Browsing by Subject "elintarvikekemia"

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  • Kylli, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The main objectives in this thesis were to isolate and identify the phenolic compounds in wild (Sorbus aucuparia) and cultivated rowanberries, European cranberries (Vaccinium microcarpon), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus), as well as to investigate the antioxidant activity of phenolics occurring in berries in food oxidation models. In addition, the storage stability of cloudberry ellagitannin isolate was studied. In wild and cultivated rowanberries, the main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic acids and neochlorogenic acids with increasing anthocyanin content depending on the crossing partners. The proanthocyanidin contents of cranberries and lingonberries were investigated, revealing that the lingonberry contained more rare A-type dimers than the European cranberry. The liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of cloudberry ellagitannins showed that trimeric lambertianin C and sanguiin H-10 were the main ellagitannins. The berries, rich in different types of phenolic compounds including hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins, showed antioxidant activity toward lipid oxidation in liposome and emulsion oxidation models. All the different rowanberry cultivars prevented lipid oxidation in the same way, in spite of the differences in their phenolic composition. In terms of liposomes, rowanberries were slightly more effective antioxidants than cranberry and lingonberry phenolics. Greater differences were found when comparing proanthocyanidin fractions. Proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers of both cranberries and lingonberries were most potent in inhibiting lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activities and antiradical capacities were also studied with hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides. The sinapic acid derivatives of the hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides were the most effective at preventing lipid oxidation in emulsions and liposomes and scavenging radicals in DPPH assay. In liposomes and emulsions, the formation of the secondary oxidation product, hexanal, was inhibited more than that of the primary oxidation product, conjugated diene hydroperoxides, by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This indicates that they are principally chain-breaking antioxidants rather than metal chelators, although they possess chelating activity as well. The storage stability test of cloudberry ellagitannins was performed by storing ellagitannin isolate and ellagitannins encapsulated with maltodextrin at different relative vapor pressures. The storage stability was enhanced by the encapsulation when higher molecular weight maltodextrin was used. The best preservation was achieved when the capsules were stored at 0 or 33% relative vapor pressures. In addition, the antioxidant activities of encapsulated cloudberry extracts were followed during the storage period. Different storage conditions did not alter the antioxidant activity, even though changes in the ellagitannin contents were seen. The current results may be of use in improving the oxidative stability of food products by using berries as natural antioxidants.
  • Heikkinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Cereal arabinoxylans (AXs) belong to the heterogeneous group of hemicelluloses. They are branched polysaccharides located in the plant cell wall, where they strengthen the cell wall together with cellulose and lignin. AXs vary in their molecular structure depending on the plant source from which they are extracted. Cereal AX can be extracted, for example, from the side streams of cereal processing such as bran, husks/hulls, and straw. AXs are sustainable raw materials with a film-forming ability; they can therefore be utilized more efficiently in biodegradable packaging and coatings. In this thesis, structurally different cereal-based AXs were used in the film studies. The effect of the type and amount of polyol plasticizer on the film properties as well as their storage stability during four and five months time was investigated with oat spelt arabinoxylan (OsAX). The structure function relationship of AXs in films was studied by comparing differently substituted rye and wheat flour arabinoxylan (RAX and WAX, respectively) and was further investigated by using specific arabinofuranosidases to tailor arabinose to xylose ratios and arabinose substitution patterns of RAX and WAX. The usability of crude biomass extracts in larger-scale film/sheet preparation was studied via the sheet extrusion of two wheat bran extracts (WBEs), which contained similar amounts of AX and lignin, whereas their starch and protein contents differed depending on the purification process. The film and sheet properties, such as mechanical and barrier properties as well as crystallinity and the physical state of the films, were investigated in order to evaluate the suitability of these materials for packaging. This study revealed that AX, having relatively low arabinose substitution and molar mass, such as OsAX, in general needs plasticization for cohesive film formation. It was found that the amount and type of plasticizer clearly affects the tensile and permeability properties of the films as well as their water sensitivity. In general, the sorbitol-plasticized films were stronger and had lower water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen gas permeability (OP) than the films plasticized with glycerol. Structure correlation studies carried out with RAX and WAX showed that the AXs fine structure affects film formation and film properties. With specific enzymatic tailoring, it was observed that the Ara/Xyl ratios of RAX and WAX did not contribute alone to the behavior of AXs in the films; instead, both the amount and distribution of arabinose side units in the xylan chain had a high impact on the results. When the number of un-substituted xylose units was high, the water solubility of AX decreased and the formed films had a semi-crystalline structure. Mild de-branching improved some film properties, for example, the tensile strength of the RAX films increased. Additionally, it was observed that the OP of the RAX and WAX films decreased along with the de-branching. A storage study showed that the polyol-plasticized OsAX film properties changed during storage; possible reasons for this were lowered plasticization caused by glycerol migration out from the film matrix and/or formation of heterogeneous structures in the film with plasticizer-rich and polymer-rich areas. The WBEs turned out to be potential raw materials in the up-scaled sheet preparation method, which was carried out with a single-screw extruder. Both of the extracts that were studied formed cohesive sheets with polyol addition. In this study, all of the AX films showed low OP properties, which were further decreased by lowering the Ara/Xyl ratio or with plasticized films by decreasing the polyol content. Thus, AX films can be thought of as a potential choice for those applications where high oxygen barrier capacity is needed to prevent the oxidative deterioration of the packaged food product. Present study on AXs fine structure gave information that can be used when various structurally different agricultural side streams are considered as raw materials for film applications. In the current study, the main challenge of the AX films and sheets was their water sensitivity, and with the plasticized films, their decreased storage stability. The sheet extrusion results proved that highly purified fractions are not essential in material production; instead, in this study, moderately purified fractions with a high starch and low protein content formed strong sheets with lowered water sensitivity.
  • Salminen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The antioxidant activity of natural plant materials rich in phenolic compounds is being widely investigated for protection of food products sensitive to oxidative reactions. In this thesis plant materials rich in phenolic compounds were studied as possible antioxidants to prevent protein and lipid oxidation reactions in different food matrixes such as pork meat patties and corn oil-in water emulsions. Loss of anthocyanins was also measured during oxidation in corn oil-in-water emulsions. In addition, the impact of plant phenolics on amino acid level was studied using tryptophan as a model compound to elucidate their role in preventing the formation of tryptophan oxidation products. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection (UV-FL) was developed that enabled fast investigation of formation of tryptophan derived oxidation products. Byproducts of oilseed processes such as rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.), camelina (Camelina sativa) and soy meal (Glycine max L.) as well as Scots pine bark (Pinus sylvestris) and several reference compounds were shown to act as antioxidants toward both protein and lipid oxidation in cooked pork meat patties. In meat, the antioxidant activity of camelina, rapeseed and soy meal were more pronounced when used in combination with a commercial rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis). Berry phenolics such as black currant (Ribes nigrum) anthocyanins and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) ellagitannins showed potent antioxidant activity in corn oil-in-water emulsions toward lipid oxidation with and without β-lactoglobulin. The antioxidant effect was more pronounced in the presence of β-lactoglobulin. The berry phenolics also inhibited the oxidation of tryptophan and cysteine side chains of β-lactoglobulin. The results show that the amino acid side chains were oxidized prior the propagation of lipid oxidation, thereby inhibiting fatty acid scission. In addition, the concentration and color of black currant anthocyanins decreased during the oxidation. Oxidation of tryptophan was investigated in two different oxidation models with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hexanal/FeCl2. Oxidation of tryptophan in both models resulted in oxidation products such as 3a-hydroxypyrroloindole-2-carboxylic acid, dioxindolylalanine, 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, kynurenine, N-formylkynurenine and β-oxindolylalanine. However, formation of tryptamine was only observed in tryptophan oxidized in the presence of H2O2. Pine bark phenolics, black currant anthocyanins, camelina meal phenolics as well as cranberry proanthocyanidins (Vaccinium oxycoccus) provided the best antioxidant effect toward tryptophan and its oxidation products when oxidized with H2O2. The tryptophan modifications formed upon hexanal/FeCl2 treatment were efficiently inhibited by camelina meal followed by rapeseed and soy meal. In contrast, phenolics from raspberry, black currant, and rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) acted as weak prooxidants. This thesis contributes to elucidating the effects of natural phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants in order to control and prevent protein and lipid oxidation reactions. Understanding the relationship between phenolic compounds and proteins as well as lipids could lead to the development of new, effective, and multifunctional antioxidant strategies that could be used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
  • Monogioudi, Evanthia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Protein modification via enzymatic cross-linking is an attractive way for altering food structure so as to create products with increased quality and nutritional value. These modifications are expected to affect not only the structure and physico-chemical properties of proteins but also their physiological characteristics, such as digestibility in the GI-tract and allergenicity. Protein cross-linking enzymes such as transglutaminases are currently commercially available, but also other types of cross-linking enzymes are being explored intensively. In this study, enzymatic cross-linking of β-casein, the most abundant bovine milk protein, was studied. Enzymatic cross-linking reactions were performed by fungal Trichoderma reesei tyrosinase (TrTyr) and the performance of the enzyme was compared to that of transglutaminase from Streptoverticillium mobaraense (Tgase). Enzymatic cross-linking reactions were followed by different analytical techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography -Ultra violet/Visible multi angle light scattering (SEC-UV/Vis-MALLS), phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR), atomic force (AFM) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The research results showed that in both cases cross-linking of β-casein resulted in the formation of high molecular mass (MM ca. 1 350 kg mol-1), disk-shaped nanoparticles when the highest enzyme dosage and longest incubation times were used. According to SEC-UV/Vis-MALLS data, commercial β-casein was cross-linked almost completely when TrTyr and Tgase were used as cross-linking enzymes. In the case of TrTyr, high degree of cross-linking was confirmed by 31P-NMR where it was shown that 91 % of the tyrosine side-chains were involved in the cross-linking. The impact of enzymatic cross-linking of β-casein on in vitro digestibility by pepsin was followed by various analytical techniques. The research results demonstrated that enzymatically cross-linked β-casein was stable under the acidic conditions present in the stomach. Furthermore, it was found that cross-linked β-casein was more resistant to pepsin digestion when compared to that of non modified β-casein. The effects of enzymatic cross-linking of β-casein on allergenicity were also studied by different biochemical test methods. On the basis of the research results, enzymatic cross-linking decreased allergenicity of native β-casein by 14 % when cross-linked by TrTyr and by 6 % after treatment by Tgase. It can be concluded that in addition to the basic understanding of the reaction mechanism of TrTyr on protein matrix, the research results obtained in this study can have high impact on various applications like food, cosmetic, medical, textile and packing sectors.
  • Kariluoto, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The average daily intake of folate, one of the B vitamins, falls below recommendations among the Finnish population. Bread and cereals are the main sources of folate, rye being the most significant single source. Processing is a prerequisite for the consumption of whole grain rye; however, little is known about the effect of processing on folates. Moreover, data on the bioavailability of endogenous cereal folates are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the variation in as well as the effect of fermentation, germination, and thermal processes on folate contents in rye. Bioavailability of endogenous rye folates was investigated in a four-week human intervention study. One of the objectives throughout the work was to optimise and evaluate analytical methods for determining folate contents in cereals. Affinity chromatographic purification followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was a suitable method for analysing cereal products for folate vitamers, and microbiological assay with Lactobacillus rhamnosus reliably quantified the total folate. However, HPLC gave approximately 30% lower results than the microbiological assay. The folate content of rye was high and could be further increased by targeted processing. The vitamer distribution of whole grain rye was characterised by a large proportion of formylated vitamers followed by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. In sourdough fermentation of rye, the studied yeasts synthesized and lactic acid bacteria mainly depleted folate. Two endogenous bacteria isolated from rye flour were found to produce folate during fermentation. Inclusion of baker s yeast in sourdough fermentation raised the folate level so that the bread could contain more folate than the flour it was made of. Germination markedly increased the folate content of rye, with particularly high folate concentrations in hypocotylar roots. Thermal treatments caused significant folate losses but the preceding germination compensated well for the losses. In the bioavailability study, moderate amounts of endogenous folates in the form of different rye products and orange juice incorporated in the diet improved the folate status among healthy adults. Endogenous folates from rye and orange juice showed similar bioavailability to folic acid from fortified white bread. In brief, it was shown that the folate content of rye can be enhanced manifold by optimising and combining food processing techniques. This offers some practical means to increase the daily intake of folate in a bioavailable form.
  • Väänänen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    When genome sections of wild Solanum species are bred into the cultivated potato (S. tuberosum L.) to obtain improved potato cultivars, the new cultivars must be evaluated for their beneficial and undesirable traits. Glycoalkaloids present in Solanum species are known for their toxic as well as for beneficial effects on mammals. On the other hand, glycoalkaloids in potato leaves provide natural protection against pests. Due to breeding, glycoalkaloid profile of the plant is affected. In addition, the starch properties in potato tubers can be affected as a result of breeding, because the crystalline properties are determined by the botanical source of the starch. Starch content and composition affect the texture of cooked and processed potatoes. In order to determine glycoalkaloid contents in Solanum species, simultaneous separation of glycoalkaloids and aglycones using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Clean-up of foliage samples was improved using a silica-based strong cation exchanger instead of octadecyl phases in solid-phase extraction. Glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in potato tubers of cvs. Satu and Sini. The total glycoalkaloid concentration of non-peeled and immature tubers was at an acceptable level (under 20 mg/100 g of FW) in the cv. Satu, whereas concentration in cv. Sini was 23 mg/100 g FW. Solanum species (S. tuberosum, S. brevidens, S. acaule, and S. commersonii) and interspecific somatic hybrids (brd + tbr, acl + tbr, cmm + tbr) were analyzed for their glycoalkaloid contents using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The concentrations in the tubers of the brd + tbr and acl + tbr hybrids remained under 20 mg/100 g FW. Glycoalkaloid concentration in the foliage of the Solanum species was between 110 mg and 890 mg/100 g FW. However, the concentration in the foliage of S. acaule was as low as 26 mg/100 g FW. The total concentrations of brd + tbr, acl + tbr, and cmm + tbr hybrid foliages were 88 mg, 180 mg, and 685 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Glycoalkaloids of both parental plants as well as new combinations of aglycones and saccharides were detected in somatic hybrids. The hybrids contained mainly spirosolanes, and glycoalkaloid structures having no 5,6-double bond in the aglycone. Based on these results, the glycoalkaloid profiles of the hybrids may represent a safer and more beneficial spectrum of glycoalkaloids than that found in currently cultivated varieties. Starch nanostructure of three different cultivars (Satu, Saturna, and Lady Rosetta), a wild species S. acaule, and interspecific somatic hybrids were examined by wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, SAXS). For the first time, the measurements were conducted on fresh potato tuber samples. Crystallinity of starch, average crystallite size, and lamellar distance were determined from the X-ray patterns. No differences in the starch nanostructure between the three different cultivars were detected. However, tuber immaturity was detected by X-ray scattering methods when large numbers of immature and mature samples were measured and the results were compared. The present study shows that no significant changes occurred in the nanostructures of starches resulting from hybridizations of potato cultivars.
  • Kemmo, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Increased interest in the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols has led to development of plant sterol-enriched foods. When products are enriched, the safety of the added components must be evaluated. In the case of plant sterols, oxidation is the reaction of main concern. In vitro studies have indicated that cholesterol oxides may have harmful effects. Due their structural similarity, plant sterol oxidation products may have similar health implications. This study concentrated on developing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods that enable the investigation of formation of both primary and secondary oxidation products and thus can be used for oxidation mechanism studies of plant sterols. The applicability of the methods for following the oxidation reactions of plant sterols was evaluated by using oxidized stigmasterol and sterol mixture as model samples. An HPLC method with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection (HPLC-UV-FL) was developed. It allowed the specific detection of hydroperoxides with FL detection after post-column reagent addition. The formation of primary and secondary oxidation products and amount of unoxidized sterol could be followed by using UV detection. With the HPLC-UV-FL method, separation between oxides was essential and oxides of only one plant sterol could be quantified in one run. Quantification with UV can lead to inaccuracy of the results since the number of double bonds had effect on the UV absorbance. In the case of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), separation of oxides with different functionalities was important because some oxides of the same sterol have similar molecular weight and moreover epimers have similar fragmentation behaviour. On the other hand, coelution of different plant sterol oxides with the same functional group was acceptable since they differ in molecular weights. Results revealed that all studied plant sterols and cholesterol seem to have similar fragmentation behaviour, with only relative ion abundances being slightly different. The major advantage of MS detection coupled with LC separation is the capability to analyse totally or partly coeluting analytes if these have different molecular weights. The HPLC-UV-FL and LC-MS methods were demonstrated to be suitable for studying the photo-oxidation and thermo-oxidation reactions of plant sterols. The HPLC-UV-FL method was able to show different formation rates of hydroperoxides during photo-oxidation. The method also confirmed that plant sterols have similar photo-oxidation behaviour to cholesterol. When thermo-oxidation of plant sterols was investigated by HPLC-UV-FL and LC-MS, the results revealed that the formation and decomposition of individual hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products could be studied. The methods used revealed that all of the plant sterols had similar thermo-oxidation behaviour when compared with each other, and the predominant reactions and oxidation rates were temperature dependent. Overall, these findings showed that with these LC methods the oxidation mechanisms of plant sterols can be examined in detail, including the formation and degradation of individual hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products, with less sample pretreatment and without derivatization.
  • Juvonen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Oligosaccharides potentially present in cereal matrices have attracted attention because of their health-related properties, such as prebiotic potential. In addition to those that are naturally present, oligosaccharides can be formed during processing by the hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides, such as arabinoxylan, by endogenous or microbial enzymes. In sourdough fermentation, additional poly- and oligosaccharides may be produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the work performed for this thesis, mass spectrometry (MS) methods were implemented in the structural analysis of various enzymatically produced oligosaccharides. The research was focused on finding solutions to separating and identifying oligosaccharide isomers. To determine the linkage positions of linear mixed-linked glucooligosaccharides (GLOS), the feasibility of the positive and negative electrospray ionisation multiple-stage MS (ESI-ITMSn) were compared. Next, the ability of ESI-ITMSn to detect the branching points and linkage positions of complex arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (A)XOS was studied. The MS method was also coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) to separate and identify the (A)XOS in mixtures. Finally, the potential of travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) combined with MS to differentiate the isomeric (A)XOS was evaluated. To study the structures of the isomeric acceptor products formed by dextransucrase from LAB, 13C-labelling was applied with ESI-ITMSn. The ESI-ITMSn method provided structural information about the molecular weights, sequences and linkage positions of the linear mixed-linked GLOS and (A)XOS. Negative ionisation was found to be more informative than the positive ionisation mode in analysing the linkage positions. The stepwise C-ion fragmentation in negative mode from the reducing end towards the non-reducing end allowed to study the linkage diagnostic fragment ions from the middle and the non-reducing end in both linear and branched oligosaccharides. O-2 or/and O-3 arabinofuranosyl substituents of AXOS were determined by the presence or absence of diagnostic ions in the ESI-ITMS3 analysis in the negative mode. The ESI-ITMSn method, combined with 13C-isotope labelling, enabled the analysis of unique trisaccharides produced by dextransucrase as well as the further detailed analysis of the isomeric fragment ions. Coupling tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to HILIC enabled the separation and identification of all AXOS by the combination of retention times and the MS/MS spectra. CID-TWIMS-MS/MS was shown to be a powerful tool in differentiating the isomeric AXOS when both the fragment ions and the precursor ions were analysed.
  • Edelmann, Minnamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Folate, one of the B vitamins, has a well-established role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing foetus and megaloblastic anaemia. Folate intake is below recommended levels, especially in countries where mandatory folic acid fortification is not practiced. In these countries, interest to innovate ways for the natural enhancement of folate is high. Wholegrain cereals provide a high proportion of natural folate. Oats and barley have once again attracted attention as cereals with health potential due to their high beta-glucan contents. However, knowledge on the folate content in oats and barley and their milling fractions is limited. In turn, several microbes are potential folate producers in aqueous processes. Folate content in cereal-based products could be further improved by utilising folate-rich milling fractions or by using the ability of microbes to synthesise folate. In this thesis, oats and barley were studied as sources of folate. The total folate was determined in five oat and barley cultivars over three years with a microbiological method. Different fractions were produced from oats by oat processing and from barley by scarification and industrial milling. The folate vitamer distribution in fractions was examined with the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method. Furthermore, bacteria isolated from cereal products, food-grade yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were studied for their folate-production in rich medium and in aqueous processes of oat and barley bran and flour. In addition, the profile of the produced folate vitamers was studied in rich medium and in oat flour and barley bran matrices. The validated UHPLC method proved to be fast and sensitive for determining seven folate vitamers in cereal and microbe samples. New data was obtained on the folate content and its variation in oat and barley cultivars. The total folate content in barley grains was slightly higher at 770 ng/g dm, than the folate content in oats (690 ng/g dm) when determined shortly after harvest. These contents were higher than had been previously found in wheat. In addition, the variation among the cultivars in each year was moderate. This study also showed that oat and barley grains might lose folate during storage. Dry-fractionation of oats and barley yielded fractions with high folate content. Among the oat fractions, the highest folate content was found in its by-products. The folate content in the residual flour from oat flaking was 2.5-fold that of native oat grain. In barley grain 40 60% of the folate was lost during industrial dehulling and pearling processes. The total folate content in oat and barley fractions demonstrated that folate was localised in the outer layers and germ. The main folate vitamers in the oat and barley fractions were 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. A few endogenous bacteria isolated from oat bran produced folate in rich medium more than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is known as a good folate producer. In cereal matrices, several food-grade yeasts produced a significant amount of folate with glucose addition, but folate production by LAB was low. Folate content in the oat flour matrix fermented with Pseudomonas sp. for 24 h and stored for 2 weeks in the cold was 9-fold that of the control sample. Bacteria and yeasts accumulated the most 5-methyltetrahydrofolate followed by tetrahydrofolate and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. The results in this thesis show that oats and barley are good sources of folate. Introducing folate-rich milling fractions into cereal products would increase the folate intake of consumers. Further, food-grade yeasts and bacteria have potential for folate enhancement in aqueous cereal processing. Particularly, the folate production by some cereal-based endogenous bacteria offers possibilities for natural folate enrichment in beta-glucan-rich oat and barley matrices.
  • Nyström, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Cereal kernels are known to contain a number of minor components that possess beneficial health attributes. In this thesis rye and wheat were studied as sources of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides and their behaviour in processing were evaluated. Further, enzymatic hydrolysis of these conjugates was studied, as well as the capacity of steryl ferulates to inhibit lipid oxidation at different temperatures. Steryl ferulates were shown to have a strong positive correlation with dietary fibre contents in milling fractions from the outer parts of the kernels obtained from a commercial scale mill. Highest contents of steryl ferulates were found in the bran in both cereals, with the content decreasing once moving towards the inner parts of the kernel. Variation in the contents of steryl ferulates was higher in wheat fractions than rye fractions. Steryl glycosides, on the other hand, had either negative or no correlation with dietary fibre, and the range of the steryl glycoside contents was much narrower than that of steryl ferulates in both cereals. There were significant differences in the sterol compositions of these steryl conjugates when compared with each other or with the total plant sterols in the corresponding fractions. Properties of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides were evaluated after common processing methods and in enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermal and mechanical processing had only minor or no effects on the contents of steryl conjugates from rye and wheat bran. Enzymatic treatments on the other hand caused some changes, especially in the contents of glycosylated sterols. When steryl ferulates extracted from rye or wheat bran were subjected to enzymatic treatments by steryl esterase, significant differences in the rates of hydrolysis were observed between steryl ferulates from different sources with differing sterol compositions. Further, differences were also observed between enzymes from different sources. Steryl glycosides were shown to be hydrolysed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase) from A. niger, but less with β-glucosidases from other sources. Steryl ferulates showed good antioxidant activity at both moderate and high temperatures. In bulk and emulsion systems of methyl linoleate at 40°C steryl ferulates extracted from rye and wheat bran inhibited hydroperoxide formation much more effectively than synthetic steryl ferulates or those extracted from rice (γ-oryzanol), demonstrating that the sterol composition has an effect on the activity. At cooking (100°C) and frying temperatures (180°C) sitostanyl ferulate was shown to inhibit polymer formation significantly and, especially at 100°C, comparably to α-tocopherol. The rate of antioxidant degradation was slower for sitostanyl ferulate, showing higher heat stability than α-tocopherol. When evaluated as a mixture, no synergistic effect was observed between these two antioxidants. The data presented in this thesis provides information that may henceforth be applied when evaluating the intakes of steryl conjugates from cereal sources, as well as their possible influences as minor bioactive components. Wheat and rye both are good sources of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides and, especially with steryl ferulates, what may be lost out to some other cereals on quantity is compensated with quality of the sterol composition.
  • Lehtonen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Novel food products are fortified with plant sterols and stanols because of their ability to lower the LDL-cholesterol levels in plasma up to 10−15%. These compounds are added to food either in their free form or as fatty acyl esters. Like other unsaturated lipids, sterols are also prone to oxidation in the presence of oxygen and initiators such as heat, light, metal ions and enzymes. Oxidation may occur already during the manufacture of sterol preparations or during food processing and storage. The known adverse health effects of the oxidation products of cholesterol have prompted the evaluation of the biological effects of plant sterol oxides. The oxidation behaviour of free cholesterol has been extensively studied, whereas those of plant sterols have been less thoroughly examined. The oxidation behaviour of mainly free sterols has been investigated, but knowledge on those of fatty acyl esters or other conjugates is deficient. This study investigated the effects of chemical (i.e., esterification, unsaturation degree of the acyl moiety and sterol structure) and external (i.e., temperature and medium) factors on the oxidation of sterols. Development of solid-phase extraction and HPLC-DAD-ELSD methods for the isolation and determination of intact steryl ester monohydroperoxides allowed the primary oxidation of steryl esters to be followed both in neat preparations and in saturated lipid media. The oxidation of steryl and acyl moieties could be distinguished; therefore, the oxidation of both moieties could be followed in intact molecules. Further reactions of the monohydroperoxides were followed in terms of secondary oxidation products of sterol and oligomers. Introduction of an acyl moiety to a sterol altered the physical state and polarity of the sterol and affected its oxidation. In neat preparations at 100 °C, esterified sterols were liquefied and thus oxidised greatly, whereas the free sterol remained in a solid state and was therefore unaltered. Increased unsaturation of the acyl moiety increased the oxidation rate of both the steryl and acyl moieties. No differences in the initial reactivities of these two moieties were observed, but they oxidised concomitantly. For esters with monounsaturated acyl moieties, greater contents of steryl than of acyl moiety hydroperoxides were measured, whereas for an ester with polyunsaturated acyl moiety, greater contents of the acyl moiety hydroperoxides were measured. Increased temperature (140 °C) induced the oxidation of both steryl esters and free sterol. In a saturated lipid medium at 100 °C, the oxidation of steryl esters was decelerated, whereas the oxidation of free sterol was accelerated. Due to reduced oxidation rates, the accumulation of further reaction products was also delayed. In neat preparations and in the lipid medium, the steryl ester hydroperoxides decomposed into traditionally determined sterol secondary oxidation products and also underwent polymerisation as a rival reaction. By altering the chemical and physical properties of sterols, their oxidisabilities may be affected. If these factors are regulated in the manufacture of the preparations and in the food processing, formation of oxidation products may be controlled and the desired functionality of plant sterols preserved.
  • Soupas, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    An important safety aspect to be considered when foods are enriched with phytosterols and phytostanols is the oxidative stability of these lipid compounds, i.e. their resistance to oxidation and thus to the formation of oxidation products. This study concentrated on producing scientific data to support this safety evaluation process. In the absence of an official method for analyzing of phytosterol/stanol oxidation products, we first developed a new gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method. We then investigated factors affecting these compounds' oxidative stability in lipid-based food models in order to identify critical conditions under which significant oxidation reactions may occur. Finally, the oxidative stability of phytosterols and stanols in enriched foods during processing and storage was evaluated. Enriched foods covered a range of commercially available phytosterol/stanol ingredients, different heat treatments during food processing, and different multiphase food structures. The GC-MS method was a powerful tool for measuring the oxidative stability. Data obtained in food model studies revealed that the critical factors for the formation and distribution of the main secondary oxidation products were sterol structure, reaction temperature, reaction time, and lipid matrix composition. Under all conditions studied, phytostanols as saturated compounds were more stable than unsaturated phytosterols. In addition, esterification made phytosterols more reactive than free sterols at low temperatures, while at high temperatures the situation was the reverse. Generally, oxidation reactions were more significant at temperatures above 100°C. At lower temperatures, the significance of these reactions increased with increasing reaction time. The effect of lipid matrix composition was dependent on temperature; at temperatures above 140°C, phytosterols were more stable in an unsaturated lipid matrix, whereas below 140°C they were more stable in a saturated lipid matrix. At 140°C, phytosterols oxidized at the same rate in both matrices. Regardless of temperature, phytostanols oxidized more in an unsaturated lipid matrix. Generally, the distribution of oxidation products seemed to be associated with the phase of overall oxidation. 7-ketophytosterols accumulated when oxidation had not yet reached the dynamic state. Once this state was attained, the major products were 5,6-epoxyphytosterols and 7-hydroxyphytosterols. The changes observed in phytostanol oxidation products were not as informative since all stanol oxides quantified represented hydroxyl compounds. The formation of these secondary oxidation products did not account for all of the phytosterol/stanol losses observed during the heating experiments, indicating the presence of dimeric, oligomeric or other oxidation products, especially when free phytosterols and stanols were heated at high temperatures. Commercially available phytosterol/stanol ingredients were stable during such food processes as spray-drying and ultra high temperature (UHT)-type heating and subsequent long-term storage. Pan-frying, however, induced phytosterol oxidation and was classified as a rather deteriorative process. Overall, the findings indicated that although phytosterols and stanols are stable in normal food processing conditions, attention should be paid to their use in frying. Complex interactions between other food constituents also suggested that when new phytosterol-enriched foods are developed their oxidative stability must first be established. The results presented here will assist in choosing safe conditions for phytosterol/stanol enrichment.
  • Pastell, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be prepared enzymatically from arabinoxylans (AX) and AXOS are known to possess prebiotic potential. Here the structural features of 10 cereal AX were examined. AX were hydrolysed by Shearzyme® to prepare AXOS, and their structures were fully analysed. The prebiotic potential of the purified AXOS was studied in the fermentation experiments with bifidobacteria and faecal microbiota. In AX extracted from flours and bran, high amounts of a-L-Araf units are attached to the b-D-Xylp main chain, whereas moderate or low degree of substitution was found from husks, cob and straw. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that flour and bran AX contain high amounts of a-L-Araf units bound to the O-3 of b-D-Xylp residues and doubly substituted b-D-Xylp units with a-L-Araf substituents at O-2 and O-3. Barley husk and corn cob AX contain high amounts of b-D-Xylp(1→2)-a-L-Araf(1→3) side chains, which can also be found in AX from oat spelts and rice husks, and in lesser amounts in wheat straw AX. Rye and wheat flour AX and oat spelt AX were hydrolysed by Shearzyme® (with Aspergillus aculeatus GH10 endo-1,4-b-D-xylanase as the main enzyme) for the production of AXOS on a milligram scale. The AXOS were purified and their structures fully analysed, using mass spectrometry (MS) and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Monosubstituted xylobiose and xylotriose with a-L-Araf attached to the O-3 or O-2 of the nonreducing end b-D-Xylp unit and disubstituted AXOS with two a-L-Araf units at the nonreducing end b-D-Xylp unit of xylobiose or xylotriose were produced. Xylobiose with b-D-Xylp(1→2)-a-L-Araf(1→3) side chain was also purified. These AXOS were used as standards in further identification and quantification of corresponding AXOS from the hydrolysates in high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) analysis. The prebiotic potential of AXOS was tested in in vitro fermentation experiments. Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703 and B. longum ATCC 15707 utilized AXOS from the AX hydrolysates. Both species released L-arabinose from AXOS, but B. adolescentis consumed the XOS formed, whereas B. longum fermented the L-arabinose released. The third species tested, B. breve ATCC 15700, grew poorly on these substrates. When cultivated on pure AXOS, the bifidobacterial mixture utilized pure singly substituted AXOS almost completely, but no growth was detected with pure doubly substituted AXOS as substrates. However, doubly substituted AXOS were utilized from the mixture of xylose, XOS and AXOS. Faecal microbiota utilized both pure singly and doubly substituted AXOS. Thus, a mixture of singly and doubly substituted AXOS could function as a suitable, slowly fermenting prebiotic substance. This thesis contributes to the structural information on cereal AX and preparation of mono and doubly substituted AXOS from AX. Understanding the utilization strategies is fundamental in evaluating the prebiotic potential of AXOS. Further research is still required before AXOS can be used in applications for human consumption.
  • Johansson, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The structures of (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucans of oat bran, whole-grain oats and barley and processed foods were analysed. Various methods of hydrolysis of β-glucan, the content of insoluble fibre of whole grains of oats and barley and the solution behaviour of oat and barley β-glucans were studied. The isolated soluble β-glucans of oat bran and whole-grain oats and barley were hydrolysed with lichenase, an enzyme specific for (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-β-glucans. The amounts of oligosaccharides produced from bran were analysed with capillary electrophoresis and those from whole-grains with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulse-amperometric detection. The main products were 3-O-β-cellobiosyl-D-glucose and 3-O-β-cellotriosyl-D-glucose, the oligosaccharides which have a degree of polymerisation denoted by DP3 and DP4. Small differences were detected between soluble and insoluble β-glucans and also between β-glucans of oats and barley. These differences can only be seen in the DP3:DP4 ratio which was higher for barley than for oat and also higher for insoluble than for soluble β-glucan. A greater proportion of barley β-glucan remained insoluble than of oat β-glucan. The molar masses of soluble β-glucans of oats and barley were the same as were those of insoluble β-glucans of oats and barley. To analyse the effects of cooking, baking, fermentation and drying, β-glucan was isolated from porridge, bread and fermentate and also from their starting materials. More β-glucan was released after cooking and less after baking. Drying decreased the extractability for bread and fermentate but increased it for porridge. Different hydrolysis methods of β-glucan were compared. Acid hydrolysis and the modified AOAC method gave similar results. The results of hydrolysis with lichenase gave higher recoveries than the other two. The combination of lichenase hydrolysis and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulse-amperometric detection was found best for the analysis of β-glucan content. The content of insoluble fibre was higher for barley than for oats and the amount of β-glucan in the insoluble fibre fraction was higher for oats than for barley. The flow properties of both water and aqueous cuoxam solutions of oat and barley β-glucans were studied. Shear thinning was stronger for the water solutions of oat β-glucan than for barley β-glucan. In aqueous cuoxam shear thinning was not observed at the same concentration as in water but only with high concentration solutions. Then the viscosity of barley β-glucan was slightly higher than that of oat β-glucan. The oscillatory measurements showed that the crossover point of the G´ and G´´ curves was much lower for barley β-glucan than for oat β-glucan indicating a higher tendency towards solid-like behaviour for barley β-glucan than for oat β-glucan.
  • Kokkonen, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi. They pose a health risk to humans and animals due to their harmful biological properties and common occurrence in food and feed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has gained popularity in the trace analysis of food contaminants. In this study, the applicability of the technique was evaluated in multi-residue methods of mycotoxins aiming at simultaneous detection of chemically diverse compounds. Methods were developed for rapid determination of toxins produced by fungal genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Claviceps from cheese, cereal based agar matrices and grains. Analytes were extracted from these matrices with organic solvents. Minimal sample clean-up was carried out before the analysis of the mycotoxins with reversed phase LC coupled to tandem MS (MS/MS). The methods were validated and applied for investigating mycotoxins in cheese and ergot alkaloid occurrence in Finnish grains. Additionally, the toxin production of two Fusarium species predominant in northern Europe was studied. Nine mycotoxins could be determined from cheese with the method developed. The limits of quantification (LOQ) allowed the quantification at concentrations varying from 0.6 to 5.0 µg/kg. The recoveries ranged between 96 and 143 %, and the within-day repeatability (as relative standard deviation, RSDr) between 2.3 and 12.1 %. Roquefortine C and mycophenolic acid could be detected at levels of 300 up to 12000 µg/kg in the mould cheese samples analysed. A total of 29 or 31 toxins could be analysed with the method developed for agar matrices and grains, with the LOQs ranging overall from 0.1 to 1250 µg/kg. The recoveries ranged generally between 44 and 139 %, and the RSDr between 2.0 and 38 %. Type-A trichothecenes and beauvericin were determined from the cereal based agar and grain cultures of F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. T-2 toxin was the main metabolite, the average levels reaching 22000 µg/kg in the grain cultures after 28 days of incubation. The method developed for ten ergot alkaloids from grains allowed their quantification at levels varying from 0.01 to 10 µg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 51 to 139 %, and the RSDr from 0.6 to 13.9 %. Ergot alkaloids were measured in barley and rye at average levels of 59 and 720 µg/kg, respectively. The two most prevalent alkaloids were ergocornine and ergocristine. The LC/MS methods developed enabled rapid detection of mycotoxins in such applications where several toxins co-occurred. Generally, the performance of the methods was good, allowing reliable analysis of the mycotoxins of interest with sufficiently low quantification limits. However, the variation in validation results highlighted the challenges related to optimising this type of multi-residue methods. New data was obtained about the occurrence of mycotoxins in mould cheeses and of ergot alkaloids in Finnish grains. In addition, the study revealed the high mycotoxin-producing potential of two common fungi in Finnish crops. The information can be useful when risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination will be assessed.
  • Pitkänen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Cereal arabinoxylans, guar galactomannans, and dextrans produced by lactic acid bacteria(LAB) are a structurally diverse group of branched polysaccharides with nutritional and industrial functions. In this thesis, the effect of the chemical structure on the dilute solution properties of these polysaccharides was investigated using size-exclusion chromatography(SEC) and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) with multiple-detection. The chemical structures of arabinoxylans were determined, whereas galactomannan and dextran structures were studied in previous investigations. Characterization of arabinoxylans revealed differences in the chemical structures of cereal arabinoxylans. Although arabinoxylans from wheat, rye, and barley fiber contained similar amounts of arabinose side units, the substitution pattern of arabinoxylans from different cereals varied. Arabinoxylans from barley husks and commercial low-viscosity wheat arabinoxylan contained a lower number of arabinose side units. Structurally different dextrans were obtained from different LAB. The structural effects on the solution properties could be studied in detail by modifying pure wheat and rye arabinoxylans and guar galactomannan with specific enzymes. The solution characterization of arabinoxylans, enzymatically modified galactomannans, and dextrans revealed the presence of aggregates in aqueous polysaccharide solutions. In the case of arabinoxylans and dextrans, the comparison of molar mass data from aqueous and organic SEC analyses was essential in confirming aggregation, which could not be observed only from the peak or molar mass distribution shapes obtained with aqueous SEC. The AsFlFFF analyses gave further evidence of aggregation. Comparison of molar mass and intrinsic viscosity data of unmodified and partially debranched guar galactomannan, on the other hand, revealed the aggregation of native galactomannan. The arabinoxylan and galactomannan samples with low or enzymatically extensively decreased side unit content behaved similarly in aqueous solution: lower molar mass samples stayed in solution but formed large aggregates, whereas the water solubility of the higher-molar-mass samples decreased significantly. Due to the restricted solubility of galactomannans in organic solvents, only aqueous galactomannan solutions were studied. The SEC and AsFlFFF results differed for the wheat arabinoxylan and dextran samples. Column matrix effects and possible differences in the separation parameters are discussed, and a problem related to the non-established relationship between the separation parameters of the two separation techniques is highlighted. This thesis shows that complementary approaches in the solution characterization of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides are needed to comprehensively investigate macromolecular behavior in solution. These results may also be valuable when characterizing other branched polysaccharides.