Browsing by Subject "elintarviketeknologia (maitoteknologia)"

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  • Heino, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Milk microfiltration (0.05-0.2 um) is a membrane separation technique which divides milk components into casein-enriched and native whey fractions. Hitherto the effect of intensive microfiltration including a diafiltration step for both cheese and whey processing has not been studied. The microfiltration performance of skimmed milk was studied with polymeric and ceramic MF membranes. The changes caused by decreased concentration of milk lactose, whey protein and ash content for cheese milk quality and ripening were studied. The effects of cheese milk modification on the milk coagulation properties, cheese recovery yield, cheese composition, ripening and sensory quality as well as on the whey recovery yield and composition by microfiltration were studied. The functional properties of whey protein concentrate from native whey were studied and the detailed composition of whey protein concentrate powders made from cheese wheys after cheese milk pretreatments such as high temperature heat treatment (HH), microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) were compared. The studied polymeric spiral wound microfiltration membranes had 38.5% lower energy consumption, 30.1% higher retention of whey proteins to milk retentate and 81.9% lower permeate flux values compared to ceramic membranes. All studied microfiltration membranes were able to separate main whey proteins from skimmed milk. The optimal lactose content of Emmental cheese milk exceeded 3.2% and reduction of whey proteins and ash content of cheese milk with high concentration factor (CF) values increased the rate of cheese ripening. Reduction of whey protein content in cheese milk increased the concentration of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) of total proteins in cheese whey. Reduction of milk whey protein, lactose and ash content reduces milk rennet clotting time and increased the firmness of the coagulum. Cheese yield calculated from raw milk to cheese was lower with microfiltrated milks due to native whey production. Amounts of a-lactalbumin (a-LA) and b-lactoglobulin (b-LG) were significantly higher in the reference whey, indicating that HH, MF and UF milk pretreatments decrease the amounts of these valuable whey proteins in whey. Even low CF values in milk microfiltration (CF 1.4) reduced nutritional value of cheese whey. From the point of view of utilization of milk components it would be beneficial if the amount of native whey and the CMP content of cheese whey could be maximized. Whey protein concentrate powders made of native whey had excellent functional properties and their detailed amino acid composition differed from those of cheese whey protein concentrate powders.