Browsing by Subject "embodiment"

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  • Veeber, Eva; Syrjäläinen, Erja; Lind, Ene (2015)
    Craft education has held a permanent place in Estonian and Finnish schools, although its value and appreciation have changed over time. The aim of the article is to discuss the necessity of craft education in today’s world and its possible impact on the development of children and adolescents. The discussion seeks a theoretical interdisciplinary explanation using three perspectives that complement each other. The first describes the challenges of modern society with respect to individual development and schooling. The second deals with Aaron Antonovsky's theory of generalized resistance resources and an individual's possibility to manage in a stressful society. The third addresses the individual as a developing neurological being, along with the effect of learning and practicing motor skills on the human brain. We conclude that craft is a multidisciplinary phenomenon, and that learning and practicing crafts promotes the comprehension of diversity and challenges in life. Additionally, educational craft enriches the learning environment, offering opportunities to develop transferable skills that human beings constantly need in society. In addition, craft provides a balanced way to come to understand the world and one’s role in it, by simultaneously promoting motor and cognitive development and making unique demands on one’s being.
  • MacDonald, James (2018)
    This thesis is a companion to my artistic work in stand-up comedy, comprising artistic-based research and approaches comedy from a performance studies perspective. The question addressed in the paper and the work is "How is the body of the comedian part of the joke?" The first section outlines dominant theories about humour-superiority, relief, and incongruity-as a background the discussion. It touches on the role of the comedian both as untrustworthy, playful trickster, and parrhesiastes who speaks directly to power, backed by the truth of her lived experience. It also provides some context for the contemporary comedian, whose work follows them off stage and into the thunderdome of social media, where trolling and speaking truth are taken very seriously. Another section presented as background to the discussion is on transgender bodies in performance, focusing on performance art and in stand-up comedy. I argue that embodied transgender performances are largely still situated in the act of encountering a trans body. Speaking of contemporary stand-up comedy, I discuss the ways in which an abject identity or body may be exploited by the comedian onstage for laughter and also for activism. The comedy of Tig Notaro, Maria Bamford, Hasan Minaj, Jess Thom, Eddie Izzard, Dave Chappelle, Cameron Esposito, and others come into play. Comedy is a complex and interesting site of resistance and social change, since it deals in mockery and non-seriousness, but precisely these qualities allow it to convey messages that are necessary and not polite elsewhere. Finally, I describe my final artistic work, a one-hour comedy show called Gender Euphoria, which is about my own experiences in transitioning from female to male. I describe the ways in which the space and experience were designed to mimic the conditions of a stand-up club inside an institution of learning, and to what aim. The arc of Gender Euphoria is described as an autobiographical work of discovering identity, encountering medical institutions with that identity, encountering new social norms, and travelling through wave after wave of certainty in identity towards more complication, ambiguity, and liberation. I also discuss the material that I was too afraid to do, or that I self-censored out of a sense of not being able to convey the message properly, and fear of backlash from a community I attempt to support. As a whole, this thesis attempts to provide a viewpoint towards the playful and serious contradictions in stand-up comedy, in a way that is informed by practice in the field, from the point of view of a subject whose identity has up until recently been the object of derision, rather than the subject of resistance.
  • Sydänmaa, Birgitta Nicola (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Previous research has shown that colonization had profound impacts on precolonial Indigenous communities in North America. From the first contact, the explorers’ perception was colored by Eurocentric ideas rooted in European social systems, religion, cultures, and values, which called into question the moral worth and very humanity of Indigenous peoples. In Canada, colonialism introduced Indigenous peoples with a new social order, including new political, social, cultural, and economic structures, as well as a new stigmatized Indigenous identity, which became foundational for subsequent laws, policies, and institutional practices that aimed to erase those very elements deemed problematic. In Canada, Indigenous people have since colonization persistently suffered from poorer health compared to settler and more recent immigrant populations. Research points to both proximal and distal determinants behind the disparities documented in Indigenous health, and suggests that along with contemporary socioeconomic conditions, the distal factors of colonialism, virgin soil epidemics, and policies of subjugation and assimilation have been traumatic and have contributed negatively to the contemporary Indigenous population’s health. This research thesis is located in the field of medical anthropology and examines health, illness, and healing as culturally shaped, personal, embodied, and shared experiences, meanings, and illness realities. The theory used this thesis rests on an embodied meaning-centered approach of illness, which suggests that elements from the psychobiological, sociocultural, symbolic, political, and historical experiential realms blend to form a network of meanings for a sufferer, an embodied experience of an illness world that is shared as part of a community. Situated in the context of colonial history and present health disparities, the research questions of this thesis center on discovering major themes of embodied experiences and meanings of health, illness, and healing in an urban Indigenous community. Altogether eight weeks of daily ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in an Indigenous urban community in Vancouver, Canada, in the spring of 2017. The data for this thesis consisted of fieldnotes, ten individual interviews and one group interview, taped public speeches, photographs, and videos. A thematic analysis identified six significant categories of embodied meanings and experiences of health, illness, and healing in community narratives: colonization and colonialisms, colonization traumas, structural violence, survivance and resilience, reconciliation, and healing with culture. This thesis establishes that colonization and various colonialisms with policies of subjugation and assimilation are seen by community members as profoundly traumatic events with negative impacts on health that persist intergenerationally to this day. Collective memories of colonization and colonialisms inform what it once meant to be healthy, how communities became sick, and how they can become healthy again. Due to contemporary experiences of structural violence and racism, Indigenous community members continue to experience Canada as an enduring colonial space. Healing for community members is achieved by decolonizing minds from the once stigmatized identities introduced by colonization and by reindigenizing their world through reintroducing the original cultures and cultural identities back into their daily practices and healing their perceptions of the self.
  • Melkas, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The present study is part of Handling Mind: Embodiment, Design and Creativity research project. This study has two main goals: 1) to shed light on the participants' opinions of an experiment they participated and 2) to map their problem solving strategies used in different clay forming task. As the latest previous research has suggested in addition to the cognitive aspects, problem solving in design and crafts has embodied side too, that is, for example, related to the interaction with materials and tools. Both sides of problem solving are discussed in the present study. Thirty participants from various fields of design participated drawing and clay forming experiment and were interviewed afterwards using stimulated recall method. In the experiment the participants performed three types of tasks: copying, design and free improvisation. Fifteen of the interviews were transcript and analyzed using content analysis. The results show that the experiment situation was a positive or at least neutral situation to fourteen out of fifteen participants. In the copying and design tasks problem solving was related to finding a quick and suitable technique to perform the task, whereas in the free improvisation tasks techniques were more experimental and clay material was a source of inspiration to many of the participants. There are some things to consider from the participants point of view, when planning new experiments, such as the timing, repetition of the same tasks and the total length of the experiment. In clay forming tasks, problem solving is strongly connected to the material, which shows the importance of the embodied side of problem solving. Setting or redefining goals and choosing working strategies are examples of the cognitive side of problem solving.
  • Liimakka, Satu (2004)
    The topic of research is young women's representations of woman's body and their own body experiences. Research subjects (19 young women) are 17–18 years old high school students in Helsinki. Research material consists of three group discussions and individual writings (22 writings). Young women's embodiment is explored from two perspectives. On the level of representations this study explores what kind of social representations, that is, socially shared ideas about women's embodiment young women have. On the level of individual experiences the study focuses on young women's body experiences, seen from the perspective of phenomenology. Also the relationship between experiences and representations is discussed. Analysis of research material is based on grounded theory methodology. Young women's socially shared ideas about women's embodiment are divided into six prototypes. Prototypes express the most typical properties of each representation. Prototypes form positive/negative opposites. They describe three areas of women's embodiment: health (healthy/anorectic), shaping the body (fit/man-woman), and sexual attractiveness (good-looking/chick). Group distinctions between young women are formed according to the body – 'good women' are healthy, fit and good-looking, while 'bad women' are anorectic, manly women and sexy chicks. Young women's body experiences are contradictory. On one hand body is a private lived and experienced body, like a comfortable home. On the other hand body is a public object, constantly under evaluation, surveillance and public attention. Positive attention given to object body can feel good, but it also reinforces the public character of women's bodies. Main experience is the experience of contradiction: young women compare their bodies to the normative body of an ideal woman, which is almost impossible to reach. Young women criticize normative requirements for women's bodies, but still they experience pressures and feelings of inadequacy in relation to cultural body ideals. Separating experiences and representations totally from each other is almost impossible. Representations and experiences interact with each other all the time, which means that individual body experiences are constructed in relation to cultural ideas about body and gender. Main sources were: Grosz, Elizabeth (1994): Volatile Bodies. Towards a Corporeal Feminism. Puuronen, Anne & Välimaa, Raili (toim.) (2001): Nuori ruumis. Oinas, Elina (2001): Making Sense of the Teenage Body. Sociological Perspectives on Girls, Changing Bodies, and Knowledge. Heinämaa, Sara (1996): Ele, tyyli ja sukupuoli. Merleau-Pontyn ja Beauvoirin ruumiinfenomenologia ja sen merkitys sukupuolikysymykselle. Deaux, Kay & Philogene, Gina (toim.) (2001): Representations of the Social. Bridging Theoretical Traditions.
  • Paalanen, Johanna (2020)
    The article examines classroom interaction during a Finnish high school music lesson, using ethnomethodological multimodal conversation analysis as both a theoretical and methodological approach. It explores how artistic action and aesthetic experience become visible in moment-by-moment interaction in a context of everyday school lesson. Embodiment and continuity function as central features in pedagogical process aiming at artistic expression, and emerging both socially and individually. This shows conformity to e.g. John Dewey´s philosophical understanding of aesthetic experience. The analysis demonstrates the multilayeredness of the interaction in school music lesson. In the data extract, student participation in the artistic activity during the lesson is characterized by stylized performances and restrained embodiment. The music teacher orients to these forms of student participation as normal embodied institutional activities, not as students’ resistance towards her artistic or pedagogical activity.
  • Tolonen, Tarja (2019)
    This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews to explore young minority men's relation to school and city space in Helsinki from the perspective of their everyday experiences of racialisation in public spaces. The article uses the concept of 'power geometrical' relations of space by drawing on several research traditions, including youth and masculinity studies, studies on social space, racialisation and ethnicity, and human geography. The evidence shows the school to be an important site of local and national power geometry (Massey, D. [1994]. Space, Place and Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press), in which 'informal' and 'physical' spheres are dominated by peers and connect to streets and public spheres (Gordon, T., J. Holland, and E. Lahelma. [2000]. Making Spaces: Citizenship and Difference in Schools. Houndsmills et al. London: MacMillan Press Ltd). The article shows how young minority men knew their place both in narrow local power geometries, and within the wider city and school spaces, exploring how they formed their own lived spaces (Lefebvre, H. [1991]. The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell), claimed their spaces and marked their spaces with diverse tactics. Some tactics were socially open, such as making friends; some were very mobile, such as claiming their own urban spaces by mobility, or marking and 'hanging around'; and some involved big groups of friends, crowds, defence and embodied accounts.
  • Pajo, Kati; Laakso, Minna (2020)
    Hearing impairment is a common chronic condition in middle-aged and elderly adults. The number of individuals with hearing impairment is expected to rise because of the longer life expectancies and trends in the population growth. Acquired hearing impairment in adulthood is not just a disorder of the sense of hearing. It is primarily a social disability because its handicapping effect is experienced in interaction with other people. This paper aims to explore how the repair of problems in hearing is initiated by hearing-impaired individuals with acquired mild to severe hearing impairment. By using the method of conversation analysis (CA), this paper examines the occurrence of other-initiations of repair (OIR) and how it is typically resolved in actual mundane interaction. In addition, this paper reveals the challenges and the impact of hearing impairment as the state of hearing deteriorates. This article argues that the frequency of OIR in mild hearing impairment does not differ from normally hearing individuals. However, in a more severe grade of hearing impairment, the OIR sequences are longer, more frequent, multimodal and may require more vigilance from the normally-hearing conversation partner. Implications for counselling are suggested.
  • Hug, Joa (2020)
    Acta Scenica
    Tässä kirjallisessa työssä esitellään kirjoittajan väitöskirjatutkimuksen tulokset ja tutkimusprosessin kulku, ja se toimii samalla tohtorintutkinnon tutkintovaatimusten viimeisenä, kirjallisena osana – kommentaarina. Tutkimus on tehty Taideyliopiston Teatterikorkeakoulun Esittävien taiteiden tutkimuskeskuksessa, ja se pureutuu kehollisen ja käsitteellisen reflektion välillä yleisesti tehtyyn jaotteluun – käytäntöön, joka muodostuu merkittäväksi haasteeksi esiintyjäkoulutusta käsittelevässä tutkimuksessa. Väitöskirjatutkimus perustuu pitkälti Body Weather esityskoulutukseen, ja siinä tarkastellaan manipulaatioiksi kutsuttujen, kosketukseen perustuvien kehollisten käytäntöjen episteemistä potentiaalia. Näistä käytännöistä kootaan taiteellisen tutkimuksen väline—tutkimus-score—josta muodostuu sekä tärkein tutkimuksessa käytetty menetelmä että sen merkittävin tutkimustulos. Tutkimus-score esitellään kommentaarissa tapana, joka edistää keskeneräisiä ajatusprosesseja ja tekee turhaksi jaottelun fyysisen toiminnan ja käsitteellisen reflektion välillä. Score mahdollistaa myös representaationaalisten tietomallien korvaamisen posthumanistisilla, performatiivisilla malleilla. Keskeneräistä ajattelua ei pidetä työssä yksittäisen, intentionaalisen ja agentiivisen subjektin ominaisuutena, vaan se nousee esiin kehonvälisten suhteiden laajennetusta verkostosta: siinä ilmaistaan ajatuksia tavalla, jossa kieltä ei eroteta sen affektiivisista sävyistä, ja näin ollen sitä on vaikea tarkoin määritellä. Kommentaarissa käsitellään kattavasti kehollisuutta, materiaalisuutta, (kehollista) tietoa, tekniikkaa ja reflektiota eri teoreettisista näkökulmista, ja tällä tavoin se muodostuu osaksi taiteentutkimuksen epistemologista ja metodologista keskustelua. Tieteellisen kirjoittamisen analyyttiset ja kuvailevat muodot yhdistyvät kommentaarissa kokeellisen kirjoittamisen esittäviin tapoihin. Työ monipuolistaa täten akateemisen väitöskirjan toteuttamistapoja ja tarjoaa uutta tietoa tanssin (tanssintutkimuksen), esityksen (esityksen tutkimuksen), esiintyjäkoulutuksen ja taiteentutkimuksen aloilta.
  • Kuutti, Leo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Abstract: Aims and objectives: Resilience is linked to better health, mental health and coping at work. Thus, there is use for a high-quality resilience assessment method, as better ways of assessing resilience and a better understanding of the phenomenon could help people to identify their strengths and to develop their weaknesses. This master’s thesis aimed to examine the relationships between the developed Sisu-resilience questionnaire and its subcategories, the psychophysiological variables measured during the laboratory study designed for perseverance assessment, performance in six tasks used in the laboratory study and overall performance in the laboratory study. Due to the novelty of the experimental design, precisely directed hypotheses were not at the epicentre of the thesis. This thesis is part of the Sisu-questionnaire validation project and in the general part of resilience research. Methods: There were 54 test subjects (47 women) in the laboratory phase of the study. The subjects were university students with a mean age of 26.0 years. The experiment consisted of six different tasks for measuring perseverance, which the subjects performed using the instructions given. Of all the psychophysiological variables measured during the experiment, measures of electrodermal activity and facial electromyography were used in this thesis. Electrodermal activity is considered to reflect sympathetic activation. Measures of facial electromyography are connected to emotional valence. Subjects had completed various personality and health assessment questionnaires and the Sisu-questionnaire before to the laboratory study. Results: During the laboratory study, tonic skin conductance of those with more beneficial sisu was lower vis-à-vis those with less beneficial sisu. Beneficial sisu was also associated with better performance in the handgrip endurance task. Tonic and phasic skin conductance of those with more harmful sisu were lower compared to those with less harmful sisu, but the links between harmful sisu and skin conductance were focused only around its “harm to others” subcategory. Beneficial sisu was not associated with positive emotion during the laboratory study. Positive emotion was assessed by orbicularis oculi -activation. Conclusion: The association between higher beneficial sisu and lower sympathetic activation indicates that the questionnaire reaches some property of the nervous system, and it is in line with previous research. Unlike harmful sisu, none of the subcategories of beneficial sisu were associated with phasic skin conductance, which can be interpreted to tell about the independent explanatory power of harmful sisu. The link between better performance in the handgrip task and more beneficial sisu could indicate more beneficial sisu leading to adaptive stress management. Given the widely-known connection between positive emotion and resilience, it is surprising that beneficial sisu was not associated with positive emotion during any subtasks.
  • Lindström, Jan; Norrby, Catrin (Studentlitteratur, 2020)
    Språkvetenskapen har traditionellt undersökt det verbala språket, dess lexikon och grammatik. Exempel som konstruerats eller hämtats från skrivna texter fick länge stå för språket. Senare har talat språk studerats i sekvenser av initiativ och responser, men ofta med fokus på språkliga handlingar. Multimodal interaktionsanalys har inte bara gjort oss medvetna om att sociala handlingar kan bestå av annat än språk, utan den visar också hur språkliga uttryck konstrueras i ett samspel med andra betydelseskapande element och att deras närvaro påverkar den språkliga formen. I det här kapitlet presenterar vi några exempel på hur språk, gester och artefakter är med om att skapa referens, hur kroppslig orientering kompletterar verbal handling och hur verbala och icke-verbala handlingar varvas med varandra i samtal.
  • Mashino, Ako; Seye, Elina (2021)
    We create music and dance with the body and perceive both through it. The performer's body is moulded by the practice of music and/or dance, transforming it into a body with specific structure, competencies, and consciousness. The body of a performer is thus not any human body but a cultural body with particular physical skills and a heightened awareness of corporeality. Furthermore, dance and music often occur simultaneously and can intertwine to the point of being inseparable. Even when music occurs without dance, body movement is still involved in its performance, and dancers may also produce sound. This article investigates the bodily basis of music and dance as well as the significance of human corporeality in choreomusical interrelations. Drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives, it presents a cross-cultural approach for choreomusical analysis that does not a priori divide music and dance into two separate categories, but proceeds from the corporeal practices of music making and dancing.
  • Koskinen, Anniina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on kuvailla opettajan ja oppilaan välistä vuorovaikutusta käsityötunnilla. Aihetta on tutkittu suhteellisen vähän. Aiemmat tutkimukset osoittavat, että käsityö on lähtökohtaisesti vuorovaikutteinen oppiaine, ja että käsityön oppiminen ei ole mahdollista ilman vuorovaikutusta.Erityisen tärkeää käsityötaidon opetuksessa ja oppimisessa ovat opettajan keholliset vihjeet. Tutkimus keskittyykin opetustilanteen kehollisiin ulottuvuuksiin. Kehollisuutta vuorovaikutuksessa lähestytään sosiokulttuurisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuskysymykset muotoutuivat aineiston ja teorian vuorovaikutuksessa. Aineistosta erottui kolme teemaa, joiden perusteella tutkimuskysymykset muodostuivat: 1. Millä tavoin opettajan ja oppilaan vuorovaikutus rakentuu opetustilanteessa? 2. Millä tavoin kehollisuus ilmenee vaatteen valmistusprosessissa? 3. Millä tavoin fyysiset materiaalit ja työvälineet välittävät tietoa? Tutkimus toteutettiin videografisena tutkimuksena. Videoaineisto kerättiin vaiheittain keväällä 2013 pääkaupunkiseudun peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen videoitiin yhdeksää seitsemäsluokkalaista tyttöä ja heidän opettajaansa käsityötunneilla. Aineistoa kertyi 4 tuntia ja 52 minuuttia. Aineiston analyysiin sovellettiin tulkinnallista lähestymistapaa, jossa korostuu sosiaalisten tilanteiden merkitysten rakentuminen ja tutkijan tulkinta tapahtumista. Tulosten esittämisessä sovelletaan keskustelunanalyyttisiä menetelmiä puheen litteroinnissa. Litterointia tukevat kuvat. Opettajan ja oppilaan välinen vuorovaikutus opetustilanteessa on todellista parityöskentelyä kohti yhteisymmärrystä. Tuloksissa kuvaillaan millä tavoin opettaja havainnollistaa opetettavaa asiaa eleillään sekä miten opettajan ja oppilaan kehot rakentavat yhteistä osallistumisen kehikkoa. Opettajan eleiden käyttö on erityisen tärkeää toimittaessa oppilaan lähikehityksen vyöhykkeellä. Tuloksissa osoitetaan myös miten oppilas osoittaa ymmärrystä kehollaan sekä millä tavoin käsityöluokan työvälineet välittävät kulttuurista tietoa.