Browsing by Subject "economy"

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  • Kim, Sergey (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The thesis focuses on the process of large-scale privatization in Russia and Kazakhstan in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The main research problem was finding the structural similarities that two countries shared before and during the implementation of the economic reforms and, also, the differences that defined the divergence of the political and economic trajectories already in the second half of the 1990s. The main method used in the thesis is a comparative analysis based on David Kang´s analytical framework described in his book ‘Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines’ (Cambridge University Press, 2002). The focus of the analysis is the balance of power between the government and the private sector as one of the main determinants of economic development. The conclusion of our work is that the large-scale privatization that was supposed to be democratic and distributive ended up enriching a small group of beneficiaries in both Russia in Kazakhstan but because of completely different reasons. Kazakhstani regime very early transformed into the predatory state where the political elite, consolidated around a strong figure of the president, could successfully take advantage of the private sector. Whereas, in Russia, stronger political polarization led to the rise of the powerful economic groups and actors (the ‘oligarchs’) that had a say in the key political decisions during the 1990s. Thus, portraying just one group of actors (whether the oligarchs or the corrupt government) as responsible for the ‘failure’ of large-scale privatization is too simplistic. The dynamics between the government and the private businesses as the system constraint was much more important.
  • Lehtonen, Veli-Matti (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Economics and Society
    Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, edistääkö Suomen valtionhallinnossa tuotettava henkilöstötilinpäätösinformaatio henkilöstöprosesseihin perustuvan henkilöstöstrategian tehokasta toteuttamista. Tutkimuksen uutuusarvo alan kansainvälisen tutkimuksen kentässä perustuu laaja-alaiseen tarkastelunäkökulmaan. Tämän mahdollisti tutkimuskohteena olevasta ilmiöstä käytössä oleva monipuolinen, yhtenäisiin käsitteisiin perustuva ja useita vuosia koskeva henkilöstötilinpäätöksen tunnuslukuaineisto. Aikaisempien tutkimusten usein yksittäisiin tekijöihin perustuvasta analyysistä poiketen, tutkimuksella selvitettiin henkilöstön johtamiseen ja tuloksellisuuteen sidoksissa olevien tekijöiden vaikutuksia laajoina kokonaisuuksina, koskien kaikkia henkilöstön johtamisprosesseja. Tutkimus avaa uusia näköaloja henkilöstöinformaation hyväksikäytölle henkilöstön eri johtamisprosesseissa, jotka liittyvät saumattomasti organisaation toimintaan ja kokonaisjohtamiseen. Käytetty henkilöstön johtamisprosessikeskeinen tarkastelukulma auttaa ymmärtämään henkilöstön osaamisen, motivaation, työhyvinvoinnin, johtamisen ja palkinnan yhteyksiä sekä toisiinsa että organisaation pitkäjänteiseen toimintaan ja tuloksellisuuteen. Tutkimuksen keskeinen tavoite on motivoida johtoa, esimiehiä ja HR -ammattilaisia entistä enemmän hyväksikäyttämään henkilöstöön liittyvää analysoitua tietoa henkilöstöstrategioiden teon ja käytäntöön viennin, johtamisen ja henkilöstösuunnittelun apuvälineenä.
  • Alaranta, Joonas; Turunen, Topi (Oxford University Press, 2020)
    Journal of Environmental Law, Volume 33, Issue 1, March 2021, Pages 113–136
    This article discusses the regulation of ‘substances of concern’ in the circular economy (CE) in the European Union (EU). It analyses the tensions and obstacles that the present sectoral separation of waste, product and chemicals legislation sets for the development of the CE. We argue that in a longer term perspective the aim should be to erase the border between waste and chemicals regulation and create a single regime for the regulation of materials and their flow. However, the eventual aim of such non-toxic material circulation can be achieved only via precautious transitional measures that outweigh the costs and benefits of each material flow and set restrictions for the particular substances of concern. Regulatory actions addressing the risks posed by the substances of concern in the waste-based material flows are urgently needed. New measures are necessary to protect human health and the environment and to support the development of the markets for the secondary materials.
  • Harkonen, Heidi (2019)
    Among low-income Havana residents, men frequently give money and other forms of material support to women in whom they have a romantic interest. For women, men's material contributions are expressions of responsibility and care. While men share this view to a degree, they sometimes have more ambiguous emotions regarding such practices. These tensions in different views of gendered reciprocity are influenced by large-scale changes that have taken place in Cuban society since the 1990s. Although, traditionally, state socialism has embraced ideas of gender egalitarianism and women's independent income, the post-Soviet period has seen the emergence of new inequalities, dependencies, and marginalizations that threaten earlier, socialist understandings of intimacy. The importance that women currently place on material wealth in terms of their views of a desirable partner highlights the gendered consequences of Cuba's contemporary economic transformations and their complex interplay with individuals' aspirations for love.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Pyykönen, Emilia; Kivinen, Markku Jalmari (Prime Minister's Office, 2016)
    Publications of the Government's analysis, assessment and research activities
    The first part of the two-piece project consists of an evaluation of peer-reviewed research on Russian security policy, conducted in Finland in 2011-2015. The second part is based on an analysis of Russia’s key security policy trends. In this part, Russia’s goals, resources and ability to carry out its goals in defence, economy, societal and state security, and the effect on Finland are evaluated. The report recommends the construction of a strategy on Russian security policy research, which would concentrate on crucial, but less studied themes. Based on the evaluation of Russia’s security developments, the report offers recommendations for Finland’s foreign and security policy. It is essential that Finnish decision makers assess Russia’s development in a comprehensive manner and are prepared for various alternatives.
  • Thu Thuy Pham,; Wong, Grace; Le, Dung Ngoc; Brockhaus, Maria (Center fo International Forestry Research, 2016)
    Occasional paper
  • Ylä-Anttila, Matti Tuomas; Vesa, Juho Antti; Eranti, Veikko; Kukkonen, Anna Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Tomi Henrik; Lonkila, Markku; Luhtakallio, Eeva (2018)
    Building on theories of valuation and evaluation, we develop an analytical framework that outlines six elements of the process of consolidation of an idea in the public sphere. We then use the framework to analyse the process of consolidation of the idea of climate change mitigation between 1997 and 2013, focusing on the interplay between ecological and economic evaluations. Our content analysis of 1274 articles in leading newspapers in five countries around the globe shows that (1) ecological arguments increase over time, (2) economic arguments decrease over time, (3) the visibility of environmental nongovernmental organizations as carriers of ecological ideas increases over time, (4) the visibility of business actors correspondingly decreases, (5) ecological ideas are increasingly adopted by political and business elites and (6) a compromise emerges between ecological and economic evaluations, in the form of the argument that climate change mitigation boosts, rather than hinders economic growth.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Pyykönen, Emilia; Kivinen, Markku Jalmari (Valtioneuvoston kanslia, 2016)
    Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja
    Den första delen av det tvådelade projektet har utvärderats refererad finska forskning på den ryska säkerhetspolitiken i 2011-2015. Den andra delen är baserad på en analys av politiska trender i Rysslands säkerhet. Avsnittet beräknas Rysslands mål, medel och förmågan i militära försvaret, ekonomi, social och statlig säkerhet, och vad dessa innebär för Finlands val. I rapporten rekommenderas att förbereda en forskningsstrategi på Rysslands säkerhetspolitik med särskild inriktning på de kritiska, men föga studerade teman. Rapporten ger rekommendationer för åtgärder på grundval av den nuvarande utvecklingen i Ryssland. Det är viktigt att beslutsfattarna i Finland bedömer Rysslands utveckling på ett övergripande sätt och är förberedda för olika alternativ.
  • Kletter, Raz (2014)
    Discussion of dry and liquid capacity measures in Judah/ the Bible/ ANE; LMlk jars; Bath, hin and other capacity measures existed already in the Iron Age; Albright estimation of bath as c. 20 liters was right as an inscribed jar from Lachish prooves. Tehre were no "lamlk stamp systems" or "jar handle systems" of administration in Judah - administaration was not sitting in a Shphelah pottery workshop obsessed with stamping (carelessly!) a minory of lmlk type jars; but in Jerusalem, issuing orders and writing on papyry which did not survive.
  • Nuorivaara, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In recent years, the role of economic models in guiding government policy has provoked discussion as human wellbeing and the state of the environment are threatened by multiple sustainability challenges, most notably by the ecological sustainability crisis. The mainstream economic approach has received criticism since it has not been able to solve these challenges and thus, several alternative approaches in pursuit for a just and sustainable future have gained popularity both nationally and internationally. In this thesis I focus on the wellbeing economy concept in the Finnish welfare state in the early 2020s. Wellbeing economy was introduced in Finland by the Finnish Federation for Social Affairs and Wealth (SOSTE) in 2012 to highlight the interdependency of human wellbeing and economy. The concept has since been developed and realized by different actors of the society, but it is not yet that well-known among the public. To find out the potential role of this new economic approach in the transition towards sustainable welfare society, it is important to get a clear picture of how the concept is interpreted by its advocates. Therefore, in my case study, I examined the expert narratives of wellbeing economy. My main research question is: What does the concept of wellbeing economy mean in Finland in the early 2020s? This question is complemented by two sub-questions: 1) What are the shared contents and practices associated with wellbeing economy? and 2) What are the key differences between different conceptions of wellbeing economy? The underlying disagreements in theory and in practice of wellbeing economy might impact the integrity of the concept even if the concept formulation of wellbeing economy seems consistent. I conducted seven (7) semi-structured expert interviews from five (5) different organizations during the spring 2021. The interviews were thematically analysed with a focus on the memes of neoliberal narratives and the memes of alternative narratives as well as the conflicting memes in alternative narratives. In this study, a meme is defined as the structural component of a narrative. Finally, I identified similarities and differences in these building blocks of wellbeing economy narratives between different experts. I found that there were more shared memes than differences in the experts’ conceptions of wellbeing economy. Most of the interviewees mentioned memes of neoliberal narrative. All the interviewees mentioned the alternative narrative memes connected networks, sustainability, cooperation with others, and human dignity, prosperity, and wellbeing. Most of them also considered the Covid-19 pandemic as an opportunity in crisis. However, the meme a new economic system created the greatest division in the interpretations of wellbeing economy. In conclusion, some interviewees supported the neoliberalism more clearly while others opposed this narrative, and the rest were not clearly for or against the growth-agenda. The ambiguity of the concept especially in terms of economic growth should be further discussed in addition to specifying, for instance, what is meant by sustainability and wellbeing in wellbeing economy. Further research is also needed to find out how the discussion about wellbeing economy concept will develop in Finland and internationally.