Browsing by Subject "edge computing"

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  • Kovala, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to transform many domains of human activity, enabled by the collection of data from the physical world at a massive scale. As the projected growth of IoT data exceeds that of available network capacity, transferring it to centralized cloud data centers is infeasible. Edge computing aims to solve this problem by processing data at the edge of the network, enabling applications with specialized requirements that cloud computing cannot meet. The current market of platforms that support building IoT applications is very fragmented, with offerings available from hundreds of companies with no common architecture. This threatens the realization of IoT's potential: with more interoperability, a new class of applications that combine the collected data and use it in new ways could emerge. In this thesis, promising IoT platforms for edge computing are surveyed. First, an understanding of current challenges in the field is gained through studying the available literature on the topic. Second, IoT edge platforms having the most potential to meet these challenges are chosen and reviewed for their capabilities. Finally, the platforms are compared against each other, with a focus on their potential to meet the challenges learned in the first part. The work shows that AWS IoT for the edge and Microsoft Azure IoT Edge have mature feature sets. However, these platforms are tied to their respective cloud platforms, limiting interoperability and the possibility of switching providers. On the other hand, open source EdgeX Foundry and KubeEdge have the potential for more standardization and interoperability in IoT but are limited in functionality for building practical IoT applications.
  • Su, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoli; Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Cao, Jacky; Su, Peifeng; Pellikka, Petri; Liu, Yongchun; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Hui, Pan; Tarkoma, Sasu (2021)
    Air pollution introduces a major challenge for societies, where it leads to the premature deaths of millions of people each year globally. Massive deployment of air quality sensing devices and data analysis for the resultant data will pave the way for the development of real-time intelligent applications and services, e.g., minimization of exposure to poor air quality either on an individual or city scale. 5G and edge computing supports dense deployments of sensors at high resolution with ubiquitous connectivity, high bandwidth, high-speed gigabit connections, and ultralow latency analysis. This article conceptualizes AI-powered scalable air quality monitoring and presents two systems of calibrating low-cost air quality sensors and the image processing of pictures captured by hyperspectral cameras to better detect air quality. We develop and deploy different AI algorithms in these two systems on a 5G edge testbed and perform a detailed analytics regarding to 1) the performance of AI algorithms and 2) the required communication and computation resources.
  • Zavodovski, Aleksandr; Mohan, Nitinder; Wong, Walter; Kangasharju, Jussi (Usenix : the advanced computing systems association, 2019)
    High demand for low latency services and local data processing has given rise for edge computing. As opposed to cloud computing, in this new paradigm computational facilities are located close to the end-users and data producers, on the edge of the network, hence the name. The critical issue for the proliferation of edge computing is the availability of local computational resources. Major cloud providers are already addressing the problem by establishing facilities in the proximity of end-users. However, there is an alternative trend, namely, developing open infrastructure as a set of standards, technologies, and practices to enable any motivated parties to offer their computational capacity for the needs of edge computing. Open infrastructure can give an additional boost to this new promising paradigm and, moreover, help to avoid problems for which cloud computing has been long criticized for, such as vendor lock-in or privacy. In this paper, we discuss the challenges related to creating such an open infrastructure, in particular focusing on the applicability of distributed ledgers for contractual agreement and payment. Solving the challenge of contracting is central to realizing an open infrastructure for edge computing, and in this paper, we highlight the potential and shortcomings of distributed ledger technologies in the context of our use case.
  • Lee, Hyeongju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The number of IoT and sensor devices is expected to reach 25 billion by 2030. Many IoT appli- cations, such as connected vehicle and smart factory that require high availability, scalability, low latency, and security have appeared in the world. There have been many attempts to use cloud computing for IoT applications, but the mentioned requirements cannot be ensured in cloud environments. To solve this problem, edge computing has appeared in the world. In edge environments, containerization technology is useful to deploy apps with limited resources. In this thesis, two types of high available Kubernetes architecture (2 nodes with an external DB and 3 nodes with embedded DB) were surveyed and implemented using K3s distribution that is suitable for edges. By having a few experiments with the implemented K3s clusters, this thesis shows that the K3s clusters can provide high availability and scalability. We discuss the limitations of the implementations and provide possible solutions too. In addition, we provide the resource usages of each cluster in terms of CPU, RAM, and disk. Both clusters need only less than 10% CPU and about 500MB RAM on average. However, we could see that the 3 nodes cluster with embedded DB uses more resources than the 2 nodes + external DB cluster when changing the status of clusters. Finally, we show that the implemented K3s clusters are suitable for many IoT applications such as connected vehicle and smart factory. If an application that needs high availability and scalability has to be deployed in edge environments, the K3s clusters can provide good solutions to achieve the goals of the applications. The 2 nodes + external DB cluster is suitable for the applications where the amount of data fluctuate often, or where there is a stable connection with the external DB. On the other hand, the 3 nodes cluster will be suitable for the applications that need high availability of the database even in poor internet connection. ACM Computing Classification System (CCS) Computer systems organization → Embedded and cyber-physical systems Human-centered computing → Ubiquitous and mobile computing
  • Hyeongju, Lee (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The number of IoT and sensor devices is expected to reach 25 billion by 2030. Many IoT appli- cations, such as connected vehicle and smart factory that require high availability, scalability, low latency, and security have appeared in the world. There have been many attempts to use cloud computing for IoT applications, but the mentioned requirements cannot be ensured in cloud environments. To solve this problem, edge computing has appeared in the world. In edge environments, containerization technology is useful to deploy apps with limited resources. In this thesis, two types of high available Kubernetes architecture (2 nodes with an external DB and 3 nodes with embedded DB) were surveyed and implemented using K3s distribution that is suitable for edges. By having a few experiments with the implemented K3s clusters, this thesis shows that the K3s clusters can provide high availability and scalability. We discuss the limitations of the implementations and provide possible solutions too. In addition, we provide the resource usages of each cluster in terms of CPU, RAM, and disk. Both clusters need only less than 10% CPU and about 500MB RAM on average. However, we could see that the 3 nodes cluster with embedded DB uses more resources than the 2 nodes + external DB cluster when changing the status of clusters. Finally, we show that the implemented K3s clusters are suitable for many IoT applications such as connected vehicle and smart factory. If an application that needs high availability and scalability has to be deployed in edge environments, the K3s clusters can provide good solutions to achieve the goals of the applications. The 2 nodes + external DB cluster is suitable for the applications where the amount of data fluctuate often, or where there is a stable connection with the external DB. On the other hand, the 3 nodes cluster will be suitable for the applications that need high availability of the database even in poor internet connection. ACM Computing Classification System (CCS) Computer systems organization → Embedded and cyber-physical systems Human-centered computing → Ubiquitous and mobile computing