Browsing by Subject "elections"

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  • Gel'man, Vladimir (2016)
  • Amadae, S. M. (University of Helsinki, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2020)
    Publications of the Faculty of Social Sciences
    This book is an edited collection of MA research paper on the digital revolution of the public and governance. It covers cyber governance in Finland, and the securitization of cyber security in Finland. It investigates the cases of Brexit, the 2016 US presidental election of Donald Trump, the 2017 presidential election of Volodymyr Zelensky, and Brexit. It examines the environmental concerns of climate change and greenwashing, and the impact of digital communication giving rise to the #MeToo and Incel movements. It considers how digitilization can serve to emancipate women through ride-sharing, and how it leads to the question of robot rights. It considers fake news and algorithmic governance with respect to case studies of the Chinese social credit system, the US FICO credit score, along with Facebook, Twitter, Cambridge Analytica and the European effort to regulate and protect data usage.
  • Haapoja, Jesse; Laaksonen, Salla-Maaria; Lampinen, Airi (2020)
    A recent strand of research considers how algorithmic systems are gamed in everyday encounters. We add to this literature with a study that uses the game metaphor to examine a project where different organizations came together to create and deploy a machine learning model to detect hate speech from political candidates’ social media messages during the Finnish 2017 municipal election. Using interviews and forum discussions as our primary research material, we illustrate how the unfolding game is played out on different levels in a multi-stakeholder situation, what roles different participants have in the game, and how strategies of gaming the model revolve around controlling the information available to it. We discuss strategies that different stakeholders planned or used to resist the model, and show how the game is not only played against the model itself, but also with those who have created it and those who oppose it. Our findings illustrate that while “gaming the system” is an important part of gaming with algorithms, these games have other levels where humans play against each other, rather than against technology. We also draw attention to how deploying a hate-speech detection algorithm can be understood as an effort to not only detect but also preempt unwanted behavior.
  • Ahokas, Laura; Weide, Marjukka; Wilhelmsson, Niklas (Oikeusministeriö, 2011)
    Selvityksiä ja ohjeita | Utredningar och anvisningar
    I denna utredning har det kartlagts de åtgärder som de finska regionala och lokala förvaltningsmyndigheterna och riksdagspartierna har vidtagit för att stöda invandrares samhälleliga och politiska deltagande. Dessutom har man betraktat undervisningen om och behandlingen av teman som gäller samhälleligt och politiskt deltagande på integrationskurser. Materialet som utnyttjas vid kartläggningen har samlats in genom förfrågningar, som har sänts till ELYcentralerna, de största kommunerna, riksdagspartierna och de läroanstalter som ordnar integrationskurser. Utredningen hör till projektet Likabehandling på första plats 3 (YES 3, på finska Yhdenvertaisuus etusijalle). YESprojektet är en nationell kampanj mot diskriminering vars mål är att öka medvetenheten om och beredskapen för likabehandling och ickediskriminering och att främja godkännandet av pluralism i samhället. Projektet finansieras av EUkommissionens PROGRESSprogram (20072013) samt av de organisationer som deltagit i projektet. Justitieministeriet har deltagit i YES 3projektet med ett eget delprojekt, vars mål är att öka invandrarnas samhälleliga delaktighet, deras kanaler för deltagande och deras kunskaper om de grundläggande rättigheterna.
  • Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani; Sortheix, Florencia M. (2020)
    We investigated political polarization among the 28284 candidates in the Finnish municipal election who ran for municipal council in 2012, 2017, or both, and had responded to a Voting Advice Application. Our results revealed political polarization in terms of both conversion (longitudinal analysis, n = 6643) and recruitment (cross-sectional comparison of first-time candidates, n = 13054). The populist radical-right Finns Party became even more anti-refugee, and the pro-refugee Green League became even more pro-refugee. The Finns Party, in particular, has constructed the Green League as their enemies, which could explain why the Finns Party moved in an anti-environmental direction, as well as the increased issue-alignment between refugee-attitudes and environmental attitudes. We also observed increased within-party homogeneity in almost all parties. In the discussion, we focus on the nature of the association between refugee and environmental attitudes.
  • Savolainen, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This master’s thesis investigates the dynamics between the climate movement and Finnish political parties in 2019. The climate movement mobilization overlapped two elections in Finland: the parliamentary elections in April and the European parliamentary elections in May. The research focuses on developments in the relationship before, during and after the elections, which will be analysed using the contentious politics approach and electoral contention mechanisms by Tilly, McAdam and Tarrow. This thesis uses a case study research design to examine the distinctive circumstances in which a global mobilization wave overlaps with two elections. The main set of data consists of all public tweets in Finnish twitter, which mention either ‘ilmastolakko’ (climate strike) or ‘#nytonpakko’ (#actnow) and were published in 2019. The tweets are collected using search engine technology and processed by extracting four datasets of tweets sent out by Finnish parliament members. The data is further investigated using various methods, such as network analysis. Statistics collected by the Finnish police force and survey data collected by researchers in climate protests are used to support the analysis. The analysis showed that the dynamics of the interaction between the climate movement and the political parties in Finland changed throughout 2019. Before the parliamentary elections in April 2019, the climate movement formed mutually beneficial electoral alliances with the Green League and the Left Alliance. The political parties took distance from the movement after the elections. A responsive mobilization of the climate movement after the elections showed increasing criticism towards politicians. Other parties did not significantly change their position towards the movement after the elections, although the Finns Party slightly increased the amount of criticism and the other parties slightly decreased the amount of support shown towards the movement. The developments in the movement-party relations were apparent in many ways: Indicators of the mechanisms of interaction were changes in the number of tweets published by MPs, the contents of the tweets, frequency and scale of climate protests and the support or criticism from the climate movement towards the political parties. The two waves of mobilization in Helsinki was supplemented by other types of mobilization, such as the launch of the ‘Korvaamaton’- campaign of development, climate and environmental organizations. This thesis shows that social media is a venue of movement-party interactions in more open media systems, where political elites transcend to Twitter networks. The existence of virtual political elites can have implications for social movements and the collective ‘conflict and alliance’ structure of politics. Further research should be conducted on the other venues in which movement-party interactions may occur and on other case studies, where social movement mobilization and elections occur simultaneously.
  • Devkota, Sisir (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This paper will investigate the causes that led David Cameron to declare the Brexit referendum in the year 2013. Given the nature of Brexit results in 2016, there has emerged a vacuum of knowledge regarding political causes that triggered Cameron to declare the referendum in 2013. The paper will utilize deductive positivist methodology and employ Process Tracing as a method to investigate the answer to the research question. This paper will formulate and test five different hypothetical conjectures. The study is significant in the field of World Politics as it will act as a reference to future studies in the field of EU integration and leadership decisions.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (George Washington University, 2016)
    PONARS Eurasia аналитические записки
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (2012)
    Many experts argued that political regime in contemporary Russia represented one of the instances of the global phenomenon of electoral authoritarianism. But what are the major features of such a regime in case of Russia, what about its institutional foundations and political pillars? How its life cycle – the emergence, development, and further decay changed over time, and which ways it might evolve in the foreseeable future? My paper sought answers to these questions.