Browsing by Subject "elementary school"

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  • Jahkola, Tuuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of the study. Traditionally teaching has been lonely work. Demands for towards teaching has been increased during the last decade: need for special education is growing, the contents of the curriculum has grown and there are also new challenges in the co-operation between school and families. Finnish students rank well in international comparison, but feel less comfortable at school. Teachers are tiring themselves out and choose other professions. Lack of resources does not allow smaller class sizes or more input in special education. Interest in a collegial collaboration between teachers has been suggested as a solution. The idea of inclusion and the changing law of special education stating that all pupils would attend the same classes are in the background. Co-teaching aims at avoiding extra special education by using existing resources, by combining two classes and with collaboration of teachers. The aim of the study is to find out the characteristics of co-teaching with two teachers and its added value to the teaching work. Methods. Eight pairs of co-teachers were interviewed, five of them co-teaching full time and in three cases the other teacher joining the class only for certain lessons. Research type was qualitative multi-case study. The study material was collected by observing the classes and by interviewing the pairs. The observations were reported as narratives describing the co-teaching of each teacher pair. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, which was steered by the theory and the collected material. Results and conclusions. According to this study co-teaching was considered as a means to enhance quality of teaching, reduce teachers' work load, increase professionality, and to increase the motivation of pupils. Nineteen different forms of co-teaching were formulated based on the literature and the material collected at observations and interviews. These forms may be useful in better recognizing the individual needs of pupils and to better use the presence and experience of two teachers. As a conclusion, the didactic triangle was extended to form a didactic-collegial square, where the collegial relationship between the two teachers brings a new dimension to the picture reflecting the many dimensions of co-teaching and difference to the work of a teacher alone.
  • Koivuhovi, Satu; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Kalalahti, Mira; Niemivirta, Markku (2019)
    This study examined changes in pupils' agency beliefs and control expectancy from grade four to grade six, and whether they were associated with studying in a class with a special emphasis on a subject as compared to studying in a class without emphasis. After controlling for the effects of mother's education, prior school achievement, and gender, we found that the average pattern of change varied for different action-control beliefs, and that class membership did not moderate these changes. Mother's education, pupils' prior school achievement, and gender all predicted class membership, but their effects on action-control beliefs varied depending on the type of belief. Implications for educational policy will be discussed.
  • Sipilä, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Purposes. This is an ethnographic case study about elementary school teacher as a listener of a child's voice and about children as ethnographers in the classroom. The current study aims to make visible factors that limit listening child's voice at school and especially in the interaction between the teacher and the student. It also describes children's views and thoughts about school. This study is a part of consortium research "Children tell of their well-being - who listens?" (TelLis, a project number 1134911). Methods. The study was conducted at the school during four weeks at spring 2013. The data was gathered using children as ethnographers -method and consists of 57 classroom diaries written by fifth and sixth grade students and reflected by their four elementary school teachers. In addition, data includes children's drawings, teacher's interviews before the study, two teacher's group interviews and observation notes. In this study I describe teachers as listeners of students' voice during children as ethnographers -period. I ask, what kind of knowledge teachers find in children's classroom diaries. I also ask, how teachers make use of classroom diaries at their work. Analysis is based on qualitative content analysis. Findings and conclusion. Teachers found knowledge of students' culture and knowledge of their action, thoughts and opinions in classroom diaries. In addition, teachers looked for knowledge to evaluate competencies and developmental needs of students' and the class. Teachers used classroom diaries primarily as a tool of evaluating and educating children, but also as a tool for listening children and educating themselves as professionals. According to content analysis, listening to child represented mostly listening based on evaluating and educating children and themselves. There was less listening based on developing the school and the least listening based on encountering a child. Because of teachers' strong aims of evaluating and educating, listening to child was limited. The current study shows, that despite of several factors limiting listening to child's voice in society, school community and class community, teacher with his/her aims, views and actions has an emergent role as a listener of a child's voice. Teachers should create especially those kinds of listening moments that are based on encountering a child naturally and humanely.
  • Pasula, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals. The writing performance level of Finnish schoolchildren, especially of boys, has been an area of concern over the past few years. The present study is part of a longitudinal intervention study (RoKKi), which has created an encouraging feedback model for trying to find ways to enhance writing skills. Research has shown that writing self-efficacy and writing performance are related, so this study will examine whether the encouraging feedback model will improve the self- efficacy of the students. A central element of the encouraging feedback model is peer feedback. The idea is that the pupils feel that attention is being paid to what they have written. Pupil experience has not figured significantly as an issue in writing research, so this study will tackle that subject as well. Methods. The study was carried out in three 5th-grade classes between autumn 2011 and autumn 2012. The established class had already used the encouraging feedback model before the study, while the treatment class started to use it at the beginning of the intervention. In the control class, the teacher gave feedback according to a more traditional manner. The data consists of four measures of self-efficacy and writing experience. They were analysed using one-way ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, t-tests and the equivalent nonparametric tests. Results and conclusions. The encouraging intervention didn't have a statistically significant effect on the self-efficacy beliefs of the 5th-graders. However, the self-efficacy in the established class was higher and the writing experiences were statistically significantly higher than in the other two classes. In the established class, the experiences remained positive regardless of the genre that was being exercised whereas, in the control group, not even the normally positively experienced genre of story could improve the writing experience of the boys. The intervention seemed to have a positive effect for boys in particular, but one needs to take into account that the starting level of the self-efficacy of the boys in the test class was also high, which is exceptional in the light of earlier research. In the control class, the girls had much higher levels of self-efficacy and better writing experiences than the boys whereas, in the established class, the results were quite even. The positive writing experiences and self-efficacy beliefs – and the equality of the genders – in the established class suggest that the encouraging feedback model might be of value in long-term use.
  • Palomäki, Anne-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Teachers work is changing from independent work towards a collegial cooperation, and one form of cooperation can be co-teaching. Co-teaching is also discussed in the three level model of supporting in Special education strategy (Ministry of Education 2007). Efforts have been made to increase co-teaching in Helsinki with the help of a merit pay system. The purpose of this study is to describe teachers' roles in planning, implementing and evaluating co-teaching and to resolve how teachers have ended up with these roles, what advantages and disadvantages there are in different roles and what kind of roles are experienced meaningful. This study is made from a class teacher or a special class teacher point of view. The research material was collected using a qualitative web-inquiry in Autumn 2010. The questionnaire was answered by 35 teachers. The material was studied using content analysis methods. Three different co-teaching roles were formed on the basis of the research material. These roles differ in the way of dividing responsibility of planning and implementing co-teaching. Responsibility Sharers divided the responsibility evenly, Primary Responsible had one teacher with main responsibility and Single Responsible had only one teacher having all the responsibility of planning and teaching. The more responsibility the class teacher had, the more the special education teacher was limited to answer for students with special needs. Distribution of work with Responsibility Sharers was mostly based on good cooperation, while Primary Responsible and Single Responsible had work distribution mostly affected by absence of common planning time. The most satisfied with their co-teaching roles were the Responsibility Sharers, while the Single Responsible were the most unhappy group. However, it seems that individuals' persona affects to what kind of co-teaching was experienced meaningful.
  • Tompuri, Pamela (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Goals. New student welfare law came into effect 1st of August 2014 and turned around the field of student welfare in Finland. The new student welfare law turns the focus of student welfare work from familiar individual- and problem focused student welfare towards preventative and community oriented student welfare. The worth of early support is also emphasized in the new law. The new law turns around the well-known, familiar working methods in student welfare and gives new frames for student welfare work bringing to schools a new policy for student welfare team work and how to plan, put into practise, document and evaluate student welfare work and what kind of services needs to be offered to the students. The purpose of this study was to examine documents made by four the most influential facets in the field of finnish education system (Ministry of Education and Culture, The Finnish National Board of Education, OAJ and The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities) and according to them to evaluate what kind of starting points the new law gives to student welfare works practice, student welfare team work, personnel working in student welfare field and individual students student welfare services. In general the new law seems to bring needed improvement to student welfare field by emphasizing the preventative and community oriented student welfare work and by giving more power for a student and a parent to impact on student welfare. Methods. Research data in this study is collected from the documents written by the four main impacters on the field of finnish education about the new student welfare law. The law prepared by Ministry of Education and Cultures, the new curriculum for elementary and middle school, documents from OAJ about the new law and a question research made by The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities are the data used in this research. The data is analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The new student welfare law changes many largely used practical parts of the student welfare work adding the work load of student welfare. Also the big course of conduct change in emphasizing the preventive student welfare requires a lot of effort from the personnel working in the field of student welfare. it is possible the greater work load steels resources from the ones needing the student welfare services the most – the students in a need of support. There's a risk of lacking in educational point of view and the focus of student welfare changing too much towards social work. Also the personnel working in student welfare services might become burdened with too much work because of the changes in the student welfare law.
  • Relander, Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The psychometric properties, validity and reliability, of numeracy assessment have a significant role in identifying students’ special education needs in mathematics. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the validity and reliability evidence of numeracy measures used by teachers at the elementary school for children aged 9 through 12 years. Methods: A systematic search of Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, PsychINFO and PudMed abstract databases was completed up to the March, 2020. The abstracts and articles were evaluated independently by two reviewers according to the inclusion criteria. Consensus was reached by discussions. Only peer-reviewed articles reporting psychometric properties of numeracy measures and published in English were included. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P, 2015) guidelines were applied for reporting. The terminology and classification of psychometric properties followed the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Three validity properties and three reliability properties were searched and extracted from the articles. Results: Of the 4763 abstracts 921 full-text articles were screened and 13 studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. Two additional studies were identified through reference search. Half of the psychometric properties of the numeracy measures were not studied and reported in the articles. All the six reliability and validity properties were found for one measure. The evidence on the psychometric properties was limited for most of the measures due to the incomplete or missing psychometric data. Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the measures is limited and further evidence and research is needed.
  • Hurme, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Childhood health is strongly connected with the health later in life. Healthy children are likely to grow up as healthy adults and health in general relates to many positive dimensions of life. However, a shock such as civil war encountered in childhood can have long lasting consequences for later health. The aim of the thesis was to examine how the civil war of 1918 in Finland impacted in the children’s health from four different schools in Helsinki. In addition, the thesis examined were the children’s living environment and previous disease history significant for the health and did there occur differences between the health of girls and boys. The data of the thesis consists of 1 781 elementary school children’s school health records from Kallio, Vallila, Töölö and Tehtaankatu schools in Helsinki, Finland. The data of the thesis is a subsample of historical data which consists of approximately 18 000 Helsinki elementary school student’s health records from the period of 1910-1932. The thesis describes the children’s disease history before the school age and the diseases that occurred during the school years. Height and weight growth curves were formed from the data to visualize the growth patterns of the children over time. In addition, height and weight curves were formed for three different birth cohorts that had gone to school before, during and after the civil war of 1918 to examine the possible differences in growth between the cohorts. Lastly, linear regression analysis was used to analyse were the age, the place of birth, the year of inspection, previous disease history and the school connected with the height and weight growth of the children. The height and weight growth curves showed that the children’s weight and height growth declined in the years 1918-1919. When comparing three birth cohorts, the children who went to school during the civil war of 1918 were shorter than those who went to school before and after the conflict. The most typical diseases that occurred among the children before the school age were measles and whooping cough. Based on the results of the regression analyses the girl’s height growth declined in the year 1919 with 0.82 cm which can indicate that the shock of 1918 became evident in the girl’s height growth in 1919. Having had measles before the school age reduced the height and weight of the boys with 0.86 cm and 0.77 kg. When height’s and weight’s standard deviation scores were regressed with the interaction of boy and measles variables, the connection of the interaction was negative and statistically significant indicating differences between boys and girls: measles was in connected with the boy’s height and weight but not girl’s. Boys who went Töölö and Tehtaankatu schools were taller and heavier than those who went to Kallio and Vallila schools and the results were statistically significant. Among girls, there were no statistically significant differences between students from different schools. The height and weight curves evidently showed that the civil war of 1918 had a negative affect for the children’s growth and therefore also for their health. Results of the regression analyses indicate, that for girl’s height the meaning of the civil war of 1918 was more significant than for boys. For boys, on the other hand, the meaning of having had measles before the school was significant as it reduced their height and weight growth. However, the mechanism behind the measles and reduced growth is ambiguous and there can be various explanations for it. For boys there were also statistically significant differences between students from different schools which reinforces the previous findings from the early 20th century studies concerning the health of the elementary school children. It is not however clear why the differences were only seen among boys and not girls and it is possible that a bigger sample size would have given different results.