Browsing by Subject "egyptologia"

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  • Jauhiainen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation is a study of the forms and functions of feasts and feasting in the ancient Egyptian village of Deir el-Medina in Thebes (modern Luxor). This particular village, during the New Kingdom (c. 1550 1069 BC), was inhabited by the men (and their families) who constructed the Royal Tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens. The royal artisans were probably more literate than the average Egyptians and the numerous Ramesside Period (c. 1295 1069 BC) non-literary texts found in the excavations of the village and its surroundings form the source material for this study. In this study, the methods used are mainly Egyptological and the references to feasts and feasting are considered in view of what is known of New Kingdom Egypt, Thebes, and Deir el-Medina. Nevertheless, it is the use of the methodological concept local vernacular religion that has resulted in the division of the research findings into two sections, i.e., references to feasts celebrated both in and outside the community and other references to feasts and feasting in the village. When considering the function of the feasts celebrated at Deir el-Medina, a functional approach to feasts introduced by anthropologists and archaeologists is utilized. The Deir el-Medina feasts which were associated with the official religion form a festival calendar of feasts celebrated annually on the same civil calendar day. The reconstructed festival calendar of Deir el-Medina reflects the feasts celebrated around Thebes or, at least, in Western Thebes. The function of the nationally and regionally observed feasts (which, at least at Deir el-Medina, resulted in a work-free day) may have been to keep people content so that they would continue to work which was to the advantage of the king and the elite surrounding him. Local feasts appear to have been observed more irregularly at Deir el-Medina or perhaps according to the lunar calendar. Feasts celebrated by the community as a whole served to maintain the unity of the group. In addition to feasts celebrated by the entire community, the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina could mark their own personal feasts and organize small gatherings during public feasts. Through such feasts, an individual man might form alliances and advance his chances of a favourable marriage or of acquiring a position on the work crew.
  • Meri, Mia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tutkielmassa verrataan Amenhotep II:n (1427–1400 eaa.) ja Seti I:n (1294–1279 eaa.) Kuninkaiden laakson hautojen pilarien kuva-aihetta ja sen kehittymistä. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu näistä haudoista otettuihin valokuviin sekä pilareista tehtyihin piirroksiin, sillä osa pilareista on osin tai kokonaan tuhoutunut hautojen avaamisen jälkeen. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, miten pilarien kuva-aiheet ovat kehittyneet näiden kahden haudan välillä, mitä yhteisiä elementtejä niissä on ja mitä uusia elementtejä tai kokonaisia kuva-aiheita pilarien kuvituksiin on tuotu Seti I:n haudassa. Tutkimuksessa verrataan myös, miten pilarien kuva-aiheiden tekstit ovat muuttuneet ja kehittyneet hautojen välillä. Tutkielmassa tutkitaan myös, onko Seti I:n haudan pilarien taiteessa jäänteitä Amenhotep II:n ja Seti I:n väliin ajoittuvasta Amarna-kaudesta (n. 1352–1323 eaa.), jolloin muinaisen Egyptin taiteen totutuista säännöistä poikettiin huomattavasti. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan pilarien kuva-aiheiden sijoittelua suhteessa haudan muuhun arkkitehtuuriin ja kuvitukseen. Tutkielmasta käy ilmi, että Seti I:n haudan pilarien kuvituksessa on palattu Amarna-kautta edeltävään ilmaisuun. Seti I:n haudassa Amenhotep II:n pilarien kuva-aihetta, jossa jumala antaa elämää faraolle, on kehitetty edelleen, mutta sen lisäksi hautaan on myös tuotu uusia kuva-aiheita ja pilarikokonaisuuksia. Seti I:n haudassa on myös nähtävissä faraon roolin muuttuminen kuva-aiheissa, joissa jumala antaa elämää faraolle. Lisäksi Seti I:n haudassa pilarien kuvitus vaikuttaa suunnitelmallisemmalta ja järjestäytyneemmältä kuin Amenhotep II:n haudassa.
  • Sola, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Koira on yksi keskeisistä muinaisegyptiläisessä taiteessa esiintyvistä eläinlajeista. Tutkielman aiheena ovat kuvalliset ostrakonit eli kalkkikiven sirpaleet, joille tehdyt piirrokset esittävät kesyjä koiria. Tutkielma kartoittaa, miten koiria on kuvattu ostrakoneilla esiintyvässä epävirallisessa taiteessa Theban alueella uuden valtakunnan aikana (noin 1550–1069 eaa). Tutkielman keskeinen tavoite on määritellä ostrakoneilla esiintyvien koirarepresentaatioiden ikonografia. Toisena tavoitteena on vertailla ostrakonien ja thebalaisten yksityishautojen koiriin liittyviä kuva-aiheita. Tutkielman aineistona oleva korpus sisältää 39 ostrakoneille tehtyä piirroskuvaa, jotka on kerätty eri kokoelmista. Kuva-aiheet voidaan jakaa neljään eri ryhmään: metsästyskoiriin (23 kpl), lemmikeihin (4 kpl), karikatyyreihin (3 kpl) ja ihmisten tavoin käyttäytyviin antropomorfisiin eläimiin (9 kpl). Tutkimukseen eivät sisälly muinaisegyptiläiset koirahahmoiset jumalolennot. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on tyylianalyysi, jossa hyödynnetään ikonografista lähestymistapaa ja vertailevaa analyysiä. Koiraostrakonien kuva-aiheita ja esitystapoja verrataan toisiinsa sekä myös varhaisemman uuden valtakunnan (18. dynastian) aikaisiin yksityishautoihin, joissa esiintyvissä metsästys- ja lemmikkiaiheissa on yhtäläisyyksiä ostrakonien aiheisiin ja esitystapoihin. Tutkimuksessa käy ilmi, että koirarepresentaatiot ovat ikonografialtaan vakiintunut kuva-aihe uuden valtakunnan Thebassa. Vertailussa hautakoristeluun voidaan havaita, että metsästyskoirien ja osin myös lemmikkien ikonografia on pitkälti samanlainen ostrakoneilla ja yksityishautojen seinäkoristelussa. Karikatyyrit ja antropomorfiset koirakuvaukset poikkeavat tästä ikonografiasta eikä niitä esiinny hautojen kuva-aiheissa lainkaan. Tutkielman päätelmissä esitetään koira-aiheelle erilaisia tulkintamahdollisuuksia. Metsästysaiheiset kuvaostrakonit on tutkimuskirjallisuudessa tulkittu hautakoristelujen harjoitustöiksi, mutta ne voidaan nähdä myös perinteisten hautakuva-aiheiden tallenteina sekä uusien luovien ratkaisujen kokeiluna. Antropomorfiset koira-aiheet ovat todennäköisesti suullisten eläintarinoiden kuvitusta ja parodioita. Osa koiraostrakoneista on arkista piirtelyä. Tutkimus kuvaa, miten koira representoitiin uuden valtakunnan aikana. Tutkimusaihe edistää ymmärrystä muinaisten egyptiläisten epävirallisesta taiteesta ja suhteesta eläimiin.
  • Autere, Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This study examines the normative use of language in the late Middle Kingdom epistolary material from el-Lahun. Although the strong degree of conventionalisation in the discourse of the letters has been recognised in previous studies, the nature and characteristics of the phenomenon have been studied relatively little. This study examines the normative features in the discourse and their pragmatic and other functions. In addition, it discusses the possible factors affecting the use and style of the letter formula. This study is based on a closed corpus and analyses the characteristics of the material through close-reading of texts. The material on which this study is based consists of approximately 80 letters in the el-Lahun papyri collections. The material is exceptionally coherent in spatial and chronological distribution and forms a good basis for studies of normativity. This study shows that the letters which define the manner of communication as swDA-ib (a message, lit. to make heart at ease) follow a common ‘letter formula’. It appears that this specific manner of addressing has two core characteristics. These include the use of the expression swDA-ib pw in structuring the letter, and the use of specific addressing words to refer to the correspondents. In addition, it is clear that the use of this letter formula is restricted to specific situations of social exchange. In addition, the normative language of the Lahun letters favours several indirect requesting strategies and features that aim to background the presence of the author. In fact, it seems that one of the most prominent features of the normative discourse of the letters is the aim to alienate the presence of the author as the agent behind the speech acts performed. This feature appears to be prominent especially in the socially expected manners of formulating a request. This tendency seems to be connected to the nature of requesting in general, as something that is potentially a difficult and harmful situation for the author. On the other hand, the use of indirect requesting strategies can in some cases be related to the difference in the relative socio-hierarchical status between the correspondents. In addition, it is evident that the characteristics of the swDA-ib-letters reflect the socio-cultural structures in the community. Christopher Eyre has emphasised the importance of personal relationships in a society build upon complex patronage and client structures, in which the socio-cultural status of the person is strongly connected to the relationship he has with his patron. It appears that the various greetings, and carefully formulated requests attested in these letters should be understood in this slightly difficult socio-cultural context. The existence of a culturally valued, learned manner of addressing offers potential for several linguistic and philological studies, as well as on research on the complex socio-cultural structures in the community.
  • Holmqvist, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The focus of my research is a collection of incised objects found at the Station de Repos site, on the west bank of modern Luxor, Egypt. The objects were found during the Workmen’s Huts in the Theban Mountains (WHTM) Project between 2008 and 2013 when the site was re-excavated. The site was first excavated by Bernard Bruyère for the French Institut français d’Archéologie Orientale (IFAO) in 1935. The site revealed three clusters of huts, with 78 huts (Bruyère’s number) or 141 room entities (WHTM number) and a small chapel. Several similar huts have been found in the nearby Valley of the Kings. The Station de Repos site was used by the workmen of Deir el-Medina as they built the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the New Kingdom (18th–20th Dynasties, ca. 1539–1077 BC). The workmen spent their nights at the site during the workweek and returned to their home village for the weekends. During the WHTM project a large number of objects were found, left behind by the workmen. From this group, a collection of objects was chosen by the leader of the project, Dr. Jaana Toivari-Viitala, and it is this assemblage of 192 objects that is studied and published in this thesis. The project is largely unpublished due to the sudden passing of Toivari-Viitala which is why it is important to publish even a small portion. The aim of my thesis is to publish this assemblage of archaeological finds as a catalogue with basic descriptions and illustrated with my tracings of the objects as well as with photographs (taken by Matjaz Kačičnik) in the Plates section. My main task was to study and describe the visual content of the objects; the texts found on them are for the most part not translated in this thesis. During the project, the collection of objects was called “stela fragments” but in the course of my research it is found that only a small part of them are in fact from stelae. The other object categories found are pictorial and hieroglyphic ostraca, but a large group of objects are left to the unidentified category because of the limited content in them. What all the objects have in common is that they are decorated by carving on mainly limestone but also on sandstone objects. Most of the pieces are fragments of larger original objects which is probably due to the nature of the find place as a disturbed site. The area is passed through by a well-worn path and the previous excavations moved around large amounts of sand and soil as well as collected the more complete objects from the site. As far as can be deducted in this thesis, the main theme of the objects is religious. This is partly influenced by the choice of the objects. By choosing objects that were decorated by incised lines and relief, a large group of possible themes were left out. The purposes where carved decoration was used is limited to religious objects such as stelae, architectural elements such as seats and door jambs, and practise work for the main task of the workmen: decorating the royal tombs with hieroglyphic texts and religious images.