Browsing by Subject "elinkeino"

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  • Kärkkäinen, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study investigates the effects of oil palm smallholding, wealth, and ecosystem services produced by oil palm dominated agroecosystem in the villages of Tanjung Bering and Betung in Sumatra, Indonesia in 2008. The cultivation of oil palm has many environmental and socio-economic impacts. In particular, indigenous peoples are vulnerable stakeholders between the expanding oil palm plantations. Oil palm industry has sought to find sustainable models for palm oil production: the inclusion of indigenous peoples to oil palm development is an essential part of this. The purpose of the study is to chart the situation and to investigate the impact of the oil palm smallholding for the well-being of local indigenous people, and to provide information for the sustainable decision-making. The study is based on household interviews in the area of the Petalangan ethnic group. The interviews were added to a relational database, which was used to provide variables on ecosystem services, economy and well-being for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out mainly by cross-tabulating the mentioned variables with wealth and the oil palm smallholding status, significance has been defined with the Pearson’s khii-test. Interpretation and analysis of the results has been made in the framework of ecosystem services by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Oil palm smallholding highly significantly increased households’ income, and wealth increased highly significantly household’s well-being. The fragmented oil palm dominated agroecosystem was still providing ecosystem services to households. The wealth reduced households’ dependency on most ecosystem services as well as substituted many of them. It is concluded based on this study that in the oil palm dominated agroecosystem, oil palm smallholding and higher income affects very favourable to the households’ well-being, and vice versa non-oil-palm-smallholding and poverty predicts ill-being.
  • Laitalainen, Elina (2006)
    Tutkielmassa tarkasteltiin maataloudesta luopumista elämänkokemuksena. Aiheen tarkastelussa sovellettiin identiteettiteoriaa ja attribuutiolähestymistapaa sekä tutkimuksia viljelijäväestön kulttuurisesta elämäntavasta ja hyvinvoinnista maatalouden murroksessa. Postikyselyyn vastasi hyväksyttävästi 362 maataloudesta vuosien 1995-2005 välisenä aikana luopunutta, vuonna 1950 ja sen jälkeen syntynyttä suomalaista miestä ja naista. Päämenetelminä olivat faktorianalyysi sekä logistinen ja lineaarinen regressioanalyysi. Tutkielman keskeinen käsite oli talonpoikainen identiteetti. Sillä tarkoitettiin identifioitumista maanviljelijän työhön perinteisesti liittyvään kulttuuriin. Toinen keskeinen käsite oli luopumisen syyattribuutio, joka määriteltiin subjektiiviseksi selitykseksi luopumisen syystä. Luopumisen syyattribuutioiksi nousivat tutkielmassa poliittis-taloudellinen uhka, perheongelmat, toisaalle suuntautuminen sekä fyysiset ja psyykkiset rajoitteet. Luopuneiden viljelijöiden talonpoikaiseen kulttuuriin identifioitumisen vahvuus heidän vielä viljellessään oli oletuksen mukaisesti positiivisessa yhteydessä luopumisen henkiseen raskauteen. Katkeruuden kokemiseen talonpoikainen identiteetti ei ollut yhteydessä. Luopumisen syyattribuutiot vaikuttivat eri tavoin luopumisen kokemiseen. Luopumisen syyn attribuointi sisäiseen ja kontrolloituun toisaalle suuntautumiseen helpotti luopumista ja vähensi todennäköisyyttä kokea katkeruutta. Syyn attribuointi ulkoiseen ja kontrolloimattomaan poliittis-taloudelliseen uhkaan tai perheongelmiin lisäsi puolestaan riskiä kokea luopuminen raskaaksi ja tuntea katkeruutta. Naiset attribuoivat luopumisen syiksi miehiä vahvemmin perheongelmat sekä fyysiset ja psyykkiset rajoitteet. Sukupuolittaisten analyysien perusteella voidaan lisäksi suuntaa antavasti todeta, että maataloudesta luopumisen syyattribuutioiden yhteydet luopumisen raskauteen ja luopumisesta koettuihin katkeruuden tuntemuksiin näyttivät eroavan naisilla ja miehillä. Luopumisen raskaus ja katkeruus luopumisesta liittyivät naisilla vahvemmin perheeseen ja miehillä maatilan toimintaan. Talonpoikaisen identiteetin vahvuus ei ollut yhteydessä luopuneiden viljelijöiden nykyiseen henkiseen hyvinvointiin. Syyattribuutioista ainoastaan poliittis-taloudellisella uhalla oli miesten osalta tilastollisesti merkitsevä negatiivinen yhteys henkiseen hyvinvointiin. Luopuneiden viljelijöiden nykyistä henkistä hyvinvointia selitti tutkituista muuttujista selvästi parhaiten tyytyväisyys nykyiseen ammatilliseen asemaan. Luopuminen voi tutkimuksen perusteella olla henkisesti raskas ja katkeroittavakin elämänmuutos. Siitä voi kuitenkin selvitä hyvin, etenkin jos uusi ammatillinen asema koetaan tyydyttäväksi. Keskeisimpiä lähteitä olivat viljelijäväestön kulttuurin osalta mm. Silvasti, T. (2001) ja Sireni, M. (2002); identiteetin uhan osalta mm. Thoits, P. A. (1991) ja Breakwell, G. M. (1986) sekä attribuutiolähestymistavan osalta Halpin, D. & Guilfoyle, A. (2004).
  • Savikurki, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    While a situational analysis by an intervention research program CoS-SIS was being conducted in Lawra and Nadowli regions in Northern Ghana, it was noticed that some farms performed differently: they had more animals, better market off-take or they employed uncommon practices. This raised an interest in this kind of behaviour; what kind of positive deviance exists and what enables it? The objective of this study was to gain understanding on enabling factors for better livelihood outcomes. Study design was a case study where positive deviant (PD) and commercial farmers were contrasted to regular farmers. Qualitative ethnographic methods were used in data collection. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with the main 12 PD informants. Recorded and transcribed data was analyzed by using thematic content analysis. The findings suggest that subsistence production is most common while commercial farming is rare. Recreational farming exists as well. Only commercials sell animals in sales purposes; commonly animals are sold only in need. The main constraints refer to animal mortality, stealing and lack of water. At the back of the problems there are insufficient service delivery and input dealing as well as farmers’ identity and attitudes towards animal rearing. Positive deviance manifests in larger animal holdings and areas in cultivation. This is attributed to the practices employed: PDs offer supplementary feeding, vaccinate and deworm the animals as well as house them for the night. The practices have been learned through neighbours and relatives as well as through extension and projects. Characteristics to PDs is an off-farm income source which enables investments in agriculture. It can be concluded that PD is about basic practices which have been learned from rather common sources. Creating an enabling environment for small ruminant production requires institutional changes as regards to farmers’ attitudes and service and input delivery. Local practices as responses to constraints would be suitable topics for further research.
  • Ruuska, Eeva Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The study contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya. It scrutinizes the land use and land cover change (LULCC) and deforestation; forest ecosystem services and vulnerability of natural and human systems; forest management and land tenure; sustainable land management, development and livelihoods; and woodfuel energy in a Kenya and in Africa. It is a case study from Dakatcha Woodland, an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity adjacent to the Kenyan coast. The local setting of Dakatcha Woodland; the relation of livelihoods, especially charcoal production, to the land cover change; and the environmental and socio-economic impact of land cover change in the study area, are studied in detail. The possibilities to promote sustainable development, livelihoods and ecosystem services in the area are reflected, too. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the planning of sustainable management of land and forests, and sustainable livelihoods of the local population in Dakatcha Woodland. Environment and its change affect biodiversity and ecosystems, and thus ecosystem services that all human beings rely upon. Weakened ecosystem services deteriorate the possibilities to have good living conditions and livelihoods. Dakatcha Woodland is experiencing both environmental and socio-economical problems due to uncontrolled clearance of hilltop Cynometra-Brachylaena forests for agriculture and for charcoal burning to meet the energy demands of both local population as well as to supply the nearby centres and towns. The main underlaying problems are poverty and lack of alternative income generating activities coupled with weak institutional framework and poor land tenure and management system. Drawing from a holistic research epistemology, the study resolves the study objectives with various methods. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide means to assess the land cover and thus the change in the state of environment. Combined with socio-economic data collected with methods often used in Development Geography they offer ways to assess the poverty-environment linkages and offer data to land and forest resource management planning. This study contributes to the existing local land cover data by analyzing four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011, and by forming a supervised land cover classification for those years, thus scrutinizing also the change in land cover. In-situ observation, household questionnaires (90 households were assessed in October 2010) and semi-structured expert interviews (2 from October 2010 and 3 from April 2011), add to literature review in order to reveal the significance of charcoal production to local livelihoods and environment. It was found that more than half of the 90 assessed households are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network is a complex entity that offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood) is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross-cutting issue, that ties together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and demands thus further research. The woodland areas are fragmenting and the relevance of the Important Bird Area (IBA) demarcation should be questioned because it was found that the IBA has lost woodland areas to agriculture and to woody vegetation land cover classes from 2005 to 2011. The land and forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the relevance of ecosystem services that the environment offers. Sustainable future for Dakatcha Woodland is possible, but changes are needed today.