Browsing by Subject "education policy"

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  • Rikabi-Sukkari, Leila (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The Finnish national core curriculum for basic education is currently being renewed at the National Board of Education and the new curriculum will be implemented in August 2016. A curriculum defines the value basis and aims of teaching as well as the core contents to be taught. A curriculum is closely bound to its surrounding society reflecting its prevailing values, customs and traditions. Therefore, in order to renew the curriculum, it is essential to understand the societal changes and values recognized as important in the society. The drafts of the new curriculum were posted for the first time on the website of the National Board of Education for public commentary. This research examined what the feedback of the new curriculum draft was like; what themes did the commentators hold important concerning the curriculum and education in present and in the future? The research data consisted of 963 comments that were posted on the webpage of the National Board of Education regarding the draft of the general part of the new curriculum. The feedback form was open for 17 days in November and December 2012. The qualitative data analysis was done by coding with the help of Atlas.ti software. The comments discussed several issues regarding the Finnish school, its mission and the appreciations of the commentators. As a result, four major themes were found: 1) equality in education; 2) the use of authentic learning environments and multi-professional collaboration with surrounding community; 3) the role of Finnish cultural heritage and religious education and 4) sustainable development and global citizenship. These results reflect the values and topics the commentators held important for the future in terms of developing the Finnish school and society.
  • Moreno Ramírez, Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    As in many countries, education in Chile has been a huge problem for authorities and researchers. Over time, there have been many attempts to improve quality, but with little to no success. It is difficult to find the main reason why Chilean education faces many problems. One reason could be the way teachers understand the policy instruments; the national curriculum, and how clear it is. However, it also could be related to the way of using skills related to communication in general, and teacher-student interaction in particular. My assumption is they have been ignored or under considered as part of the teaching process. Some experts have recognized the relevance of communication and teacher- student interaction, because of the significance of reciprocity. It has a very crucial role for effective teaching and learning to take place (Arthur, Gordon, & Butterfield, 2003). This is an in-depth research into both systems of education, a comparative and qualitative investigation that aim to analyse guidelines for teachers and principals. This research will collect data through the analysis of both national curriculums, to see how these terms are mentioned and described in them as part of the guidelines of every taught subject, and how many of these teaching methods include teacher-student interaction. For this reason, the purpose of my thesis is to analyse how the elements of communication and teacher-student interaction are presented in the official curriculums of Chile and Finland. Although the analysis of documents is the main source of data, this investigation considers also the observation to understand the dynamics in the classroom, despite being only an illustration.
  • Simola, Hannu; Kalalahti, Mira; Kauko, Jaakko; Sahlström, Fritjof; Varjo, Janne (Routledge, 2017)
    Dynamics in Education Politics: Understanding and Explaining the Finnish Case introduces a new theoretical framework characterised as Comparative Analytics of Dynamics in Education Politics (CADEP). Albeit the topicality of comparative research is obvious in the current era of global large-scale assessment, with its concomitant media visibility and political effects, comparative education is still suffering from certain methodological deficits and is in need of robust theorisation. Focusing on relational dynamics between policy threads, actors and institutions in education politics CADEP seriously considers the phenomena ofcomplexity, contingency and trans-nationality in late-modern societies. In this book CADEP is applied and validated in analysing the "Finnish Educational Miracle" that has been attracting attention in the educational world ever since they rocketed to fame following the PISA studies during the 2000s. This book will open up opportunities for mutual understanding and learning rather than just celebrating the exceptional circumstances or sustainable leadership. Areas covered include: The analytics of dynamics in education politics The dynamics of policy making and governance The dynamics of educational family strategies The dynamics of classroom culture It is vital for humankind to be able to learn from each other’s successes and failures, and this applies in education, too. This book is thus a valuable read for anyone interested in the education system and wanting to shape the learning environment.
  • Pulkkinen, Jonna; Räikkönen, Eija; Jahnukainen, Markku; Pirttimaa, Raija (2020)
    Recent European and global trends in education have been to promote inclusive education and expand education, resulting in the increased provision of special education. In promoting inclusive education, recent special education reforms have also aimed to curtail the rise in identification rates for students in special education, for example, by focusing more on early support and discontinuing fiscal incentives to identify students with special educational needs. Using official special education statistics, we studied how Finland's special education system reforms changed the share of students in special education. In addition, we examined variations in special education provisions among municipalities before and after the reforms, and identified municipal-level predictors of variations. This study utilised piecewise linear latent growth curve modelling to analyse changes, thereby providing an example of how this method can be applied in policy reform studies. The results indicated, in particular, that the funding reform has incentivised municipalities to decrease identification rates for students in special education and to diminish special education provision. However, different municipalities have different special education provisions and have changed these provisions in varied ways. In particular, we found that small and large municipalities differ in special education practices and reform implementation.
  • Jolkkonen, Tytti (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of the study was to look at who was involved in the Helsingin Sanomat's debate on the segregation process in Finnish comprehensive schools and what kind of institutional positions they were talking from. In addition, this study explores the main themes and views of the debate. Previously, there has been limited research in this area, which should be considered as an important topic for Finnish education and needs to be understood. The theoretical basis of this study contains the examination of the development of Finnish school policy and how the Finnish school system has formed during the past decades. The existing research data related to the school segregation has also been taken into account. The data consisted of 52 articles from Helsingin Sanomat newspaper. The articles were published during the period 2005-2014 and all of them were dealing with the School segregation process. The research method was qualitative content analysis, which was supported by calculating essential factors from the research data. The research showed that the debate on the segregation process in Finnish comprehensive schools was divided into eight different themes: reasons for the segregation process of schools, free school choice, where school segregation is reflected, proponents of neighbourhood school principle, perspective of educational equality, what has already been done to prevent the segregation process, what should be done to prevent the segregation process and where schools inequality leads to if nothing is done. The most common theme was what should be done to prevent the school segregation process and it was mainly the researchers and the officials of the school administration that participated in the discussion. Politicians, headmasters and teachers were also involved in the debate, however, ordinary citizens and parents were conspicuous by their absence. Helsingin Sanomat appeared to take a fairly active part in the debate but the primary aim of the newspaper seemed to have been to offer a discussion forum to third parties.
  • Parman, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Based on previous studies, neoliberal features have been observed in Finnish education policy. The government has made education-related reforms in recent years. My research examines the recent public debate surrounding education reforms in a neoliberal framework. I examine what themes, goals, rationales, and attitudes toward education reform are given in the public debate. I will try to find out how neoliberalism manifests itself in these debates. The aim of my dissertation is to bring out the public debate around education reforms and education policy. The study of the debate is intended to bring out different perspectives and voices, from education policy experts, academics, students, and individual citizens. I examine the manifestations of neoliberal education policy in the light of these debates. My research is a qualitative study. I search answers to two research questions. My data consists of articles. As a research method, I used content analysis. The data of my research consists of 51 articles by Helsingin Sanomat published in 2015–2019. Articles were analyzed by content analysis. Through content analysis, I found four different themes. I looked at the results in a neoliberal framework. The education reform debate revolved around student selection, industry changers, education cuts, and education policy. The debate around education reforms was controversial. On the one hand, education reforms were justified as profitable and good ideas, but on the other hand, they were criticized and questioned. Educational reforms raised concerns and appeared to pose threats to education and the scientific community, as well as to society. Based on the discussion, neoliberal features emerge in education reforms.
  • Boterman, Willem; Ramos Lobato, Isabel (2022)
    While several studies have investigated the role of parental school choice in exacerbating school segregation, less attention has been paid to the role of institutional contexts and specific educational policies and regulations. However, since the institutional context sets the framework for both school autonomy regarding the admission process and the actual extent of school choice, it has a significant effect on parents' choices. By comparing two educational contexts that have undergone opposite policy interventions regarding the role of parental choice in school allocation - Mulheim, Germany and Amsterdam, the Netherlands - we confirm the idea that expanding parental choice increases segregation levels. However we also suggest that the relationship between education policies and segregation patterns is very complex and dependent on the interactions of various aspects lying within and outside the education system. Both cases reveal that competition between schools and theirdiscretionary scope in admitting pupils also plays a key part.
  • Wolde, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis studies the development of Ethiopian education policy discourse from na-tion-building perspective. Nation-building is examined from three supplementary as-pects: technologies of truth, governmentality and historical change, to describe how it has been discussed in chosen policy documents. Ethiopian Education and Training Policy (ETP) and Education Sector Development Pro-grams I–V (ESDP) between 1994 and 2015 were analyzed with Michel Foucault’s con-cepts for analytics of governance: power, knowledge and subjectivity, and governmen-tality. Critical discourse analysis with Foucauldian concepts was used as a methodologi-cal framework in this research. Nationhood is produced in the education policy documents from one side with integra-tive strategies and civics education, and from other side with regional language and de-centralization policies. Education policy discourse appears to seek balance between ‘one nation’ and ‘multination’ perspectives. The national subjectivity ethos is described with expectations for acquired attitudes and values on individual level. Unified nation-ality is presented in the documents’ visualizations. It was found out that integrationist programs are aiming primarily at equity in education system instead of promoting com-mon nationhood. Educational language policies support cultural diversity and regional differentiation. The findings of this research show that nationality ethos appears ambig-uously formed and fragmented in Ethiopian education policy discourse. Nation-building aim has faded in Ethiopian education policy discourse and the primary role of education has shifted into being an instrument for economic growth. This re-search raises concerns about the social sustainability of current policies with weakened nation-building aims and regional disparity. Strengthened democratization of the society and civic education play an important role in influencing national subjectivity for-mation. Further research about citizenship education and its effectiveness in Ethiopia is needed.
  • Parikka, Nooramaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis aims to examine the representation of the policy problem behind inclusion in education at the compulsory education level. The other purpose is to analyze how the inclusive education policies differ from the others at different levels: global, European, national, local and new philanthropy. The thesis examines policy papers by the actors at three highest-level actors: global-level the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), European-level the European Union (EU), and national-level Finland. The perspective is to respect children’s rights and interests. The thesis theorizes inclusion in education historically, conceptually, and linguistically in Europe and in Finland. The thesis argues that inclusion in education is a value-based ideology and can be defined as a continuous process. Policies of inclusion in education are part of the broader global ideological objective of inclusive societies, which are against social exclusion. Along with globalization and Europeanisation, education policy as well has been globalized. As a result, the education policy can be seen as multilevel network governance where all actors cooperate. However, the OECD is at the of the network as an umbrella in global education policy and monitors the education policy of all actors. The thesis applies the post-structural What’s the problem represented? (WPR) approach by Carol Bacchi (2009) in order to examine the problem representation and conceptual logics behind social exclusion. Additionally, the WPR approach provided to problematize differences between the policies of the actors. According to Foucauldian post-structuralism, governed changes towards more inclusive education systems are slow because of different languages, cultures and welfare states. Inclusion in education as a value-based ideology is based on economic integration in order to provide quality competence-based education and lifelong learning in order to maintain employability which is a primary factor to involve all citizens in fast-growing diverse societies. Regarding the findings, inclusive education policies by all actors are against social exclusion, but the principles of subsidiarity define the effectiveness of the policies. In conclusion, the conceptual logics of the prevention of social exclusion are an accumulation of risks such as unemployment, lower socio- economic status and immigration. The main objective of the policies is to maintain employability. The most fundamental difference between the actors is linguistic or terminological. In conclusion, problematisation questions why Finland uses the term “equality”, whereas the other actors admit the current use of the term “equitable”, which provides diverse comprehension of non-binary individuals instead logics of binary gender. This problematisation, as a significant finding, emphasizes that there is a demand for broader research in gender studies in education policy. The thesis argues that underachieved “boys” in Finland might be something other than binary-defined boys who are at risk of social exclusion in adulthood.
  • Malan, Paula Marja Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This thesis studies national and local ownership of Namibia’s education and training sector improvement programme ETSIP. ETSIP is a 15-year programme implemented during 2005-2015 following a sector-wide approach. The aim of the programme is to facilitate the transition of Namibia into a knowledge-based economy. This study aims to provide insight into how ownership of the ETSIP policy process is realised nationally and locally, in particular how regional officials in the Namibian education sector view the ETSIP policy process, how they see their role in it and to which degree to they have been able to influence and control the process. The approach in this study is qualitative and the viewpoint constructionist looking at reality constructed through people’s perceptions, interpretations and actions. The data consists of interviews and informal discussions with regional and national education officials, newspaper articles and ETSIP policy documents. The study highlights that national ownership is a vague term due to many actors and views within a country. It confirms Castel-Branco’s argument that ownership has to be understood in context, in a contested and changing environment. A new strategic plan for the Ministry of Education is being prepared and this might affect ownership to ETSIP. The rhetoric of ownership in ETSIP policy documents follows international commitments of increasing aid effectiveness but the documents lack a comprehensive analysis of how national and local ownership would be realised. The documents reflect a narrow understanding of ownership as commitment to predetermined policy choices. Whitfield’s and Frazer’s distinction of narrow and broad definitions of ownership is found in the interviews. Commitment to ETSIP is regarded essential but insufficient for ownership. Local commitment to ETSIP principles and aims is realised fairly well but if ownership is viewed broadly, as influence and control, then ownership is weak. There has been little influence from regional level in the ETSIP planning process and there is lack of control over the implementation of ETSIP, in particular lack of control over financial resources. Tujan’s notion of democratic ownership highlights the need to change and broaden the ownership agenda to consider the local level. This study suggests that an enabling environment for local ownership would require changes in institutional culture and the strengthening of institutional legitimacy. It would require political leadership, trust, a culture of responsibility and accountability, enhanced information sharing, broad participation, dialogue and collaboration. Most importantly there is a need and demand for local control over decision-making and resources.