further discussed in addition to specifying, for instance, what is meant by sustainability and wellbeing in wellbeing economy. Further research is also needed to find out how the discussion about wellbeing economy concept will develop in Finland and internationally.