Browsing by Subject "elinkaariarviointi"

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  • Hartikainen, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The environmental impacts of food production and consumption are substantial, and therefore, it’s important that their impacts are investigated and communicated. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one promising method to assess the environmental impacts of products, like food products. It’s a process to assess products' environmental impacts through their life-cycle, and it’s used, for example, in policy making, companies’ strategic decision making and when communicating products’ environmental impacts. LCA is used actively nowadays, for example, over the past year few Finnish food companies have decided to calculate and communicate their products’ carbon footprints using LCA. LCA methodology has clearly developed during the past decades. However, there isn’t a shared view on all of the methodological issues. In fact, one essential methodological challenge is allocation situation. In allocation situation all inputs and outputs, such as, green house gas emissions produced in the product system are to be distributed between the studied product and its co-products. For instance, when the studied product is milk it should be determined how the inputs and outputs produced in the dairy cattle farm are to be divided between the farm’s products: beef and raw milk. Furthermore, in the dairy factory it needs to be decided how the inputs and outputs are to be divided between the further processed milk and other dairy products produced in the factory. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the allocation situations in the LCAs of food, as well as, to present, compare and find weaknesses and strengths of different ways of handling allocation situations and ways of guiding them. This is done in a literature study and in a LCA case-study made for Finnish farmed rainbow trout. It was calculated that the choice of how to handle the allocation situation has a major impact on the environmental impacts directed to the product under investigation. For example, climate change impacts and eutrophication of water bodies caused by production of a trout fillet can halve or double depending on the choice of the allocation method. Several different allocation methods were indentified, including ways to avoid allocation and ways to allocate the inputs and outputs, for instance, on the basis of the products' prices. To improve the harmonization of food LCAs and to reduce subjectivity it is important that there is guidance when choosing the allocation method. However, the existing LCA guides investigated don’t give enough support for the allocation situations. They provide divergent instructions and recommendations; they aren’t very specific in the allocation instructions and they allow choosing almost any allocation method, and therefore there is clear need for more specific instructions. Thus, it is evident that there is need to discuss and agree on the suitability of allocation methods to be used in LCAs of different food products. Also, because of the existing uncertainty one should be really careful when communicating exact environmental impacts, instead, one should consider presenting environmental impacts in a more coarse scale, for example, by presenting the scale of the results when using different allocation methods.
  • Niemistö, Johanna; Myllyviita, Tanja; Holma, Anne; Judl, Jáchym; Sironen, Susanna; Antikainen, Riina; Leskinen, Pekka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 34/2017
    Pienet ja keskisuuret (pk) yritykset ovat avainasemassa vähähiilisen, kestävästi luonnonvaroja hyödyntävän ja resurssiviisaan yhteiskunnan saavuttamisessa. Erityisesti startup-yrityksillä on hyvät mahdollisuudet vaikuttaa ympäristövaikutuksiinsa jo toimintansa alkuvaiheessa. Pk-yritysten osaaminen, työkalut sekä ajalliset ja rahalliset resurssit toimintansa ympäristövaikutusten arvioimiseen ovat kuitenkin hyvin rajalliset. Toimintamalli yritysten elinkaaristen ympäristövaikutusten kehittämiseksi (MALLI-Y) -hankkeen aikana testattiin ja edistettiin Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa (SYKE) kehitettyä elinkaariklinikka-toimintamallia. Elinkaariklinikka perustuu elinkaariarviointiin (Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) ja se toteutetaan asiantuntijatyönä tiiviissä yhteistyössä yrittäjän kanssa hyödyntäen elinkaariarviointiohjelmistoa ja elinkaaritietokantoja. Elinkaariklinikka koostuu neljästä vaiheesta. Valmistautumisvaiheessa elinkaariarvioinnista ja -klinikasta tarjotaan pohjatietoa yrittäjälle ja lisäksi kerätään arvioinnin kohteena olevan tuotteen tai palvelun tuotantoprosessin esi- ja materiaalitiedot. Elinkaariklinikkaistunnon aikana arvioitavan tuotteen tai palvelun tuotantoon liittyvät materiaalitiedot tarkistetaan yhdessä yrittäjän kanssa. Tämän jälkeen tuotteen tai palvelun ympäristövaikutukset mallinnetaan elinkaariohjelmiston avulla. Tulokset dokumentoidaan ja niiden pohjalta yrittäjälle laaditaan ehdotuksia toiminnan kehittämiseksi ja ympäristövaikutusten vähentämiseksi. Elinkaariklinikasta laaditaan raportti yrityksen sisäiseen käyttöön ja tuotekehityksen tueksi. Toimintamallin kehitystyön aikana toteutettiin elinkaariklinikka 30:lle Pohjois-Karjalan alueella toimivalle pk-yritykselle. Arvioinneissa keskityttiin ilmastovaikutuksiin ja tulokset ilmoitettiin yhteismitallistettuna hiilidioksidiekvivalenttina (CO2-ekv.) sekä suhteutettuna henkilöauton päästöihin kilometriä kohden. Elinkaariklinikan avulla voidaan arvioida tuotantoprosessien ympäristövaikutuksia ja löytää keinoja edistää yritysten resurssitehokkuutta vähentäen samalla toiminnan aiheuttamaa ympäristökuormitusta. Elinkaariklinikka toimii hyvin etenkin suoraviivaisille, perusraaka-aineisiin perustuville tuotantoprosesseille. Joissakin tapauksissa elinkaaritietokantojen puutteet tai sopivien raaka-ainetietojen valinta useista eri vaihtoehdoista aiheuttaa haasteita arvioinnille vaatien elinkaariklinikan toteuttajalta materiaaliosaamista ja eri vaihtoehtojen herkkyystarkasteluja. Yrittäjät kokivat elinkaariklinikan mielenkiintoisena ja hyödyllisenä lähestymistapana, ja osa yrittäjistä sai elinkaariajattelusta aivan uuden näkökulman liiketoimintansa arvioinnille ja kehittämiselle. Tulosten esittämisen suhteutettuna henkilöautolla ajamisen päästöihin koettiin antavan konkreettisen käsityksen tulosten suuruusluokasta. Elinkaariklinikka-arviointiin toivottiin vertailuarvoja muihin toimijoihin nähden, jotta yrittäjät ymmärtäisivät paremmin oman tuotteensa tai toimintansa tilannetta kilpailijoihin verrattuna. Vertailu- ja markkinointitarkoituksia varten tulee kuitenkin teettää laajempi, ISO-standardeja 14040:2006 ja 144040:2006 noudattava elinkaariarviointi. Elinkaariklinikoita voidaan edelleen kehittää liittämällä arviointiin myös raaka-aineiden ja prosessivaihtoehtojen kustannusten laskentaa tai sisällyttämällä elinkaariklinikkaan usean eri ympäristövaikutusluokan arviointia. Riittävän alhainen hinta, erilaiset rahoitustukimuodot ja yhdistäminen muuhun selvitystyöhön voisivat kannustaa yrittäjiä hyödyntämään arviointia tuotekehityksessään.
  • Keskitalo, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    This study was carried out to evaluate environmental impacts of greenhouse tomato production in Finland. Due to the Nordic location of the country, weather conditions do not favor it and production is very energy intensive. Emissions per 1000 kg per produced tomato was selected as functional unit. Two different production methods were selected for the study. 1. Conventional production, what is based on utilization of natural light and for production break during a coldest and darkest part of a year (November-February). 2. Year-round production, which is based on an use of artificial lightning. For information of inputs and outputs, the entrepreneurs of six different greenhouse companies, which produced only tomatoes, were interviewed. Three of them were year-round producers and three of them conventional producers. Average yields were 59,0 and 28,2 kg/m2/y respectively. All the selected three conventional producers used bio-energy for heat production. Data from interviewed companies included emissions of all the inputs, e.g. use of fuels, electricity, fertilizers, transportation and packaging material. Data from Statistical Centre of Finland (TIKE) were also used. Processed data included 16 yearround producers and 165 conventional producers, which produced only tomatoes. Average yields were 52,5 and 33,1 kg/m2/y respectively. Data included only fuel and electricity use. However, a proportion of emissions of fuel and electricity use of total emissions was more than 99 % (Interviewed conventional producers). Impacts of Finnish greenhouse tomato production on Climate change, Tropospheric ozone, Eutrophication and Acidification were calculated. Due to the very intensive energy use, based mainly on burning fossil fuels like heavy fuel oil (66%) significant CO2-emissions are caused. CO2- equivalent emissions from interviewed year-round and conventional companies and from Yearround and conventional TIKE companies were 5115, 512, 6514, and 4614 kg CO2-eq per 1000 kg of tomato respectively. There were low emissions (512 kg CO2-eq per 1000 kg of tomato) from interviewed conventional companies. The low figure is due to the use of bio-energy to provide needed heat for production. Therefore use of bio-energy is a possibility to reduce significantly emissions of Finnish greenhouse tomato production.
  • Sarajärvi, Aija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats. Food production is one of the most significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. It has been estimated that food systems account for 19 – 29 % of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Many studies have shown that products of animal origin cause more environmentally harmful emissions than plant-based products. In order to reach the 1,5 degree target, diets need to become more sustainable and more plant-based. The life cycle of food is being studied more today to identify their climate and environmental impact. The purpose of this study was to determine life cycle assessment of a plant-based protein product. The life cycle assessment started with the initial production and ended with the finished product in the factory. The study did not take into account the transport of products to stores and consumer activities. The study examined six different scenarios, which were e.g. dealing with the conversion of mixed electricity to wind power and the impact of the new alternative packaging on the results. The study was made by openLCA and the databases used Ecoinvent 3 and AGRIBYLASE 3.0. Life cycle assessment was examined using the ReCiPe 2016 Midpoint (H). The impact categories were global warming, land use, water consumption and freshwater eutrophication. According to this study, converting mixed electricity to wind power can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 49 – 50 %. Converting electricity to wind also significantly reduces land use, water consumption and freshwater eutrophication. Greenhouse gas emissions and phosphorous emissions of plant-based protein are lower than animal origin products. Packaging materials accounted for 7 to 13 % of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on this study, it is recommended to change the primary electric source to wind power.
  • Kyttä, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Global growing demand to produce more food with less inputs and energy without causing greenhouse gas emissions challenges the current practice of using mineral fertilizers which are produced from new and partly non-renewable raw materials with considerable amount of energy. On the other hand recycled fertilizers made of different side streams and biomasses also need to be processed before usage or the amount needed per area is so great that the environmental advantages might be lost. The aim of this study was to discover and compare the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of recycled fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, biogas digestate and meat bone meal) and mineral fertilizer in production of oat by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). All recycled fertilizers were found to cause less greenhouse gas emissions and consume less energy than mineral fertilizer. The least emissions caused the usage of ammonium sulfate and the best energy efficiency was achieved with biogas digestate fertilization. Considered relative to global increase in food and energy consumption and control of climate change and recycling of raw materials recycled fertilizers proved to be effective compared to mineral fertilizer. Also on the grounds of land use and yield recycled fertilizers turned out to be potential substitute for mineral fertilizers. Further studies are still needed due to large number of raw materials and constantly increasing amount of processing techniques of recycled fertilizers.
  • Lahtinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Finland has one of the highest percentage of peatlands in the world, so peatlands have inevitably been taken into cultivation use. Agricultural peatlands however generate a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Thus, agricultural usage of peatlands is considered one of the most unfavorable uses of land for the climate. Peatlands have been drained in order to improve food services, which in turn negatively affects other ecosystem services. Some of the ecosystem services can be restored by rewetting the land. If rewetting is combined with paludiculture, the land’s production services will not be lost. The goal of this thesis was to compare the greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprints of two paludicultural products’ life cycles. The compared products were cattail insulation board and common reed seedbed. The intent was to produce comparable data on different options for the paludiculture of agricultural peatlands. The data obtained from the life cycle assessment of the products was compared to similar non-paladiculture products, rock wool insulation board and horticultural peat. The material was reviewed with the life cycle assessment method following the ISO 144040 standard, but the work was limited only on climatic effects. Based on the analysis, key sources of climatic effect in the product system were identified and means to reduce them were considered. The intent was to calculate the carbon footprint and to identify where in the life cycle the emissions were generated. After this, the portion of agricultural peatlands in in the life cycle’s environmental effects was estimated. The material for this thesis was collected from scientific literature and life cycle assessment databases (ecoinvent v.3). The material of peatlands and other parts of the process were collected from studies made around the world in the boreal and temperate zone. A model was assembled based on the material, which included all phases of the paludicultural product’s life cycle and their effects on the climate with regards to carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), The emissions in a paludicultural product’s life cycle are mostly generated during its cultivation and processing. The carbon footprint of both paludicultural products was most likely negative, so they slowed down climate change. Based on the study, the most benefit was achieved by moving the cultivation of barley from agricultural peatlands to mineral soil and replacing it with paludiculture. By using paludiculture, it’s possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural peatlands, but it won’t achieve carbon neutrality. The study had a significant amount of uncertainty, so further studies are recommended especially in Finland.
  • Wanhalinna, Viivi (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    In this master´s thesis the quantity of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by food supply chain was studied. Also results from life cycle studies related to GHG emissions of bread, flour and some other food material were collected. In the experimental study the carbon footprints (GHG emissions, CO2 equivalents) of wheat and rye breads were calculated. Industrial scale production, Finnish grown wheat and rye, and simplified bread recipes were used as starting points. The life cycle calculations included cultivation, milling and baking phases and also consumer´s action. The amounts of GHG emissions for these phases were obtained from previous studies and the information reported by food enterprises and organizations. The cultivation of wheat and rye were studied separately, but the milling and baking processes were considered similar. The data were collected from two mills and seven bakeries and included details from energy and water consumption and the amount of organic waste and waste water produced. The emissions associated with the production of salt, baker´s yeast, vegetable fat, sugar and packaging material were also included. For consumer´s, there were two scenarios, one included transportation of bread from grocery by car, and 10 % wastage. The other included also toasting of the bread. It was calculated that the carbon footprint of bread was 1400-1500 g of CO2-equivalents/ kg bread. The cultivation´s share was 40 %, the mill´s share was 2 %, the bakery´s share was 45 % and the consumer´s share was 13 %. When the toasting of bread was included, this action alone resulted approximately 180 g more GHG emissions. There was a small difference between the carbon footprint of rye and wheat bread. The difference results mainly from differences in recipes of breads. There are not yet uniform standards to calculate the carbon footprint. Therefore a lot of generalizations and assumptions had to be made in the calculations. Nonetheless the carbon footprint obtained in this study is of the same magnitude as recently obtained in other studies performed in Europe.
  • Taipale, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The objective of the literature review was to study the background of the greenhouse effect and map earlier studies of the greenhouse gas emissions of beef and other meat products. The objective of the literature review was also to study life cycle assessment used in previous studies to calculate the carbon footprint of food products, following the ISO 14040-standard. The aim of the experimental work was to calculate the carbon footprint of the beef processing chain in Finland from the farm gate to the consumer´s table. In addition the aim was to understand the importance of processing chain emissions compared to the whole beef production chain and different steps in the processing chain. The functional unit in the study was 1 kg of beef. The work was carried out by studying in detail one beef processing chain in Finland. Emissions were calculated based on real processing data from the collaborating company. The data was collected with an information form by visiting two production plants in the collaborating company and conducting further interviews. The carbon footprint of the beef processing chain was 1240 g CO2-ekv/kg meat. Most emissions were produced by refining (310 g CO2-ekv/kg meat), slaughtering (280 g CO2-ekv/kg meat) and transporting meat products to the consumer (210 g CO2-ekv/kg meat). The processing chain represents only 4 % of total beef production chain emissions as the emission from birth to the farm gate are, according to literature, over 30 000 g CO2-ekv/kg meat. In the future, the carbon footprint of the beef could be reduced mainly by developing the process from the birth to the farm gate. The results were very similar to previous research of the chicken processing chain in Finland (Katajajuuri et al. 2008). This was as expected because there were no significant differences in the processing chain. Previous studies of the beef processing chain were not available.
  • Rinne, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of the study was to find out what environmental effects would soil remediation in a waste treatment centre in Southern Finland have. Of particular interest were the cross-impacts caused by remediation, because there are both uncertainties and work-phases that cause environmental effects perse associated with remediation activities. Using a method derived from life-cycle assessment environmental effects of bioremediation with composting, vapour extraction and landfilling of slightly contaminated soil were examined. The method used was a qualitative life-cycle management method, that has been designed to address the contaminated soil remediation life-cycle assessments. The results highlight the many phases of remediation activities requiring transport and machinery and environmental effects caused by these, and on the other hand the risks associated with landfilling. The method used was not able to find many differences in the environmental effects of composting and vapour extraction. The risk of toxic contaminants to air was evaluated higher in vapour extraction than in composting and results mainly from the qualities of soil that is suitable for remediation with vapour extraction. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of landfilling of contaminated soil is associated with difficulties of assessing risk over a prolonged time frame. The possibility to reduce the consumption of virgi n soil and transport could make composting and vapour extraction superior to landfilling as remediation options. According to the results contaminated soil should be remediated with a suitable treatment option first, and then be utilised as backfilling or landfill structure. The uncertainties and need of further study are associated with the qualitative and subjective nature of the method used and the comparing of the results of different life-cycle assessments. It would be beneficial to study further the quantitative secondary and tertiary environmental effects of the remediation options.
  • Syrjälä, Sami (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli määrittää 0,5 litran Hartwall Novelle maustamattoman kivennäisveden hiilijalanjälki lähteestä tehtaalle ja sieltä tuotteen loppumyyntipisteeseen asti sekä laskea pullotetun kivennäisveden elinkaaren eri vaiheiden aiheuttamat KHK-päästöt ja vertailla osuuksia keskenään, jotta ne voidaan minimoida. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osuudessa tavoitteena oli tutkia elinkaariajattelua, elinkaariarvioinnin metodologiaa ja hiilijalanjäljestä tehtyjä tutkimuksia, jotta pystyttiin tekemään perusteltuja ratkaisuja laskettaessa pullotetun kivennäisveden hiilijalanjälkeä Tutkielman aineisto on kerätty kesällä 2011 Hartwallin sisäisistä prosesseista ja yhteistyökumppaneilta. Pullotetun kivennäisveden hiilijalanjäljeksi tuli 38,40 g CO2-ekv. Jaoin KHK-päästöt kolmeen eri elinkaaren vaiheeseen: raaka-aineiden valmistukseen ja kuljetukseen, juoman valmistukseen ja logistiikkaan. Näistä vaiheista juoman valmistaminen ja logistiikka aiheuttivat suurimmat KHK-päästöt. Tutkielman tulosta arvioitaessa on huomattava, että se on suuntaa antava, sillä jouduin tekemään paljon oletuksia ja näin ollen tiedon kohdentamisen tarkkuus kärsi. Verrattaessa tutkielman tulosta muihin elintarvikkeisiin voidaan Hartwallin Novelle kivennäisveden hiilijalanjäljen todeta olevan melko pieni ja sitä voitaisiin markkinoida ilmastolle ystävällisenä juomana. Tuloksia on toistaiseksi haastava arvioida ja vertailuja eri elintarvikkeiden kesken on kuitenkin ongelmallista tehdä, koska yhtenäistä laskentatapaa hiilijalanjäljelle ei ole. Hiilijalanjäljen osalta suurimpana tulevaisuuden haasteena on kehittää yhtenäiset laskenta- ja kommunikointimallit.
  • Leskinen, Pekka; Holma, Anne; Manninen, Kaisa; Sinkko, Taija; Pasanen, Karri; Rantala, Mirja; Sokka, Laura (Ympäristöministeriö, 2014)
    Ympäristöministeriön raportteja 9/2014
    Tässä työssä tarkasteltiin uusiutuvan energian tuotantoon liittyviä haitallisia ympäristövaikutuksia ja riskejä. Selvitys on toteutettu laajana kirjallisuuskatsauksena ja laadullisena asiantuntija-arviona. Selvityksessä on koottu tietoa energiamuotojen koko elinkaaren aikaisista vaikutuksista muun muassa ilmastonmuutokseen, happamoitumiseen, rehevöitymiseen, veden kulutukseen, luonnon monimuotoisuuteen, maankäyttöön, pienhiukkasten muodostumiseen, uusiutumattomien luonnonvarojen käyttöön ja otsonikatoon. Ympäristövaikutuksia on tarkasteltu sekä yksikkövaikutuksittain, että vuoden 2020 uusiutuvien energialähteiden tuotantotavoitteet huomioiden. Lisäksi laadittiin toimenpide-ehdotuksia ja jatkotutkimusaiheita sisältävä priorisoitu lista keskeisimmistä tietoaukoista ja kehittämistoimenpiteistä uusiutuvan energian toimintasuunnitelman toteuttamisessa ja haitallisten ympäristövaikutusten minimoimisessa Suomessa. Kirjallisuuskatsaus osoitti, että eri energiamuotojen ympäristövaikutuksista ei ole riittävästi määrällistä ja keskenään vertailukelpoista tietoa. Tästä syystä arvio ympäristövaikutuksista tehtiin laadullisena asiantuntija-arviona. Tutkimuksessa sovelletun laadullisen lähestymistavan tuloksia voidaan pitää suuntaa-antavina, mutta kykenevinä nostamaan esille joukon keskeisiä kysymyksiä liittyen esimerkiksi metsäenergian ilmasto- ja monimuotoisuusvaikutuksiin ja peltoenergian vesistöjä rehevöittäviin vaikutuksiin. Tärkeimmäksi jatkotutkimusaiheeksi nousi kattavan ja vertailukelpoisen LCA-tutkimuksen toteuttaminen uusiutuvan energian tuotantovaihtoehdoille.
  • Ylä-Autio, Fanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Meat is an important source of protein, but the negative environmental impact of meat production is significant. Discussion around meat consumption is often heated, and plant-based protein products are primarily seen as an option to lower the environmental impact of a diet. The production processes for different kinds of meats vary notable. The differences in environmental impacts of diverse production animal species can be explained by three factors: feed conversion ratio, the differences in monogastric and ruminant digestive systems and differences in reproduction traits. Choosing broiler instead of red meat can mitigate the environmental impact of a diet. Environmental impacts of the different meat production processes have been analysed using Life Cycle Assessment. Life Cycle Assessment investigates the use of resources and the green house gas emissions of a livestock production process to evaluate its climate-friendliness. Corporate Social Responsibility is also used as a pivotal theory in this research. The results of Life Cycle Assessment can be used to include sustainability in a company’s strategy, or in communication about Corporate Social Responsibility. The goal of the thesis was to investigate how aware and interested Nordic 24-30-year-old young adults are about the environmental impacts of meat production. Nordic young adults were chosen as the target group, because the Nordic countries are generally seen as the forerunners of sustainability. Young adults were selected because they represent the future way of consuming. The goal of the thesis was to answer following questions: 1. Do the Nordic young consumers feel the need to reduce meat consumption for climate reasons? 2. Do the Nordic young consumers find broiler an appealing source of protein? Four young consumers were interviewed from three different countries: Finland, Sweden, and Denmark. Although the participants of the study showed awareness and knowledge of the negative environmental impacts of meat production, only three of them had made changes to their diet for environmental reasons. Nine of the 12 interviewees supposed that broiler is more environmentally friendly than red meat. Animal welfare issues in broiler production processes lowered the interest towards broiler as a protein source. All four Danish interviewees avoided conventional broiler because of the welfare issues. The upsides of broiler as a source of protein are low fat content, affordable price, and good taste. The living conditions and slaughter process of broilers have great deficiencies, which decreased its appeal amongst the young consumers.